PICO is an acronym for:Patient or ProblemHow would you describe a group of patients similar to yours? What are the most important characteristics of the patient? This may include the primary problem, disease, or co-existing conditions. Sometimes the sex, age, or ethnicity of a patient might be relevant to the diagnosis or treatment of a disease.InterventionWhich main intervention, prognostic factor, or exposure are you considering? What do you want to do for the patient? Prescribe a drug? Order a test? Order surgery? What factor may influence the prognosis of the patient? Age? Co-existing problems? What was the patient exposed to? Asbestos? Cigarette smoke?ComparisonWhat is the main alternative to compare with the intervention? Are you trying to decide between two drugs, a drug and no medication or placebo, or two diagnostic tests? Your clinical question may not always have a specific comparison.OutcomeWhat can you hope to accomplish, measure, improve or affect? What are you trying to do for the patient? Relieve or eliminate the symptoms? Reduce the number of adverse events? Improve function or test scores?Not trying to cure prostate cancer, just address hot flashesP – using actual term for prostate cancerI – alternate spellings/alternate termsC – is there an alternate?O – MESH term, think of as many searchable terms/spellings you can (show later in databases how to see these)
This question guides how we do our research
High level info: how and what was searched and is repeatableMid-level is where you find most informationLower-level is often literature based on perspective of just a few researchers, not rigorous enough to make a clinical decision, is often biasedQuick suggestions to find BACKGROUND INFOSearch by disease or therapy.Look for graded recommendations.Use the list of references in your own search for evidence.WHERE SHOULD I START SEARCHING?Identify your questions about the standard of practice, disease, treatment, or population characteristics.Use background sources to find answers to these questions.Once you feel comfortable with your knowledge on the topic, look for systematic reviews, current studies, guidelines in the top literature indexes.If you are unable to find any evidence, schedule an appointment with your mentor or a medical librarian. You may have identified an area that needs research.
WHERE SHOULD I START SEARCHING?Identify your questions about the standard of practice, disease, treatment, or population characteristics. Use background sources to find answers to these questions. *We need background info on the effect of acupuncture on the body. We may need info on ADT therapy*Once you feel comfortable with your knowledge on the topic, look for systematic reviews, current studies, guidelines in the top literature indexes. *We need the latest and the core research out there on acupuncture and prostate cancer*If you are unable to find any evidence, schedule an appointment with your mentor or a medical librarian. You may have identified an area that needs researchCochrane is where you will find systematic reviewsPubMed and SCOPUS will give you mid-level informationIf it’s a quality of life question you may try PsychInfoEach database covers different journals
Use ANDLimit by document type or dateNotice articles are listed by datesON SCOPUSLook at abstract to determine study designNotice the keywordsFind It button – we’ve got full text or we’ll find it for you for free through ILLIADLogin to SCOPUS to save a search, or Add to My ListWe offer classes on searching SCOPUS – NEXT IS THURSDAY APRIL 12 at 10AM
Click out to web and search PubMed, back and forth to mention all 4 points above.ON PUBMEDHave to click the + sign to see publication type/study designFind It button – we’ve got full text or we’ll find it for you for free through ILLIADLogin to PubMed to save a search, or Send ToMORE IN DEPTH SEARCHINGSearch with MeSHTry multiple keywords combinations, especially synonyms Apply limits by population or study designLook at related articlesWe offer classes on searching PubMed: NEXT IS
Literature search pipeline
researchmedicallibrary PIPELINE scientific training program introducing the LITERATURE SEARCH April Aultman Becker Education Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
Today we will… Turn a Find the best Identify the question into a places to highest level of focused search search evidence we can help at every step of the way
Turn a question into afocused literature search identify, consider, and focus
I PSearchable QuestionDoes the intervention/procedure/therapy Oimprove the outcome for the patient? Ordoes the comparison ? CDoes acupuncture decrease the frequency ofhot flashes among prostate cancer patientsreceiving androgen depravation therapy(ADT)?
Identify the highest levelsof evidence expose, understand, and search
We try to find evidence that wasresearched using these high-levelstudy designs.Sometimes, the only evidence wecan find is from mid-levelevidence.Low-level evidence should onlybe used for backgroundinformation.
Cochrane Library, DynamedPubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL,PychInfo, most databasesUp to Date, textbooks, populararticles
Find the best places tosearch for literature research, evaluate, and compile
Search for Published Research»Cochrane Library»PubMed»SCOPUS»and more
• Be aware of British spellings• Limiters restrict by product, date, etc.• Notice the Other Resources• Look at abstract to determine study design• Notice the keywords, MESH at bottom of article• Find It button – we’ve got full text or we’ll find it for you for free through ILLIAD• Login to save a search
• Combine keywords using AND• Articles listed in order by date• Limit by document type or date• Articles are listed by dates• Look at abstract to determine study design• Notice the keywords• Login to SCOPUS to save a search, or Add to My List
• Search keywords that match your question and be specific. Look at “Details” to understand search.• Use Filters to narrow by study design, publication, species, etc.• Change Display Settings from summary to abstract.• Revise keyword search after looking at MeSH terms.• Login to save searches.• Look at related articles