Exploiter le Web Semantic, le comprendre et y contribuer

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Talk at the Nancy Unviersity to students of the Master SCA. (Unlike the title, most of the slides are in english).

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  • First, quick presentation: Semantic web, ontologies, etc. (big vision, but we are mainly talking about making real things out of it…)Using the semantic web? (what is there to reuse… ???) Put need for a gateway… so Watson… applications Also, use it for … euh evaluating things:: agreement/disagreement (would be useful)This is passive… contributing change from watson to cupboard (image from ontolog) + them provide QUALITY semantic web stuff (metadata, reviews, etc.)But that is still quite some effort  trust in the watsonplugin (and poweraqua?)
  • Ideally, an image of the stats of sindice or Swoogle
  • Ideally, an image of the stats of sindice or Swoogle
  • Ideally, an image of the stats of sindice or Swoogle
  • Ideally, an image of the stats of sindice or Swoogle
  • Exploiter le Web Semantic, le comprendre et y contribuer

    1. 1. Exploiter le Web Sémantique, le comprendre et ycontribuer(danscetordre)<br />Mathieu d’Aquin<br />KMi, The Open University – m.daquin@open.ac.uk<br />Le reste des diapossontprincipalement en anglais…<br />The other slides are mostly in English<br />
    2. 2. Outline of the talk<br />1.<br />2.<br />Exploiter le Web Sémantique, le comprendre et ycontribuer<br />4.<br />3.<br />
    3. 3. Outline of the talk<br />?<br />Exploiter le Web Sémantique, le comprendre et ycontribuer<br />
    4. 4. The Semantic Web (in theory)<br />A large scale, heterogenous collection of formal, machine processable, ontology-based statements (semantic metadata) about web resources and other entities in the world, expressed in a standard syntax<br />&lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br /> &lt;owl:Ontologyrdf:about=&quot;&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;owl:importsrdf:resource=&quot;http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#&quot;/&gt;<br /> &lt;/owl:Ontology&gt;<br /> &lt;j.1:Organization rdf:ID=&quot;KMi&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;rdfs:commentrdf:datatype=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&quot;<br /> &gt;The Knoledge Media Institute of the Open University, Milton Keynes UK&lt;/rdfs:comment&gt;<br /> &lt;/j.1:Organization&gt;<br /> &lt;j.1:Document rdf:ID=&quot;KMiWebSite&quot;&gt;<br /> …<br />&lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br />&lt;channel rdf:about=“http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk/blog”&gt;<br />&lt;title&gt;Elementaries - The Watson Blog&lt;/title&gt;<br />&lt;link&gt;http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk:8080/blog/&lt;/link&gt;<br />&lt;description&gt;<br />&quot;Oh dear! Where the Semantic Web is going to go now?&quot; -- imaginary user 23<br />&lt;/description&gt;<br />&lt;language&gt;en&lt;/language&gt;<br />&lt;copyright&gt;Watson team&lt;/copyright&gt;<br />&lt;lastBuildDate&gt;Thu, 01 Mar 2007 13:49:52 GMT&lt;/lastBuildDate&gt;<br />&lt;generator&gt;Pebble (http://pebble.sourceforge.net)&lt;/generator&gt;<br />&lt;docs&gt;http://backend.userland.com/rss&lt;/docs&gt;<br />…<br />
    5. 5. Galen<br />NCI<br />…<br />Music<br />DC<br />WORDNET<br />RSS<br />TAP<br />FOAF<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />Metadata<br />&lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br />&lt;channel rdf:about=“http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk/blog”&gt;<br />&lt;title&gt;Elementaries - The Watson Blog&lt;/title&gt;<br />&lt;link&gt;http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk:8080/blog/&lt;/link&gt;<br />&lt;description&gt;<br />&quot;Oh dear! Where the Semantic Web is going to go now?