Digital Library Applications Of Social Networking


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This presentation discusses possible use of linked data in library community, focusing on how to lift existing metadata into a semantic level.

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Digital Library Applications Of Social Networking

  1. 1. Digital Library Applications of Social Networking <br />Dr. Myungdae Cho<br />Library School<br />SungKyunKwan University<br /> <br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />
  3. 3. 1. Social Networking & Information Fluency<br />From PIM (Personal Information Management) level <br /> - Is Memex incarnated? <br /> - more than hyperlink …<br />To “Sociality” by Link and Tags<br /> -&gt; Inter-subjectivity <br /> - a thought in a user links to many thoughts in <br /> internet community <br /> -&gt;Principle of Emergence<br />
  4. 4. Socialty<br />(Messaging,<br /> Blogging,<br /> Streaming media)<br />
  5. 5. Machine, Humanand Socialty in Information Discovery <br />Forms Inter-subjectivity<br />Ontology (gives Subjective Path)<br />In other words: Top down + Bottom up <br />
  6. 6. Another view of Machine, Humanand Socialty in Information Discovery <br />RDF vocabularies<br />or<br />(Ontology)<br />User-Created Metadata <br />Linked Data<br />(semantically organized data)<br />Mapped data from existing DB (such as MARC)<br />
  7. 7. 2. Social Networking in Libraries<br />Social networking could enable librarians and <br /> patrons not only to interact, but to share and <br /> changeresources dynamically in an electronic <br /> medium. <br />
  8. 8. Why do libraries care about social networking sites?<br />The next big thing after Google is Social Networking.<br /> ( From “As facebook takes off, Myspace strikes <br /> back” Kirkpatrick, Davis. Foutune. Sept. 19, 2007)<br />
  9. 9. 2.1 Existing Library Application of Social Networking<br />Librarything in libraries<br />Delicious in libraries <br />Mashup….. couldbe as an application of Linked data<br />
  10. 10. 2.1.1 Librarything in libraries<br /><br />“Personalized desire from individual’s needs”<br />“Cataloguing thru Social Networking”<br />LibraryThing is a prominent social cataloging<br /> web application for storing and sharing personal library catalogs and book lists.<br />
  11. 11. Librarything in libraries<br />LibraryThing helps you create a library-quality <br /> catalog of your books. <br />LibraryThing connects people based on the books <br /> they share.<br />
  12. 12. 2.1.2. Delicious in libraries <br />
  13. 13. PennTags<br />PennTags - When card catalogs meet tags<br /><br /><br /><br />
  14. 14. 2.1.3 Mash up in libraries <br /><br />Mashup your Library&apos;s Twitter, Flickr, Youtube, <br />Facebook accounts! <br /><ul><li>Libraries mash up content, services and ideas</li></ul><br />Meebo Instant Messaging. Library Lookup. <br />Bookburro.<br />
  15. 15. 3. how to lift existing metadata into a semantic level<br />Mapping (Marc21 -&gt; DC, Marc -&gt; FRBR etc)<br />Open Sources (Open Api)<br />Linked Data<br />
  16. 16. 3.1 Open Source<br />Open Source Social Platforms: 10 of the Best<br />10 open source software platforms<br /><br /><br />SungKyunKwan University: Use ofOpen API<br />
  17. 17. 3.2 Linked Data <br />“Oh my goodness, the original web of documents was just the tip of iceberg.”<br />( Sir Tim Berners Lee, July 2008)<br />
  18. 18. What is it?<br />
  19. 19. Closed containers of data<br />Information systems, such as library catalogs, have <br />been, and still are, for the greatest part closed <br />containers of data, or “silos” without connections <br />between them, inaccessible to Web architecture (No Url, no links) with a few exception.<br />(Tim Berners Lee)<br /> free from the capsules of the catalog<br />
  20. 20. Linked Data<br />Linked Data is a methodology for providing <br /> meanings and relationships between things anywhere on the web, using <br />URISfor identifying, <br />RDF for describingand <br />HTTP for publishing<br />
  21. 21. Two valuable notions from library community<br />Collocations<br /><ul><li>1876 / Charles Cutter
  22. 22. Resources with the same or related content are grouped together.</li></ul>Disambiguation <br /><ul><li>clarification that follows from the </li></ul> removal of ambiguity <br />
  23. 23. Collocations through Linked Data<br />Wiki:<br />vs<br />dbpedia :<br />WorldCat:<br />vs<br />Fictionfinder (FRBR model):<br />
  24. 24. rdf identifiers as a disambiguation <br /><br /><br />
