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Characterization of facebook users


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Characterization of facebook users

  1. 1. Characterization of users of Online Social Networks <br />Debesh Majumdar<br />2nd Year Student<br />VGSOM, IIT Kharagpur<br />April 29, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Project Approach<br /><ul><li>Literature review from major journals
  3. 3. Secondary sources of data
  4. 4. Primary data source
  5. 5. Observations
  6. 6. References</li></li></ul><li>Why OSN?<br /> <br />
  7. 7. Characteristics of OSNs<br /><ul><li>User based
  8. 8. Built and directed by users themselves
  9. 9. Users populate the network with content and conversations
  10. 10. Direction of content is determined by anyone who takes part in the discussion
  11. 11. Unpredictability of direction makes it dynamic and exciting
  12. 12. Interactive
  13. 13. Presence of network based gaming applications alongside forums and chatrooms
  14. 14. These applications allow users to connect with other users and have fun
  15. 15. Community-driven
  16. 16. Users having common beliefs or interests create communities
  17. 17. New connections between users are formed based on these commonalities</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of OSNs<br /><ul><li>Relationships
  18. 18. Number of connections of users determine the user's distance from the centre of the network
  19. 19. Content published by a user proliferates exponentially as the number of contacts increases
  20. 20. Emotion over content
  21. 21. OSNs provide an easy way to reach out to a large number of friends
  22. 22. Certain sense of emotional security as friends are within easy reach
  23. 23.  Ability to communicate inner feelings with friends provides a great deal of support</li></li></ul><li>Classification of users<br /><ul><li>Singletons 
  24. 24. Degree-zero nodes who have joined the service but have never made a connection with another user
  25. 25. Do not actively participate in the network
  26. 26. Giant components
  27. 27. Represent the large group of people who are connected to one another through paths in the network
  28. 28. Typically connected directly or indirectly to a large fraction of the entire network
  29. 29. Contains most of the highly active and gregarious individuals
  30. 30. Middle region
  31. 31. Consists of various isolated communities
  32. 32.  Small groups who interact with one another but not with the network at large
  33. 33. Represents a significant fraction of the entire population</li></li></ul><li>Insights into evolution of OSNs<br /><ul><li>Likelihood that two isolated communities will merge together is low
  34. 34. Almost all isolated communities are stars
  35. 35. A star is a single charismatic individual linked to a varying number of other users who have very few other connections  
  36. 36. Evolution of stars characterized by two processes
  37. 37. Isolated communities grow one user at a time 
  38. 38. Either merge into the giant component or cease to exist when the star loses focus
  39. 39. Merging stars represent the outer layer of a giant component
  40. 40. A group of tightly-connected active members form the core of a giant component
  41. 41. The average distance between users in a giant component falls over time </li></li></ul><li>User Content Generation<br /><ul><li>User posting behaviour of original content shows strong daily and weekly patterns while non-original content posting do not exhibit any temporal pattern
  42. 42. Users can be classified into three groups according to their posting behaviour - steadily posting, occasionally posting and inactively posting 
  43. 43. 20% users contribute to 80% of the total content in the network
  44. 44. User contribution for original content characterized by stretched exponential model with different parameters. For example, for high-quality content the distribution has a low stretch factor indicating that it is generated by a small core group </li></li></ul><li>OSN use and personality<br /><ul><li>OSN use can provide a lot of data about the personality of an individual
  45. 45. Extrovert individuals have a significantly higher number of connections than introvert individuals
  46. 46. Extrovert individuals demonstrate a lower use of personal information
  47. 47. Highly neurotic individuals prefer to post more photos
  48. 48. People with low and high levels of agreeableness are inclined to upload more pictures than people with a moderate level of agreeableness
  49. 49. Individuals having high degree of openness to experience use more features from the personal information section
  50. 50. Conscientious individuals have a higher number of friends but make less use of the picture upload feature </li></li></ul><li>Recommendation<br />Technology<br />Opinion<br />Entertainment<br />Factual knowledge<br />Home & family<br />Rhetorical<br />Professional<br />Invitation<br />Places<br />What do users ask their social network?<br />        Question type                      Question topic<br />
  51. 51. Trust<br />Altruism<br />Subjectivity of question<br />Expertise<br />Belief that search engines would not work<br />Properties of question<br />Specific audience<br />Nature of relationship<br />Connect socially<br />Connect socially<br />Motivation for Q&A in OSN<br />              Questions                              Answers<br />
