Neoliberalism• Margaret Thatcher: 19th century liberal high taxes to help industry, alienation of the poor• Reaganomics: Reagan’s Thatcherism + social values of Reagan’s reign• Failure of the USSR: victory for neoliberalism?
Solidarity• A shipyard in Gdansk/ Danzig• Lech Walesa and Solidarity• Papal influence• Workers turn on Communism
Background info• Established by the Treaty of Maastricht on 1 November 1993,• Foundations: the pre- existing European Economic Community and the European Steel and Coal Community of 1951.• single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states• intergovernmentalism and supranationalism. Anthem: Ode to Joy• Independent States Motto: United by Diversity
Joining the EU• The Copenhagen criteria: rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union.• laid down at the June 1993 European Council in Copenhagen, Denmark• Criteria:• Institutions to preserve democratic governance and human rights• Have a functioning market economy, and accept the obligations and intent of the EU.• Theme/Significance: Infringement of national independence?
Expansion• 1973 – Denmark, Ireland, UK• 1980s – Greece, Spain, Portugal• 1990 – East Germany• 1995 – Austria, Sweden, Finland• 2004!!!! - biggest enlargement to date: Malta, Cyprus, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.• 2007- Bulgaria and Romania
States Awaiting Expansion• Former Yugoslav states (Except Slovenia)• Turkey – applied in 1987• Why? Booming economy, extend stability eastward, member of NATO• Why Not? internal issues about human rights, democracy, Turkeys open external disputes with its neighbors. Is that ALL?• Opposition by France and Austria
Euro-Skepticism• Vaclav Klaus• Reduction of• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEQmJBINYj4• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJAthagbT_A&• EU = Reduction of Sovereignty?
Things to Consider• In between Socialism and Capitalism• The United States of Europe?• Absence of a Military• In between Russia and the USA• Triumph of Democracy?
Reflections• Transformation of Europe• Modernity• Decline of Religion• McDonaldization