  25. 25. rdf identifiers as a disambiguation <br />annotation<br />Disambiguation process<br />
  26. 26. rdf identifiers as a disambiguation <br />
  27. 27. Another disambiguation_dereferenceable URIs<br />
  28. 28. In summary so far:Paradigm Shift in www <br />
  29. 29. 4. Library’s role in Semantic Web<br />Phase 1: Semantifying MARC, Thesaurus etc <br /> Translating LC controlled vocabularies and authority control for named entities, thesauri from domain specific societies and institutions into RDF/RDFS, OWL, SKOS with URIs assigned according to ‘Linked Data Design Principles (TBL, 2007)<br />Phase 2:<br /> Authority data discovery, sharing, and reuse, e.g., LC authorities & Vocabularies, OCLC’s Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST) etc <br />Phase 3: Into the Semantic Web<br />Web of Linked data<br />DBPedia<br />GeoNames<br />Librarything<br />
  30. 30. Case: OCLC Semantic Web Projects<br /><ul><li>FRBRising projects
  31. 31. Developed FRBR work set algorithms’ andxISBN Web Services
  32. 32. FictionFinder
  33. 33. WorldCat Identifiers (20 million identifiers)</li></li></ul><li>CV: Why establish controlled vocabularies?<br />Control values that occur in metadata<br />Reduce ambiguity<br />Control synonyms<br />Make documentation available for reuse <br />validate terms (by subject heading /LCSH)<br />Establish formal relationships among values where appropriate<br />Controlled vocabularies: ALA program on Linked Data<br />ALA Annual 2009<br />
  34. 34. Types of Controlled Vocabularies used in metadata standards<br />Lists of enumerated values <br />Code lists (e.g. language, country)<br />Taxonomies<br />Formal Thesauri<br />Locally controlled enumerated lists<br />Controlled vocabularies: ALA program on Linked Data<br />ALA Annual 2009<br />
  35. 35. Thesauri<br />A thesaurus is a controlled vocabulary with multiple types of relationships<br />Example:<br />Rice<br /> UF Paddy<br />BT Cereals<br />BT Plant products<br />NT Brown rice<br />RT Rice straw<br />
  36. 36. Standards maintained at LC contain controlled vocabularies<br />LCSH/NAF<br />Thesaurus of Graphic Materials<br />ISO 639-2 (language codes)<br />MARC (including code lists)<br />MODS<br />METS<br />PREMIS<br />MIX (XML schema for NISO Z39.87 Technical metadata for digital still images)<br />… and some others<br />
  37. 37. Representing information about controlled vocabulary values<br />Data elements in metadata formats, e.g. MARC Authority format<br />XML schemas (sometimes as enumeration values)<br />RDF/XML and RDFS (Resource Description Framework)<br />SKOS<br />MADS (Metadata Authority Description Schema)<br />
  38. 38. Reasons for developing a web service for vocabularies<br />Facilitate development and maintenance process for vocabularies<br />Make controlled lists “openly” available<br />Provide comprehensive information about controlled values<br />Experiment with semantic web technologies and linked data<br />Expose vocabularies to wider communities<br />
  39. 39. Popular Rdf Vocabularies <br />People + Organisations<br />FOAF, HCard, Relationship, Resume<br />Places <br />Geonames, Geo<br />Events <br />RDFCalendar<br />Social Media <br />SIOC, Review<br />Topics + Tags <br />SKOS, MOAT, HolyGoat<br />eCommerce<br />GoodRelations, CC Licensing<br />More... <br />Scovo, DOAP, Recipes, Measurements, ... <br />
  40. 40. SKOS<br />“Simple Knowledge Organisation System(s)”<br />A Semantic Web standard called Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) defines the organization of terms into thesaurus form, with broader and narrower terms and alternate terms including alternate language entries<br />Simple, extensible, machine-understandable representation for “concept schemes”<br />Thesauri<br />Classification Schemes<br />Taxonomies<br />Subject Headings<br />Other types of ‘controlled vocabulary’…<br />Disadvantage: unusual concept schemes don’t fit into SKOS (original structure too complex)<br />
  41. 41. A Method to Convert Thesauri to SKOS<br />Case1<br />Original XML data file:<br />Original XML Schema file<br />Conversion program: (contains instructions for usage)<br />Resulting RDF: ipsv/rdf/ipsv.rdf<br />SKOS Core schema: (version used for this paper, for latest version seehere)<br />Additional IPSV schema: ipsv/ipsv1-eswc06.rdf<br />Case 2<br />Partial original data files: gtaa/<br />Conversion program: gtaa/<br />Resulting RDF: gtaa/GTAAinstancesSKOSv7.rdf<br />SKOS Core schema: (version used for this paper, for latest version seehere)<br />Additional GTAA schema: gtaa/GTAAskosModelRDFSv4.rdfs<br />
