Sustainable and Equitable Urban Environments


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This is a presentation on Urbanisation around the world. Also Urban Characteristics in Indian conditions.What are the efforts being taken to improve urban environments with reference to Transports systems. The importance of transport in making urban areas sustainable. Issues regarding equity in urban environment

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Sustainable and Equitable Urban Environments

  1. 1. Urban Environments Their Sustainability and Equity An Overview Dr. Manojkumar P. Devne S. P. College Pune - 30
  2. 2. For the first time in human history the majority of the world’s population now live in cities. We are modifying huge areas of land, not just for cities, but also for the agricultural land, quarrying for building materials, energy resources which are supplied to these cities. The ecological footprint of cities is far bigger than their land area. We are truly in the Anthropocene Age.
  3. 3. World Urbanisation The word civilisation comes from the latin civis meaning citizen of a city. •Complex societies with, division of labour and social hierarchy tend to establish permanent settlements. •Settlements are places where people live. •They are created by us. •They reflect our culture, our beliefs, our values. •They range in size from small farmsteads to a metropolis with millions of inhabitants •We could create perfect urban environments combination of many factors, planned / unplanned, sometimes conflicting, always changing. •But urban environments develop through a
  4. 4. Urbanisation in MEDCs • Urbanisation means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas. An urban area is a built-up area such as a town or city. A rural area is an area of countryside. • As a country industrialises, the number of people living in urban areas tends to increase. The UK and many other MEDCs urbanised during the 18th and 19th centuries. People migrated from rural areas (due to the mechanisation in farming) to urban areas where there was employment in the new factories. The area of cities known as the inner city developed during this time as rows of terraced housing were built for workers.
  5. 5. • Urbanisation is most rapid in cities in LEDCs. • Cities like Dhaka in Bangladesh, Delhi in India and Lagos in Nigeria are getting bigger with rapidly growing populations. • The number of MEGA CITIES (pop over 10 million) is increasing.
  6. 6. World Patterns of Urbanisation LOS ANGELES SYDNEY TOKYO DELHI RIO DE JANEIRO LONDON Shanghai Amsterdam NEWYORK MUMBAI • European • American • Asian •Shanghai and Beijing Primate Latin the numberthe cars to Hassold eveythe countries of Japan Australian haveiscapped American citiesworld. be 25% of thepopulation population Tokyo, reclaiming space of thecare to make25%itof the largest UA in India.safer. the population of about 18.4 million, is year. Public spaces largest city in of constitute pedestrian and Australia has 95% from population in Urban Census 2011 (Provisional) areas. With Beijing allows New York is v/s ademand for 1515000, if approved will35% bicycle ridership 240000Population of Delhi UA is 16.3 million persons inbring the city to standstill cars Amsterdam and Copenhagen Six 1951 make up 90% of Australian continent. Has GROWTH’? public UA’s population was only 3.2 million. the highest In •IS Latin Americancitiestheof Mughal,ridership and 38% & Architecture Modern THIS ‘LIMITS TO A combination transport Colonial
  7. 7. Urban system with a linear metabolism
  8. 8. Urban system with a Circular Metabolism
  9. 9. Questions to be Answered What is the Environmental Urbanisation? Impact of increased Can cities be Sustainable? (live in a way which satisfies our needs but does not compromise future generations ability to meet their needs) Do cities satisfy peoples needs and wants?  Are people happier living in cities or the countryside? Is there an optimum size for a city? What is the impact of primate mega cities? Can urban processes be controlled or managed? What is the future for the urban poor?
  10. 10. Urbanisation A growth in the percentage of people living in urban areas. Suburbanization As urban areas grow problems develop – These problems drive people away from the traditional inner city locations to the suburbs – the early stages of urban sprawl. Counter-Urbanisation Of course, as more and more people move to the suburbs similar problems develop – lack of space, traffic, etc. This pushes people into the rural-urban fringe, and beyond into satellite settlements. Such growth often takes place on what are termed green-field sites. Re-urbanisation As older areas of the city (often called brown-field sites) get regenerated, redeveloped or renewed people move back into urban areas.
  11. 11. URBANISM URBANISM URBANISATION • Sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas. • Moreover it studies the role of cities in role of development of society. • A phenomenon of people moving from rural areas towards urban cities. • It studies the significance of migration and the reasons acting behind it.