&quot; -- imaginary user 23<br />&lt;/description&gt;<br />&lt;language&gt;en&lt;/language&gt;<br />&lt;copyright&gt;Watson team&lt;/copyright&gt;<br />&lt;lastBuildDate&gt;Thu, 01 Mar 2007 13:49:52 GMT&lt;/lastBuildDate&gt;<br />&lt;generator&gt;Pebble (http://pebble.sourceforge.net)&lt;/generator&gt;<br />&lt;docs&gt;http://backend.userland.com/rss&lt;/docs&gt;<br />…<br />&lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:Imagerdf:about=&apos;http://static.flickr.com/132/400582453_e1e1f8602c.jpg&apos;&gt;<br /> &lt;dc:title&gt;Zen wisteria&lt;/dc:title&gt;<br /> &lt;dc:description&gt;&lt;/dc:description&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:pagerdf:resource=&apos;http://www.flickr.com/photos/xcv/400582453/&apos;/&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:topicrdf:resource=&apos;http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/vittelgarden/&apos;/&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:topicrdf:resource=&apos;http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/wisteria/&apos;/&gt;<br /> &lt;dc:creator&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:Person&gt;&lt;foaf:name&gt;Mathieu d&apos;Aquin&lt;/foaf:name&gt;<br /> …<br />&lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br /> &lt;owl:Ontologyrdf:about=&quot;&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;owl:importsrdf:resource=&quot;http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#&quot;/&gt;<br /> &lt;/owl:Ontology&gt;<br /> &lt;j.1:Organization rdf:ID=&quot;KMi&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;rdfs:commentrdf:datatype=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&quot;<br /> &gt;The Knoledge Media Institute of the Open University, Milton Keynes UK&lt;/rdfs:comment&gt;<br /> &lt;/j.1:Organization&gt;<br /> &lt;j.1:Document rdf:ID=&quot;KMiWebSite&quot;&gt;<br /> …<br />UoD<br />
    6. 6. &lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br /> &lt;owl:Ontologyrdf:about=&quot;&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;owl:importsrdf:resource=&quot;http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#&quot;/&gt;<br /> &lt;/owl:Ontology&gt;<br /> &lt;j.1:Organization rdf:ID=&quot;KMi&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;rdfs:commentrdf:datatype=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&quot;<br /> &gt;The Knoledge Media Institute of the Open University, Milton Keynes UK&lt;/rdfs:comment&gt;<br /> &lt;/j.1:Organization&gt;<br /> &lt;j.1:Document rdf:ID=&quot;KMiWebSite&quot;&gt;<br /> …<br />&lt;rdf:RDF&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:Imagerdf:about=&apos;http://static.flickr.com/132/400582453_e1e1f8602c.jpg&apos;&gt;<br /> &lt;dc:title&gt;Zen wisteria&lt;/dc:title&gt;<br /> &lt;dc:description&gt;&lt;/dc:description&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:pagerdf:resource=&apos;http://www.flickr.com/photos/xcv/400582453/&apos;/&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:topicrdf:resource=&apos;http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/vittelgarden/&apos;/&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:topicrdf:resource=&apos;http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/wisteria/&apos;/&gt;<br /> &lt;dc:creator&gt;<br /> &lt;foaf:Person&gt;&lt;foaf:name&gt;Mathieu d&apos;Aquin&lt;/foaf:name&gt;<br /> …<br />Ontology alignment<br />Data integration<br />Data analysis<br />Reasoning <br />Etc.<br />Smart Application<br />
    7. 7. Many research and development efforts in <br />Supporting the design of ontologies (methodologies, toolkits, editors, etc.)<br />Supporting the annotation Web resources (natural language processing, information extraction, etc.)<br />Supporting the publication of semantic data and information online (linking open data, `semantification’ of legacy information systems)<br />…<br />Resulting in an explosion of the amount of machine processable knowledge online.<br />Therefore…<br />
    8. 8. OK, nice… but what’s the reality?<br />2007<br />2008<br />2009<br />
    9. 9. Slide 9<br />And for ontologies?<br />
    10. 10. Slide 10<br />And for ontologies?<br />
    11. 11. Millions of Semantic Web documents (data), containing billions of RDF triples<br />Thousands of ontologies online in OWL and RDFs, covering many different domains (will talk about that later)<br />But, distributed and heterogeneous in representation, meaning, quality…<br />So, what do we really do with it?<br />So, the Semantic Web in reality?<br />
    12. 12. Outline of the talk<br />?<br />Exploiter le Web Sémantique, le comprendre et ycontribuer<br />
    13. 13. Next Generation Semantic Web Applications<br />NG SW Application <br />Semantic Web<br />Smart Features<br /><ul><li>Able to exploit the Semantic Web at large
    14. 14. Dynamically retrieving the relevant semantic resources