  52. 52. Relationship Strength<br /><ul><li>Relationship strength is modelled on the basis of the theory of homophily which postulates
  53. 53. People tend to form ties with other people who have similar characteristics
  54. 54. Stronger the ties, higher the similarities
  55. 55.  Elements used to measure relationship strength
  56. 56. School and university attended
  57. 57. Companies worked for
  58. 58. Geographical location</li></li></ul><li>Revenue Models of OSNs<br />
  59. 59. Lengthen the tail<br />
  60. 60. Fatten the tail<br />
  61. 61. Drive demand down the tail<br />
  62. 62. Disclosures<br /><ul><li>Personal information can be classified into
  63. 63. Default/standard
  64. 64. Sensitive
  65. 65. Potentially stigmatizing 
  66. 66. Approximately 25% of all possible information that could potentially be disclosed by individuals are disclosed
  67. 67. Disclosure of personal information such as gender and age is related to disclosure of other sensitive and highly personal information
  68. 68. Younger people have more personal information on their profiles
  69. 69. Users seeking a relationship tend to disclose the greatest amount of highly sensitive information</li></li></ul><li>Privacy taxonomy<br /><ul><li>Purpose
  70. 70. Specification of legitimate reasons to access a specific piece of information
  71. 71. Visibility
  72. 72. Who is allowed to access provided data
  73. 73. Granularity
  74. 74. Degree of precision that is revealed in response to a query for a piece of data
  75. 75. Retention
  76. 76. The time period during which access to data should be allowed
  77. 77. Registration
  78. 78. Information required to identify data provider uniquely
  79. 79. Networking
  80. 80. Information solicited by the social network to be released to its other users
  81. 81. Content
  82. 82. Actual content with which the data provider participates in network
  83. 83. Activity
  84. 84. Web server logs, information from cookies, as well as other means</li></li></ul><li>Legends<br />
  85. 85. Purpose<br />
  86. 86. Visibility<br />
  87. 87. Granularity<br />
  88. 88. Facebook Applications & Privacy<br /><ul><li>What information does Facebook share with applications?
  89. 89. Practically everything ...
  90. 90.  Application Terms of Service
  91. 91.  "Facebook may...provide developers access to...your name, your profile picture, your gender, your birthday, your hometown location...your current location...your political view, your activities, your interests...your relationship status, your dating interests, your relationship interests, your summer plans, your Facebook user network affiliations, your education history, your work history,...copies of photos in your Facebook Site photo albums...a list of user IDs mapped to your Facebook friends."
  92. 92. If you set your profile to private and one of your friends adds an application, most of your profile information that is visible to your friend is also available to the application developer -- even if you yourself have not installed the application
  93. 93. Source:</li></li></ul><li>Information needs of Facebook apps<br /><ul><li>90.7% applications being given more privileges than they need</li></ul>                                                                                            <br />        <br />                                                                                                    Source :<br />
  94. 94. Facebook's changing privacy policies<br />2005<br />"No personal information that you submit to the Facebook will be available to any user of the Web Site who does not belong to at least one of the groups specified by you in your privacy settings."<br />Implications<br /><ul><li>We are not giving your data to anyone who is not related to you in some way</li></li></ul><li>Facebook's changing privacy policies<br />2006<br />"We understand you may not want everyone in the world to have the information you share on Facebook; that is why we give you control of your information. Our default privacy settings limit the information displayed in your profile to your school, your specified local area, and other reasonable community limitations that we tell you about."<br />Implications<br /><ul><li>We will provide everyone will some of the details you add to your profile page.</li></li></ul><li>Facebook's changing privacy policies<br />2007<br />"Profile information you submit to Facebook will be available to users of Facebook who belong to at least one of the networks you allow to access the information through your privacy settings (e.g., school, geography, friends of friends). Your name, school name, and profile picture thumbnail will be available in search results across the Facebook network unless you alter your privacy settings."<br />Implications<br /><ul><li>Apart from some of the profile information becoming public, we will allow people to search for you and display those information</li></li></ul><li>Facebook's changing privacy policies<br />November 2009<br />"Facebook is designed to make it easy for you to share your information with anyone you want. You decide how much information you feel comfortable sharing on Facebook and you control how it is distributed through your privacy settings. You should review the default privacy settings and change them if necessary to reflect your preferences. You should also consider your settings whenever you share information. ...