Citing Your Sources 2010


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This is an instructional PowerPoint on MLA formatting geared toward middle school students. I have also split this into two presentations and added narration. See MLA Documentation Parts 1 and 2.

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Citing Your Sources 2010

  1. 1. When and How to Cite Your Sources Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS
  2. 2. When you finish this presentation you will… <ul><li>Understand the process of citing sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to construct an in-text citation. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basics of creating a Works Cited page. </li></ul><ul><li>Know where to find more information on using MLA citation format. </li></ul>
  3. 3. MLA… <ul><li>Stands for Modern Language Association </li></ul><ul><li>Is a style or format, which is a set of rules determining how to set up your paper and how to document your research sources. </li></ul>
  4. 4. We Research to… <ul><li>learn more about a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>find information that will support our ideas, especially controversial or innovative ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop research skills that will help us throughout our lives. </li></ul>
  5. 5. We Cite Sources to… <ul><li>avoid plagiarism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quoting or copying text without telling whose it is or where we found it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting someone else’s ideas into our own words without telling where we learned about these ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>provide a map of our research for others. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Citation or Reference… <ul><li>is publication information about a </li></ul><ul><li>resource you used. Can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher and City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web address (URL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Kinds: parenthetical and full </li></ul>
  7. 7. In-text Citation <ul><li>Also called Parenthetical or Internal Citation </li></ul><ul><li>Contains ONLY author’s last name and the page number where you found the information you’re discussing. </li></ul><ul><li>Located throughout body of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed in parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Comes at the end of a sentence, before the period (Smith 265). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Full Citation <ul><li>Contains enough bibliographic information for your reader to locate your sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains elements such as author, title, date of publication, publisher (for a book), or volume and issue number (for a magazine). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Works Cited <ul><li>Similar to a bibliography, except that it only lists the resources you actually referred to in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>This list of FULL CITATIONS is arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. </li></ul><ul><li>Last page of your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Formatted with hanging indentations, like you see here. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Citation Process <ul><li>Use in-text citations to acknowledge ideas or facts that you discovered during the research process. </li></ul><ul><li>When you write a sentence with an idea that’s new to you, put the author’s name and page number where you found the information at the end of your sentence (Keys 22). </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the paper, create a Works Cited page containing the full citations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sample Works Cited <ul><li>Callahan 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>Morell, Virginia. “Bioko Primates.” National Geographic Magazine . August 2008. Web. 7 February 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Swindler, Daris R. Introduction to the Primates . Seattle: U of Washington P, 1998. Print.  </li></ul><ul><li>Tucker, Abigail. “Ethiopia’s Exotic Monkeys.” Smithsonian 40.9 (December 2009): 72-77. Print. </li></ul>
  12. 12. When to Cite : <ul><li>Cite the source of information each time you say something specific, especially if the statement involves a number or other fact. </li></ul><ul><li>Cite the first time you refer to source material in each paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Cite the source at the end of your sentence. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What to Cite: <ul><li>Information or ideas that are new to you, even if you paraphrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Quotes (remember to use “ “). </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical figures: dates, statistics, percentages, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything very specific or questionable. </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, cite the source. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What Not to Cite: <ul><li>Things that are common knowledge, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud is the father of psychoanalysis; colds are caused by viruses. Nobody disputes these claims and they are widely accepted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria is located on the African continent. Facts like this are indisputable and should be well-known. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. “ When to Cite ” Discussion: <ul><li>If you are using this PowerPoint in a classroom, right-click on the link below to visit Zayed University’s helpful scenarios on when to cite and not to cite: To Cite or Not to Cite </li></ul>
  16. 16. Introducing MLA Citations <ul><li>Paraphrase research and then cite source at end of sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce source with phrase like according to , and then paraphrase and cite. </li></ul><ul><li>Use introductory verbs such as discovered , proved , indicated , asserted , found , and noted . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Paraphrase Example <ul><li>Children who were never read to as babies have a more difficult time listening to stories as preschoolers than those who were read to at least 15 minutes per day, three days a week (Jones, Jakeman, & Marca, 2004). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Introduce with a Phrase <ul><li>According to Greenfield, Samurais also wrote poetry (25). </li></ul><ul><li>As Baguelle observes, “no Samurai traveled without writing implements” (16). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Introduce with Verbs <ul><li>Use verbs such as discovered , proved , indicated , asserted , found , and noted . Remember the page number! </li></ul><ul><li>McKenna found that teens now watch television online more than on their TV sets (102). </li></ul>
  20. 20. MLA Paper Set-up <ul><li>1” margins. </li></ul><ul><li>Double-space entire paper. </li></ul><ul><li>No extra spaces between paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>No title page. </li></ul><ul><li>Indent at the beginning of each paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited page is double-spaced and arranged with hanging indentations. </li></ul>
  21. 21. First Page—No Title Page <ul><li>First Page: Heading in upper left corner of containing your name, teacher’s name, class/period, and date. </li></ul><ul><li>Title: centered below heading and above first paragraph on first page only. </li></ul><ul><li>Running Head: Your last name and page number go in upper right margin of each page, ½” from the top, using the header/footer function. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sample First Page <ul><li>Callahan 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Deana Callahan </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Bean </li></ul><ul><li>Period 3 History </li></ul><ul><li>13 March 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Code of the Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient Japan, a type of honorable soldier </li></ul><ul><li>known as the Samurai followed a very strict code of </li></ul><ul><li>honor. The Samurai sometimes had to face death to </li></ul><ul><li>avoid dishonor, and they had to fight to the death once </li></ul><ul><li>they engaged in a battle. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Samples of Full Citations <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Online Magazines </li></ul>
  24. 24. Books <ul><li>Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title . City of publication: Publisher, Date. Format. </li></ul><ul><li>Sethi, Maneesh. Web Design for Teens . Boston: Thomson course Technology, 2005. Print. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Articles <ul><li>Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine or Journal Title Volume.issue (date): pages. Format. </li></ul><ul><li>Tucker, Abigail. “Ethiopia’s Exotic Monkeys.” Smithsonian 40.9 (December 2009): 72-77. Print. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Web Sites <ul><li>Author/creator/publisher (if stated). “Web page title.” Web site Title . Version number (if stated). Sponsor (if stated). Date listed on site or page. Web. Date you visited. </li></ul><ul><li>United States. “Diabetes & Me.” Centers for Disease Control . 3 December 2008. Web. 7 February 2010. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Online Magazines <ul><li>Author. “Article.” Name of Web site (Time). Publisher (CNN). Date of article listed on site. Medium Format. Date I visited site. </li></ul><ul><li>Fletcher, Dan. “Facebook Gifts Get Real.” Time. CNN. 15 February 2010. Web. 16 February 2010. </li></ul>
  28. 28. MLA Sample Paper <ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. Help! <ul><li>Diana Hacker’s Humanities: Documenting Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 7 th Ed. (2009). Available at libraries and book stores. </li></ul><ul><li>The Online Writing Lab at Purdue : MLA Formatting and Style Guide : </li></ul>
  30. 30. Formatting Tools <ul><li>Noodle Tools </li></ul><ul><li>A free service, but you’ll need to create an account . </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Machine Also free. </li></ul><ul><li>Double-check the results for accuracy. </li></ul>