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Basic materials & structures


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Basic materials & structures

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  3. 3. WHAT IS MATERIAL?Material is key factor fM t i l i k f t of any product. d tBasically material can bB i ll t i l be d fi d as an definedingredients which are use to form a particularproduct.The material which are used in constructionwork are called construction materials orbuilding materials. e.g. Stone, Brick, Aggregate, Cement,Mortar, Concrete, Lime, Metal, Glass, Paint,Timber etc etc. 3
  4. 4. ASPECT TO STUDY THE BUILDING MATERIALSProperties of material Physical Properties Mechanical Properties Chemical PropertiesTesting of materialsUse of materialSelection of material
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  6. 6. ON THE BASES OF TYPES OR WORK OF MATERIALBinding materials e.g.: Cement, Lime, Mortar etc.Protective materials e.g.: P i t V Paints, Varnishes, Pl t i etc. i h Plastering tSolidS lid materials t i l e.g.: Bricks, Timber, Aggregate etc.
  7. 7. ON THE BASES OF AVAILIBILITY OF MATERIALNaturally available materials e.g.: Stone, Sand, Clay etc.Artificial or Industrial or Manmade materials e.g.: P i t C Paints, Cement, B i k Gl t Brick, Glass etc. t
  8. 8. ON THE BASES OF TIME PASSESTraditional materials e.g.: Stone, Brick, Timber etc.Alternative materials e.g.: e g : Concrete block Glass Fiber etc block, Glass, etc.Composite materials e.g.: RCC, FRC etc.Smart materials e.g.: Dampers, Fuse, C.P.U. etc. e g : Dampers Fuse C P U etc
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  10. 10. Requirements of Building Materials Service Fabrication Economic EnvironmentalRequirements Requirements Requirements Requirements
  11. 11. SERVICE REQUIREMNTSMaterial should satisfy its own properties like size size,shape, colour, strength, stiffness, durability,chemical composition, corrosion resistance etc.Material should easy to handle.Material should easily available in nearby area area.
  12. 12. FABRICATION REQUIREMNTSFabrication process refer to how a material iscreated, processed and assemble.Material should easily fabricated as perrequirements. q e.g.: Metal should be easily casted, forged, machined, rolled and cut.
  13. 13. ECONOMIC REQUIREMNTSMaterial should be of good qualityIts initial cost, transportation cost andmaintenance cost should be affordable.
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMNTSMaterial should create minimum pollution.It should not react with chemical or anysubstance presence in environment environment.It should b able t b h ld be bl to bear weathering affects. th i ff t
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  16. 16. Group PropertiesPhysical Shape, Size, Density, Specific Gravity etc., Strength, Elasticity, Plasticity, Hardness, Toughness,Mechanical Ductility, Brittleness, Creep, Stiffness, Fatigue, Impact Strength etc., St th t Thermal conductivity, Thermal resistivity, ThermalThermal capacity etc etc., Corrosion resistance, Chemical composition, Acidity,Chemical Alkalinity etc.,Optical Colour, Light reflection, Light transmission etc.,Acoustical Sound absorption, Transmission and Reflection. 16Physiochemical Hygroscopicity, Shrinkage and Swell due to moisture changes
  17. 17. TYPE OF STRUCTURES Type of Structure Load Framed Combined Bearing B i Structure StructureStructure
  18. 18. LOAD BEARING STRUCTUREFoundation is constructed beneath the walls walls.Load is transmit by load bearing wall to sub-soilthrough its foundation.There is no column is constructed.Wall thickness: 20,30, or 40 cm.Maximum 3 storey are permitted.M i t itt dIt is adopted where soil strata is hard at shallow depth.With the increases in no. of floors, wall thickness isdecreases.
  19. 19. FRAME STRUCTUREMain structural members are Beams & Columns Columns.Beams support the wall & slab.Foundation is constructed beneath the columns onlynot beneath the walls.Its self weight is less in comparison to load bearingstructure.structureIt is easy to construct.
  20. 20. COMPOSITE STRUCTUREColumns as well as load bearing masonry walls areprovided.Load is transmitted to sub-soil by both the members.It is proffered for construction of floors which has tocover large area by slabs like exhibition hall, godowns,public buildings etc etc.