  12. 12. …. The Indian Experience
  13. 13. Definitions • Statutory Towns: All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board, notified town area committee, etc. • Census Towns: All villages with a minimum population of 5,000 persons in the preceding Census, at least 75% of male main working population engaged in non-agricultural activities and a population density of at least 400 persons per sq km. • Urban Agglomerations (UAs):A continuous urban spread comprising one or more towns and their adjoining out growth(s) • Out Growths (OGs): Areas around a core city or town, such well recognized places, like, Railway colony, university campus, port area, etc., lying outside the limit of town. Source: Information cited in this presentation are from Paper 2, India - Census of India 2011 (Provisional) & Primary Census Abstract - India -Census of India 2001
  14. 14. Number of UAs/Towns and OGs in India 1. Towns: 7,935 5,161 (a) Statutory Towns 4,041 3,799 (b) Census Towns 3,894 1,362 2. Urban Agglomerations 475 384 3. Out Growths (OGs) 981 953
  15. 15. URBAN AREAS INDIA : 2011 (Provisional) • 377 million persons live in the urban areas of the country, constituting 31.16% of total population • Maharashtra has the largest urban population (50,827,531 persons) • NCT Delhi has the largest proportion of urban population (97.50%) • Only seven States/UTs have more population living in urban areas than in rural areas. These are: NCT Delhi, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu, Puducherry, Goa and Mizoram.
  16. 16. DATA PROFILE - URBAN AREAS INDIA : 2011 (Provisional) Indicator Population (in million) Sex ratio Population (0-6) (in million) Sex ratio (0-6) Literacy rate (above 6 yrs) (in %): Persons Males Females 2011 Census 2001 Census (Provisional) 377.1 286.1 936 900 41.2 37.3 902 906 84.98 89.67 79.92 79.92 86.27 72.86
  17. 17. VARIATION IN URBAN POPULATION (%) - INDIA 55 1901-2011 45 35 25 15 5 -5 Total Rural Urban
  18. 18. URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS INDIA : 2011 (Provisional) • Number of Urban Agglomerations (UAs) In India is 475 in Census 2011. In comparison there were 384 UAs in Census 2001. • Largest five UAs in India: • Greater Mumbai UA 18.4 million • Delhi UA 16.3 million • Kolkata UA 14.1 million • Chennai UA 8.7 million • Bangalore UA 8.5 million
  19. 19. MILLION PLUS UAs/CITIES INDIA : 2011 (Provisional) • 53 Million Plus UAs/Cities in India with population of one million or more. In Census 2001 the number was 35. • Distribution of Million Plus UAs/Cities: • Uttar Pradesh, Kerala 7 each • Maharashtra 6 • Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat 4 each and Tamil Nadu • Rajasthan, Jharkhand 3 each and Andhra Pradesh • Punjab, West Bengal 2 each and Chhattisgarh • J&K, Chandigarh, Haryana, 1 each NCT Delhi, Bihar and Karnataka (Primate)
  20. 20. Mega UAs/Cities • Three megacities in India as per Census 2011 (Provisional) with 10 million or more population • These are: • Greater Mumbai UA 18.4 million • Delhi UA • Kolkata UA 16.3 million 14.1 million
  21. 21. Impacts of rapid growth on cities • • • • • • • • • • Size of city Population structure of the city Housing Employment Transport Sanitation and Health Waste disposal Energy Services (Schools and Hospitals) Social problems (crime)
  22. 22. Problems of Urbanisation • Urbanisation can cause problems such as transport congestion, lack of sufficient housing, over-rapid growth and environmental degradation. Many cities display particularly sharp inequalities in housing provision, health and employment. • Some people try to escape these problems by moving away from the city - a process called counter-urbanisation. Long term, however, the solution must be to make cities more sustainable.
  23. 23. Problems in the CBD • As more people move to the edge of towns and cities, traffic congestion may get worse. Many people will drive their cars into the city centre to get to work. • It is compounded by people being brought into city on large roads or motorways. These roads then link up with smaller, older, narrower roads in the city centre. This causes a bottleneck and congestion.
  24. 24. • Some cities have tried to manage this problem by introducing traffic management schemes. These schemes may include: (some practiced in India) – Park and ride schemes. – Cycle lanes. (Bengaluru) – Congestion charging schemes, such as those in Durham and London. – Car-pooling, as used in the USA, to encourage people to share cars. – Integrated Traffic Systems (Pune ...proposed) – Low Emission Zones, as in London. • Local councils have also tried to make the roads in urban areas safer by introducing traffic calming, pedestrian zones, vehicle-exclusion zones and permit-only parking schemes.
  25. 25. Reducing congestions in cities: • Park and ride scheme: People park in car parks on the edge of a settlement and catch regular buses into the centre. (Navi Mumbai) • Pedestrian areas: Pedestrianised areas are designated as pedestrian only zones. • Permit holder parking: This means that people must have a permit to park in that area. This reduces the number of people driving into towns and cities as parking opportunities are restricted.
  26. 26. Reducing congestions in cities: • Vehicle exclusion zones: certain types of vehicles are excluded from certain parts of a city, eg large vehicles may not be allowed to enter narrow roads or residential areas. • Car pooling: people are encouraged to share cars. This has been used in a lot in the USA. • Traffic calming: roads narrowing and speed bumps make traffic move slower around narrower streets. Narrow roads may restrict the type of vehicle that can enter certain parts of the city.
  27. 27. More Problems in CBD • Another recent problem that we find in the CBD is the City Centre Retailing Decline: as Out-of-town shopping centres have become more common, shops in the CBD have had to close down. This have left a “hollow” or empty area called the “Doughnut (Polo)effect” which makes unemployment to rise and can lead to neighbourhoods degradation.
