APA Documentation<br />Created by Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
Learning Outcomes<br />Integrate an APA parenthetical (in-text) citation into the body of your paper.<br />Write a full re...
I. APA Basics<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
Paper Format<br />1-inch margins; double-space text<br />Title page contains the paper’s title, writer’s name, and school’...
APA Sample Title Page<br />DNA Problems 1<br />Running head: DNA PROBLEMS<br />Problems with Collecting DNA<br />Evidence ...
In-text Citations<br />Also called parenthetical or internal citations.<br />APA in-text citations contain author’s last n...
References<br />The Reference list is the final page(s) of your paper. <br />It is entitled References, which is centered ...
Sample References Page<br />DNA Problems  7<br />References<br />Bellefeuille, J., Bowen, K., Dixon, P.,  Hanniman, J.,  H...
Elements of References<br />The essential elements of a full APA Reference:<br /><ul><li>Book: author’s last name & first ...
Article: author, date, title of article, journal name, volume, issue, pages, DOI (digital object identifier, if available).
Web Site: author, date listed on page or n.d. if no date listed, title of Web page, and the phrase Retrieved from with the...
APA Sample Papers<br />Sample APA Paper with Labeled Parts<br />Sample APA Paper Easy View<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
II. Integrating In-text Citations<br />Cite your sources gracefully.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
Use Phrases and Action Verbs<br />Use introductory phrases:<br />In a 2002 study,… <br />According to Jones & Feingold, <b...
Incorporate with Introductions<br />Introduce authors and their findings in a sentence with publication date in parenthese...
Summarize & Cite <br />Summarize key point and cite the source at end of the sentence:<br />Children who were never read t...
More Brief Examples<br />In a 1987 (Smith & Stephenson) study, <br />		cocaine was found to create permanent 	changes in t...
III. Reference List<br />In-text Citations Direct Readers to References.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
APA Sample “References”<br />Book (one author):<br />Lockhart, G. (2000). Neurophysiological theory 	of addiction. New Yor...
DOI: Digital Object Identifier<br />Articles located in electronic format need an extra element in their reference called ...
DOI on Article’s Title Page<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />DOI<br />
APA Sample “References”<br />Journal Article from Database with DOI: <br />Keltner, N., & Wilson, D. (2009). Biological 	p...
APA Sample “References”<br />Journal Article from database without DOI: <br />Smitherman, T. & Thompson, J. (2002). “Writi...
APA Sample “References”<br />Web Site:<br />Paddock, C. (2009). 15 cigarettes equal one DNA mutation. Retrieved from http:...
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APA Documentation: Incorporating In-text Citations and Creating a Reference List

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Covers integrating parenthetical citations and creating references for a Web site, a book, a print journal article, and an electronically accessed journal article. DOIs are covered.

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  • MLA Style Comparison: In MLA style, the citation usually is placed at the end of the sentence and contains the page number where the information was located, rather than the year of publication.
  • MLA Comparison: In MLA, there is no title page; the running head consists of the writer’s last name and the page number.
  • MLA Comparison: In MLA style, the in-text citations contain the source author’s last name and the page number in that text where you found your information.
  • MLA Comparison: In MLA, “References” are called Works Cited.
  • MLA Comparison: MLA uses author’s first name, not just initial, and that date is not placed immediately after the author’s name.
  • MLA Comparison: Works Cited is the same type of bibliography as References.
  • Book: Author’s last name, first initial. (publication year). Title of book, italicized, with only first word capitalized. City of publication: Publisher.Article: Author’s last name, first initial. (year of publication only—not the month). Title, not italicized, only first word capitalized. Title of journal, italicized, volume number italicized(issue number), page range.
  • APA Documentation: Incorporating In-text Citations and Creating a Reference List