    15. 15. Combining at run-time heterogeneous and distributed Ontologies</li></li></ul><li>Next Generation Semantic Web Applications<br />Need for a Gateway to the Semantic Web<br />Dynamically retrieving, exploiting and combining relevant semantic resources from the SW, at large<br />
    16. 16. Watson: a Gateway to the Semantic Web<br />
    17. 17. Architecture<br />
    18. 18. Interface<br />http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk<br />
    19. 19. But the important part is: the APIs<br />Provide Semantic Web application developers with the ability to efficiently:<br />Locate (find) Semantic Web documents online using advanced search functions<br />Explore the documents, automatically extracted metadata and content<br />Query the documents, to exploit online knowledge in an homogeneous way <br />In a set of lightweight APIs, and without having to download the data or use any other dedicated infrastructure.<br />
    20. 20. Some Applications We Developed<br />Semantic Relation Discovery:<br />Scarlet<br />Ontology Reuse:<br />The Watson Plugin<br />Question Answering:<br />PowerAqua<br />Folksonomy Enrichment<br />And also:<br />Word sense disambiguation<br />Query Expansion<br />Synonym Discovery<br />Web Service Annotation…<br />Semantic Browsing:<br />PowerMagpie<br />
    21. 21. Chose an entity to search<br />Integrate statements <br />Into the edited ontology<br />Get entities from online ontologies<br />Example: The Watson Plugin<br />
    22. 22. Example: Scarlet<br />SeaFood<br />Meat<br />wine.owl<br />AcademicStaff<br />Semantic Web<br />Semantic Web<br />Researcher<br />ka2.rdf<br />Meat<br />SeaFood<br />Ham<br />pizza-to-go<br />NALT<br />AcademicStaff<br />Researcher<br />Ham<br />SeaFood<br />ISWC<br />SWRC<br />NALT<br />Agrovoc<br />
    23. 23. Example: Scarlet<br />http://scarlet.open.ac.uk/<br />
    24. 24. Example: Wahoo<br />http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk/wahoo<br />
    25. 25. Example: PowerAqua<br />Natural language question<br />Answers from <br />online semantic data<br />
    26. 26. Example: FLOR<br />Can the Semantic Web provide the structure needed to improve search and navigation of tagged spaces?<br />
    27. 27. Dog<br />Bird<br />Land<br />scape<br />Dog<br />Bird<br />Cat<br />Land<br />scape<br />Bird<br />Dog<br />Tiger<br />Tiger<br />Bird<br />Dog<br />Land<br />scape<br />Bird<br />Bird<br />Bird<br />Tiger<br />Tiger<br />Search in Tag Spaces<br />Let’s find photos of “animals which live in the water”<br />Query: Animal Water<br />5/24 ≈ 21% relevant<br />
    28. 28. Bring in the SW…<br />Animal Water<br />Animal<br />livesIn<br />Body of Water<br />Mammal<br />Fish<br />&lt;Animal livesIn Water&gt;<br />livesIn<br />SaltwaterFish<br />FreshwaterFish<br />Sea<br />&lt;Dolphin&gt;or&lt;Seal&gt;<br />or<br />&lt;“Sea Elephant”&gt;or<br />&lt;Whale&gt;<br />livesIn<br />Marine Mammal<br />Ocean<br />Dolphin<br />Seal<br />Whale<br />Sea Elephant<br />
    29. 29. Results<br />dolphin<br />seal<br />whale<br />sea elephant<br />18/24 ≈ 75% relevant<br />
    30. 30. SWEET: Semantic Annotation of REST services <br />
    31. 31. These are only a few of the applications developed in KMi (i.e., us, the people who are doing Watson)<br />Many other people are developing such applications (and we don’t necessarily know all of them)<br />Many other tools exists that help building applications (triple stores, query engines, other Semantic Web search engines)…<br />But what does that tell us about the Semantic Web?<br />And so?<br />
    32. 32. Outline of the talk<br />Exploiter le Web Sémantique, le comprendre et ycontribuer<br />?<br />
    33. 33. Watson collects a lot of ontologies and Semantic Web documents that are created by different people for different purposes<br />In addition to being a gateway for the development of applications exploiting this knowledge, it can be used to better understand how knowledge is published online, how the Semantic Web looks like, and how it evolves<br />Watson as a Research Platform<br />
    34. 34. Characterizing and subset of the Watson Collection (2007)<br />Underlying description logic<br />Number of entities<br />Domain covered<br />