<br />Information set to “everyone” is publicly available information, may be accessed by everyone on the Internet (including people not logged into Facebook), is subject to indexing by third party search engines, may be associated with you outside of Facebook (such as when you visit other sites on the internet), and may be imported and exported by us and others without privacy limitations. The default privacy setting for certain types of information you post on Facebook is set to “everyone.” You can review and change the default settings in your privacy settings."<br />Implications<br /><ul><li>Your profile data is no longer limited to Facebook users. It can be accessed by search engines and others "without privacy limitations"</li></li></ul><li>Facebook's changing privacy policies<br />December 2009<br />"Certain categories of information such as your name, profile photo, list of friends and pages you are a fan of, gender, geographic region, and networks you belong to are considered publicly available to everyone, including Facebook-enhanced applications, and therefore do not have privacy settings. You can, however, limit the ability of others to find this information through search using your search privacy settings."<br />Implications<br /><ul><li>Some of the information you provide is now public. There is no way you can have any setting to make them private.</li></li></ul><li>Facebook's changing privacy policies<br />April 2010<br />"When you connect with an application or website it will have access to General Information about you. The term General Information includes your and your friends’ names, profile pictures, gender, user IDs, connections, and any content shared using the Everyone privacy setting. ... The default privacy setting for certain types of information you post on Facebook is set to “everyone.” ... Because it takes two to connect, your privacy settings only control who can see the connection on your profile page. If you are uncomfortable with the connection being publicly available, you should consider removing (or not making) the connection."<br />Implications<br /><ul><li> Any interaction you have with an application or an external website will help the application or website to access to your and your friends' profile information. </li></li></ul><li>Facebook’s Privacy Policy Statement<br />Word count over the years<br />
  95. 95. Facebook's Privacy Policy Statement<br />Comparison with other OSNs<br />
  96. 96. Current Facebook privacy settings<br />
  97. 97. Friend comparison<br />Allow users to declare best friends and compare friend traits<br />Casual communication<br />Allow users to exchange messages and write on each other's wall<br />Rating/Recommendation<br />Enables users to review, compare and recommend items<br />Gestures<br />Allows users to perform virtual gestures like poke and bite<br />Self expression<br />Enables users to express moods, political opinion etc<br />Gifting<br />Enables users to exchange gifts<br />Categories of OSN applications<br />                    Category                   Description<br />
  98. 98. Average Age Distribution<br /> <br />
  99. 99. Age Distribution per site<br /> <br />
  100. 100. Average user per site<br /> <br />
  101. 101. Average user per site<br /> <br />
  102. 102. Observations<br /><ul><li>The average social network user is 37 years old
  103. 103. LinkedIn has an average user age of 44
  104. 104. The average Twitter user is 39 years old
  105. 105. The average Facebook user is 38 years old
  106. 106. Most importantly, unlike popular perception, OSNs are dominated by middle-aged people and not by the tech-savvy younger generation</li></li></ul><li>Social Games – Look who’s playing<br />
  107. 107. Why are people playing?<br />
  108. 108. Disclosures on OSNs<br />
  109. 109. Who is spending the most time on OSN?<br />
  110. 110. Profile of virtual world users<br />
  111. 111. The Hypothesis<br />H0 : Classification based on number of years in Facebook and the number of hours spent each week on Facebook are independent<br />H1 : Classification based on number of years in Facebook and the number of hours spent each week on Facebook are not independent<br />
  112. 112. The Hypothesis<br />
  113. 113. The Tests<br />Therefore we can say that number of years on FB and number of hours spent are not independent with a confidence level of 97.5%<br />
  114. 114. References<br /><ul><li>"Structure & evolution of Online Social Networks"
  115. 115. Ravi Kumar, Jasmine Novak, Andrew Tomkins
  116. 116. "Social network use and personality"
  117. 117. YairAmichai-Hamburger, Gideon Vinitzky
  118. 118. "Modelling relationship strength in Online Social Networks"
  119. 119. Rongjing Xiang, Jennifer Neville, Monica Rogati
  120. 120. "All about me: Disclosure in Online Social Networking profile : The case of Facebook"
  121. 121. Amanda Nosko, Eileen Wood, SeijaMolema
  122. 122. "Analyzing patterns of user content generation in Online Social Networks"
  123. 123. Lei Guo, Enhua Tan, Songqing Chen, Xiaodong Zhang, Yihong Zhao
  124. 124. The long tail of social networking sites
  125. 125. Albrecht Enders, HaraldHungenberg, Hans-Peter Denker
  126. 126. What do people ask their social networks and why?
  127. 127. Meredith Ringel Morris, Jaime Teevan, Katrina Panovich </li></li></ul><li>Thank You!<br />