  28. 28. Problems in the inner city • Inequalities exist in all urban areas. Inequality means extreme differences between poverty and wealth, as well as in people's well-being and access to things like jobs, housing, and education. Inequalities may occur in: – Housing provision – Access to services – Access to open land – Safety and Security – Sanitation (LEDCs)
  29. 29. • Often people who live in inner-city areas experience a poor quality of life. This is because the inner-city is typically a zone with older housing and declining industry. • Governments and planners often step in to help redevelop run-down inner-city areas. Inner-city redevelopments may improve the physical environment of the area and improve the quality of housing. • However, it can also create even greater inequalities because the local residents may not be able to afford to live there anymore. Often the old industrial jobs are replaced by skilled jobs and new people move to the area.
  30. 30. Problems in the urban rural fringe: • Social and demographic changes are leading to a greater demand for housing. People are living longer, and choosing to marry later, and in recent years there has been a rise in the number of single-parent families. Added to this, Europe/America are experiencing immigration from other countries. • The result is an ever-larger number of smaller households, all requiring accommodation. • Building new affordable homes in urban areas is difficult. Land values are very high and land is in short supply.
  31. 31. To solve this problem: • A. Some developers are building on sites that have been built on before. These are called brownfield sites (example: Inner City) • B. Other developers are building homes on the edge of the city on greenfield sites in the urban rural fringe. Land here is cheaper but greenfield development can cause conflict with local people and create environmental problems.
  32. 32. Sustainable Cities: • Many people are working towards trying to make cities more sustainable. A sustainable city is that city which offers a good quality of life to current residents but doesn’t reduce the opportunities for future residents to enjoy. • A sustainable city will grow at a sustainable rate and use resources in a sustainable way.
  33. 33. Key Features of a sustainable city: • Resources and services in the city are accessible to all. • Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars. • Public transport is safe and reliable. • Walking and cycling is safe. • Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable. • Wherever possible, renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable resources.
  34. 34. Key Features of a sustainable city: • Waste is seen as a resource and is recycled wherever possible. • New homes are energy efficient. • There is access to affordable (cost, operational , transportational) housing. • Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues such as crime and security. • Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all. • Inward investment is made to the CBD.
  35. 35. Transport : The future of Sustainability Urban region is an Integrated System through the quality of its Transport. • • • • • • • • Size of city Housing Population structure of the city Employment Waste Disposal (Solid) Services (schools and Hospitals) Social problems (crime) Pollution
  36. 36. Urban densities and private transport
  37. 37. Pune – 18 Buses per 100,000 pop.
  38. 38. Public Transport Systems • • • • • • Feasibility Economy Environment Ownership Sustainability Safety
  39. 39. • Congestion (Cattle Class)
  40. 40. Innovations in Transportation and Systems • • • • • • • • Metro Monorail Suburban Railway Bus Rapid Transport System Integrated Traffic Systems Curbing Emissions Encourage Walking and Cycling Public Private Participation in Operations and Evaluation and Regulation
  41. 41. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) • • • • • • 2005-06 1 lakh Cr - !st _Phase 31 states 65 cities 2060 – Population to stabilise at 160 Cr, 60% (100Cr) urban Problems – Land acquisitions, Public agitations, changes in Sites, Encroachments, delay in acquiring, Statutory clearances- Railways, Environment, Defense, Forests (Ministries) & Departments. • Delays – Court cases, Rehabilitation, Monsoon. • Gap Funding • Coordination – Centre, State, Local Bodies Utility
  42. 42. The Issue of Pedestrians… • • • • • • • • • • More than 100 pedestrians die every year in attempting to cross roads Jaywalking - 1920s Pedestrian facilities have not kept up pace with motor vehicle numbers. Large roads converted into one ways result into overspeeding and lane cutting. In the hierarchy of road users, pedestrians have been pushed to the bottom of the rung. Obstacles on foothpaths – garbage bins, DP boxes, poles, gantry columns, signages, slippery surfaces,encroachment by shopkeepers and hawkers. Poor illumination, broken –not continous, poorely (unevenly) surfaced Citizens (??) have become mentally conditioned. Campaigning for pedestrian rights… 1/3rd of the traffic accident fatalities involve pedestrians.
  43. 43. Solution…? • Skywalks..?
  44. 44. • • • • • • • • Urban Equity : In Transportation Geographical Rights Urban Social Systems Poor Pedestrians/Cyclists Children/ unescorted school going Women Senior Citizens Tourists and first time comers Physically Challenged Visually Challenged Unless this happens….
  45. 45. and…. ‘WE’ • Realise : That man is ‘MORTAL’, Resources are ‘finite’, There are ‘Limits to Growth’ • Put the ‘HUMAN’ ego aside • Accept that, we are at fault • Practice and imbibe ethics • And let common sense and logic prevail…. …We are staring at a colossal disaster….
  46. 46. Thank You Dr.Manojkumar P. Devne +91 9422 3535 25