  42. 42. Converting into SKOS graph<br />Identify<br />Describe<br />Publish<br />
  43. 43. Identify<br />Step 1: Identify concepts…<br /><br />
  44. 44. Describe<br />Step 2: Describe…<br />
  45. 45. Publish<br />Step 3: Publish…<br />Put the file on a web server for programs to download & process<br />Put the file on special RDF server on which you can query with SQL-like language:<br />Select * from … Where …<br />
  46. 46. Publishing LCSH in the Web<br />Project LCSH into RDF (i.e., create an RDF representation)<br />Library of Congress Subject Headings available as linked-data using the SKOS vocabulary.<br />
  47. 47. LCSH in SKOS<br /> <br />
  48. 48. LCSH in SKOS<br />
  49. 49. LCSH in SKOS<br />
  50. 50. Skosuse cases_2: NSDL Metadata Registry<br /><br />
  51. 51. Skosuse cases_3: getty<br /><br />
  52. 52. Skosuse cases_4: Agricultural Information Management Standards (AIMS)<br /><br />
  53. 53. FRBR conceptual model<br />Coyle (2008) advocates FRBR conceptual model <br /> as part of a semantic model in saying <br /> “Since FRBR is about entities and relationships, it seems to be perfectly positioned as the first step in the transformation of library data to the <br /> semantic web.”<br />
  54. 54. FRBR<br />Expression of Core FRBR Concepts in RDF<br /><br />This vocabulary is an expression in RDF of the <br /> concepts and relations described in the IFLA <br /> report on the Functional Requirements for <br /> Bibliographic Records (FRBR).<br />
  55. 55. FRBR as a RDF vocabulary<br />FRBR is a complete data model that is a new way of looking at our data, not just taking existing records and identifying work relationships.<br />FRBR a type of RDF vocabulary<br />entities and the relationships inFRBR is identifiable, <br /> linkable, usable, and reusable, and everything can <br /> be matched up. <br />
  56. 56. FRBR-SKOS<br />
  57. 57. RDA (Resource Description and Access) <br />The new cataloging rules, replacing AACR2<br />RDA -&gt; RDF<br />Joint DCMI/RDA task force<br />Seed funding to develop initial prototype RDF vocabularies for bibliographic information<br />Based on FRBR and data model implicit in RDA<br />Early stage year<br /><br />Karen Coyle<br />
  58. 58. library related Linked Data projects<br />A brief and incomplete list of some library related <br /> Linked Data projects:<br />RDF BookMashup – Integration of Web 2.0 data sources like Amazon, Google or Yahoo into the Semantic Web. <br />Library of Congress Authorities – Exposing LoCAutorities and Vocabularies to the web using URI’s <br />DBPedia – Exposing structured data from WikiPedia to the web <br />LIBRIS – Linked Data interface to Swedish LIBRIS Union catalog <br />Scriblio+Wordpress+Triplify – “A social, semantic OPAC Union Catalogue” <br />
  59. 59. Language of Interoperability<br />Universal identifiers (URIs): like written word <br /> – For “connecting the dots”<br />Abstract syntax (RDF triples): sentence grammar<br /> – Foundation of syntactic interoperability<br />Vocabularies: words and concepts<br /> – Foundation of semantic interoperability<br />Platform for compatible domain models<br /> – Application Profiles<br />Human-understandable – machine-processable<br />
  60. 60. 5. Proposed Models for Libraries with Linked data <br />A publisher provides basic information about a book<br /> (e.g., using onix)<br />The National Library adds bibliographic and authority <br /> control<br /> A local library adds holding information<br /> Some nice guy out there adds links from, say, Wikipedia<br /> A library’s IT staff creates a Webpage where I can find all related information regarding this book, links to related books from the same author, on the same subject, the author’s bio from wikipedia, comments from other Portals. <br />=&gt;Since, instead of following links between HTML pages, Linked Data browsers enable users to navigate between different data <br />sources by following RDF links.<br />How about User-created metadata<br />
  61. 61. Advantages over other methods<br />No crosswalk/mapping<br /> - Each one uses his own metadata format, all triples can be aggregated<br />No data redundancy<br /> - Each one creates only the data he needs, and retrieves already existing information <br />No harvesting<br /> - The data is available directly on the Web<br />No branding issue<br /> - The URIs allow to track down the original data whatever its origin<br />No software-specific developments<br /> - Everything relies on open standards as RDF, SPARQL … no need to learn a new protocol or query<br /> language<br />
  62. 62. Thank you for listening! <br />Questions? <br />