    1. 1. APA Documentation<br />Created by Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    2. 2. Learning Outcomes<br />Integrate an APA parenthetical (in-text) citation into the body of your paper.<br />Write a full reference in APA format for an article, book, and Web site.<br />Incorporate knowledge of DOIs into references.<br />Know where to find support materials.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    3. 3. I. APA Basics<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    4. 4. Paper Format<br />1-inch margins; double-space text<br />Title page contains the paper’s title, writer’s name, and school’s name, double-spaced and centered, plus a “Running head:”at the top left.<br />The Running head with page number appears on every page in the upper right margin. In Word, use the Header & Footer function to set this up.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    5. 5. APA Sample Title Page<br />DNA Problems 1<br />Running head: DNA PROBLEMS<br />Problems with Collecting DNA<br />Evidence at Crime Scenes<br />Sarah McCarthy<br />Sacramento City College<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    6. 6. In-text Citations<br />Also called parenthetical or internal citations.<br />APA in-text citations contain author’s last name and year of publication: (Smith, 55).<br />They are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence:<br />Jordon and Block (2001) found that incarcerated juveniles had less recidivism when they participated in creative writing courses.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    7. 7. References<br />The Reference list is the final page(s) of your paper. <br />It is entitled References, which is centered at the top of the page.<br />References contain full citations (complete bibliographic information) of sources you referred to in your paper. <br />It contains only material referred to in your paper.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    8. 8. Sample References Page<br />DNA Problems 7<br />References<br />Bellefeuille, J., Bowen, K., Dixon, P., Hanniman, J., Hillier, E., Lama, D.,…Yamashita, D. (2003). Crime scene DNA collection: Research and practical considerations.  Journal of Forensic Identification, 53(6), 729-734.  Retrieved from http://www.theiai.org/publications/jfi.php<br />Yount, L. (2007). Forensic science: From fibers to fingerprints. New York: Facts on File, Inc.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    9. 9. Elements of References<br />The essential elements of a full APA Reference:<br /><ul><li>Book: author’s last name & first initial, date of publication, title, city of publication, and the publisher.
    10. 10. Article: author, date, title of article, journal name, volume, issue, pages, DOI (digital object identifier, if available).
    11. 11. Web Site: author, date listed on page or n.d. if no date listed, title of Web page, and the phrase Retrieved from with the URL (Internet address) following that. </li></ul>Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    12. 12. APA Sample Papers<br />Sample APA Paper with Labeled Parts<br />Sample APA Paper Easy View<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    13. 13. II. Integrating In-text Citations<br />Cite your sources gracefully.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    14. 14. Use Phrases and Action Verbs<br />Use introductory phrases:<br />In a 2002 study,… <br />According to Jones & Feingold, <br />Recent findings (Jones, Jakeman, & Marca, 2002; Lind & Ortega, 2006) indicate that…<br />Use research-oriented verbs such as discovered, proved, indicated, asserted, found, and noted.<br />Garcia (2006) asserts that…<br />Stutz (2009) found that... <br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    15. 15. Incorporate with Introductions<br />Introduce authors and their findings in a sentence with publication date in parentheses immediately after authors’ names:<br />In a ground-breaking study, Smith and Stephenson (1987) discovered that prolonged cocaine use creates permanent structural changes in the brain.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    16. 16. Summarize & Cite <br />Summarize key point and cite the source at end of the sentence:<br />Children who were never read to as babies have a more difficult time listening to stories as preschoolers than those who were read to at least 15 minutes per day (Jones, Jakeman, & Marca, 1998).<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    17. 17. More Brief Examples<br />In a 1987 (Smith & Stephenson) study, <br /> cocaine was found to create permanent changes in the brain.<br />In a ten-year study, Jones, Jakeman, and <br />Marca (1998) discovered that children…<br />Marcel, Lipman, and Bjork (2009) noted that even when…<br />Janes (2005), Golski (1999), and Rogers (1999) all found that…<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    18. 18. III. Reference List<br />In-text Citations Direct Readers to References.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    19. 19. APA Sample “References”<br />Book (one author):<br />Lockhart, G. (2000). Neurophysiological theory of addiction. New York: Columbia Press. <br />Journal Article, print:<br />Millam, D. (1992). Starting I.V.s: How to develop your venipuncture expertise. Nursing, 22(9), 33-48. <br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    20. 20. DOI: Digital Object Identifier<br />Articles located in electronic format need an extra element in their reference called a DOI.<br />DOI is a combination of numbers and sometimes letters that create a persistent (permanent) link to an electronic resource. <br />Often listed on the first page of an article or on its abstract page in a library database.<br />If available, copy and paste it into your References. <br />If unavailable, look it up at crossref.org’s Free DOI Lookup or list the journal’s Internet address instead. <br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    21. 21. DOI on Article’s Title Page<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />DOI<br />
    22. 22. APA Sample “References”<br />Journal Article from Database with DOI: <br />Keltner, N., & Wilson, D. (2009). Biological perspectives. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 45(4), 292-296. doi:10.1111/j.1744- 6163.2009.00231.x.<br />No DOI listed in database? Quickly locate DOIs at crossref.org. Mouse over Researchers tab and select Free DOI Name Lookup. Scroll down to Search on Article Title and enter title. <br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    23. 23. APA Sample “References”<br />Journal Article from database without DOI: <br />Smitherman, T. & Thompson, J. (2002). “Writing Our Stories”: An anti-violence creative writing program. Journal of Correctional Education, 53(2), 77-83. Retrieved from http://static.ashland.edu/centers/gill/edjournal<br />Here, a simple Internet search located the journal’s URL, which was used instead of a DOI.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    24. 24. APA Sample “References”<br />Web Site:<br />Paddock, C. (2009). 15 cigarettes equal one DNA mutation. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/174409.php<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    25. 25. APA Resources<br />The Online Writing Lab at Purdue: APA Formatting and Style Guide<br />American Psychological Association: www.apastyle.orgScroll down to the “Most Popular” section. <br />University of Maryland University College Library<br />Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition, available at libraries and book stores.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />
    26. 26. Formatting Tools<br />EBSCOHost databases and others offer citation formatting. Look for the Citation and Cite icons.<br />http://www.noodletools.com<br />Formats citations into APA or MLA styles.<br />http://citationmachine.net<br />Formats citations into APA, MLA, Turabian, and Chicago styles.<br />Double-check the results for accuracy.<br />Margaret Keys, MA, MLIS<br />

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