    35. 35. Ontologies are naturally related with each other, some are equivalent to others, some are versions, some are similar, some are incompatible to each other<br />These relations generally stay implicit<br />Understanding relations between ontologies online<br />Better understanding these relations is useful to support the use of the Semantic Web<br />
    36. 36. DOOR: An Ontology of Ontology Relations<br />
    37. 37. Ontologies evolve on the Web, there are many different versions of the same ontology are available<br />This is rarely made explicit through the appropriate metadata for ontologies (e.g., owl:preVersion)<br />But version info is often encoded in the URIs of ontologies, e.g., <br />http://loki.cae.drexel.edu/wbs/ontology/2003/10/iso-metadata<br />http://loki.cae.drexel.edu/wbs/ontology/2004/01/iso-metadata<br />Extracting this information can help in studying the evolution of ontologies on the Semantic Web, i.e., the Semantic Web dynamics<br />Example Relation: Different Versions<br />
    38. 38. We developed simple method based on a few rules recognizing specific patterns in the differences between URIs of ontologies (dates, timestamps, etc.) and ran it on a set of 6,898 ontologies from Watson.<br />We found 155,501 (directed) versioning relations between these ontologies, which represent 1,365 evolving ontologies<br />A manual evaluation indicates that more than 50% of these are correct<br />Next step: improve the method and study evolution patterns on the Semantic Web<br />Example Relation: Different Versions – Initial Experiment<br />
    39. 39. Ontologies are knowledge artifacts, they express opinions and beliefs and contradict each others<br />Assessing (dis)agreement in ontologies is very useful to understand how to combine knowledge from different sources<br />A possible approach would be to check whether inconsistencies and incoherencies appear while combining the ontologies. However we believe that:<br />There are different levels of agreement/disagreement<br />Covering different domains is not agreeing<br />It is possible to agree and disagree at the same time<br />Based on these requirements we define a set of measures for assessing (dis)agreement between statements and ontologies.<br />Example Relations: Agreement and Disagreement<br />
    40. 40. Agreement(st, O)  [0..1] and Disagreement(st, O)  [0..1] where stis a statement &lt;subject, predicate, object&gt; and O is an ontology<br />Based on extracting the part of the ontology that express a relation between subject and object<br />(Dis)agreement between ontologies: <br />Global (dis)agreement in a repository<br />Consensus: <br />Controversy:<br />Example Relations: Agreement and Disagreement - Measures<br />
    41. 41. Experiment: assessing statements related to the class Seafood in Watson:<br />a: global agreement, d: global disagreement, cs: consensus, ct: controversy<br />More experiments on the Way!<br />Example Relations: Agreement and Disagreement – Application?<br />
    42. 42. Using 21 ontologies containing a concept SeaFood<br />Camp 1: seaFooddisjointWith Meat<br />Camp 2: SeaFoodsubClassOf Meat<br />Disagreement<br />Agreement<br />
    43. 43. Outline of the talk<br />Exploiter le Web Sémantique, le comprendre et ycontribuer<br />?<br />
    44. 44. Slide 43<br />From a Semantic Web search engine…<br />
    45. 45. Slide 44<br />Comments and <br />Reviews<br />Ontology Metadata<br />Alignments<br />Versions of<br />… to Ontology Repositories?<br />Ontologies<br />
    46. 46. Cupboard.open.ac.uk<br />
    47. 47. Metadata<br />Summary<br />Reviews<br />
    48. 48. I hope I convinced you that<br />Using the Semantic Web<br />Understanding the Semantic Web <br />Contributing to the Semantic Web<br />Through Watson, Cupboard and our applications, our aim is to build an open and efficient platform making the Semantic Web a `playground for research and development’<br />There is still a lot to do, and everybody is welcome to comment, help, contribute…<br />Final message<br />
    49. 49. Thank You!<br />Mathieu d’Aquin (m.daquin@open.ac.uk, http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/mathieu) <br />With contributions from many people in KMi (http://kmi.open.ac.uk) and the NeOn project (http://neon-project.org) <br />/* I would normally include a bibliography slide at the end, but all the relevant papers can be found on these 3 websites */<br />

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