JAPANESE CHAFF  FLOWER (ACHYRANTHES  JAPONICA)Chris EvansRiver to River CWMAwww.rtrcwma.org
BACKGROUND   Perennial Forb     Up to 5-6 feet in height     Young plants single      stemmed, older plants have      m...
IDENTIFICATION Leaves opposite, entire, smooth edged Smooth to lightly pubescent Petioles vary in length, sometimes ver...
IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
IDENTIFICATION Flowers occur in terminal spikes, diverge at right  angles Start very compact and elongate as the progres...
IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
IDENTIFICATION Terminal spike continues to elongate as flowers  mature into fruits Fruits deflex along the stem 2 stiff...
IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
IDENTIFICATION Dense stands Flower or fruit spikes very noticeable    2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
TIMING Initiates growing in late spring ‘Comes on’ in mid-late summer Flowering late summer Rapid seed set (late summe...
SPREAD Water Animals Humans Produces thousands of seeds per plant per year Appear to be very viable based upon initia...
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
HABITAT   Does best in moist, rich soils in partial shade –    full sun       Sandy to loamy to silty soils   Does not ...
HABITAT Riparian areas Bottomland forests Roadsides Ditches Old fields Waste areas    2012 Invasive Species Workshop...
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
IMPACTS Forms very dense thickets Near monoculture Seems to exclude many other species       Even displacing stiltgras...
2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
MANAGEMENT Early Detection Rapid Response Monitoring and controlling this species in new  areas Spread prevention techn...
MANAGEMENT   Spread prevention     Clothing cleaning     Equipment sanitation Targeted surveys in and around hiking ar...
MANAGEMENT Research on control efforts underway Foliar sprays before flowering(mid summer)     2% Glyphosate     2% Tr...
SUMMARY   This new species has rapidly spread throughout the    Lower Ohio River Valley and into other portions of    the...
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Japanese Chaff Flower

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Japanese Chaff Flower

  1. 1. JAPANESE CHAFF FLOWER (ACHYRANTHES JAPONICA)Chris EvansRiver to River CWMAwww.rtrcwma.org
  2. 2. BACKGROUND Perennial Forb  Up to 5-6 feet in height  Young plants single stemmed, older plants have multiple stems First located in 1981 in eastern KY and southwestern WV Rapid spread throughout the Ohio River Valley and other regions Form extensive infestations along riverine systems 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  3. 3. IDENTIFICATION Leaves opposite, entire, smooth edged Smooth to lightly pubescent Petioles vary in length, sometimes very long, sometime near sessile 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  4. 4. IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  5. 5. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  6. 6. IDENTIFICATION Flowers occur in terminal spikes, diverge at right angles Start very compact and elongate as the progress Lack petals Brush like, dull green 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  7. 7. IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  8. 8. IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  9. 9. IDENTIFICATION Terminal spike continues to elongate as flowers mature into fruits Fruits deflex along the stem 2 stiff bracteoles on each fruit Remain on dead stalk throughout winter Easily attached to clothing, fur, etc. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  10. 10. IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  11. 11. IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  12. 12. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  13. 13. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  14. 14. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  15. 15. IDENTIFICATION Dense stands Flower or fruit spikes very noticeable 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  16. 16. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  17. 17. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  18. 18. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  19. 19. TIMING Initiates growing in late spring ‘Comes on’ in mid-late summer Flowering late summer Rapid seed set (late summer – early fall) Seed maturation – early fall Plant senescence – late fall 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  20. 20. SPREAD Water Animals Humans Produces thousands of seeds per plant per year Appear to be very viable based upon initial attempts to grow in greenhouse 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  21. 21. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  22. 22. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  23. 23. CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  24. 24. HABITAT Does best in moist, rich soils in partial shade – full sun  Sandy to loamy to silty soils Does not tolerate annual flooding or long periods of inundation  On big river systems, often found just above the driftwood line Can grow in deep shade 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  25. 25. HABITAT Riparian areas Bottomland forests Roadsides Ditches Old fields Waste areas 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  26. 26. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  27. 27. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  28. 28. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  29. 29. IMPACTS Forms very dense thickets Near monoculture Seems to exclude many other species  Even displacing stiltgrass Preferred forage for deer Lots of evidence for insect feeding 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  30. 30. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  31. 31. MANAGEMENT Early Detection Rapid Response Monitoring and controlling this species in new areas Spread prevention techniques and adoption of BMPs in areas where this species is present Further education about this species*Very few people currently know about this plant or know to look for it* 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  32. 32. MANAGEMENT Spread prevention  Clothing cleaning  Equipment sanitation Targeted surveys in and around hiking areas and campgrounds High use areas 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  33. 33. MANAGEMENT Research on control efforts underway Foliar sprays before flowering(mid summer)  2% Glyphosate  2% Triclopyr Large roots and brittle stems seem to limit hand pulling 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
  34. 34. SUMMARY This new species has rapidly spread throughout the Lower Ohio River Valley and into other portions of the SE and has recently been found in Missouri It is spread by flood waters and by humans and animals It can form dense stands that appear to potentially heavily impact riparian areas and bottomlands Spread prevention and EDRR should be implemented Control with foliar sprays of glyphosate or tricopyr seem to be effective Much more research is being started on this plant 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO

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