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The many ways of research in semantic technologies

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Invited talk at the Doctoral Consortium in EKAW 2014

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The many ways of research in semantic technologies

  1. 1. The many ways of research in semantic technologies Mathieu d'Aquin - @mdaquin slideshare.net/mdaquin Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University
  2. 2. What is research?
  3. 3. What is research? It's like a Ukulele... Image: http://flickr.com/photos/gabrielleee/4619731702
  4. 4. What is doing research? It's like playing the Ukulele... Image: http://flickr.com/photos/gabrielleee/4619731702
  5. 5. Doing Research/ Playing the Ukulele ____________________*____________*_______*____*____*___...
  6. 6. Doing Research/ Playing the Ukulele *: Playing to family/friends, try to impress a potential partner, playing a gig/concert, etc. *: Submitting/presenting/defending paper/dissertation/thesis ____________________*____________*_______*____*____*___...
  7. 7. Doing Research/ Playing the Ukulele *: Playing to family/friends, try to impress a potential partner, playing a gig/concert, etc. *: Submitting/presenting/defending paper/dissertation/thesis ____________________*____________*_______*____*____*___... __: Periods that start with not knowing what you are doing and during which you work it out, i.e. the most important part, and the one nobody wants to hear about!
  8. 8. What happen during * time You show the results of the __ times Submit defend thesis/dissertation: a structured synthesis of you research. Conferences: EKAW, K-CAP, ISWC, ESWC, ECAI, IJCAI, AAAI, ... Journals: DKE, Data Semantics, Applied Ontology, Knowledge Engineering Review, Journal of Web Semantics, Semantic Web Journal, ... picture: http://flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/4647592085/
  9. 9. What happens during __ times
  10. 10. What happens during __ times http://xkcd.com/683/
  11. 11. Depends on the discipline... http://xkcd.com/435/
  12. 12. Depends on the discipline... (where are KA/KE/SW?) http://xkcd.com/435/
  13. 13. Depends on the discipline... (where are KA/KE/SW?) http://xkcd.com/435/
  14. 14. Depends on the discipline... (where are KA/KE/SW?) http://xkcd.com/435/
  15. 15. Depends on the discipline... (where are KA/KE/SW?) http://xkcd.com/435/
  16. 16. Depends on the research methodology... What's that?
  17. 17. Depends on the research methodology... 3 Types of Research Exploratory research: Identify a question or a problem. Constructive research: Test theories and propose answers to questions and problems. Empirical research: Test and acquire new knowledge by observation.
  18. 18. Depends on the research methodology... Many Types of Methodology Quantitative: Based on quantifiable data and measurements Qualitative: Based on observations and description of specific situations Others and in between... (e.g. meta-analysis)
  19. 19. Depends on the research methodology... What do we do in KA/KE/SW? Quantitative Qualitative Exploratory Constructive Empirical
  20. 20. Depends on the research methodology... What do we do in KA/KE/SW?* Quantitative Qualitative Exploratory Constructive +++ Empirical + + *My subjective view
  21. 21. Example of constructive research in KA/KE/SW Nikolov, Andriy; d'Aquin, Mathieu and Motta, Enrico (2012). Unsupervised learning of link discovery configuration. In ESWC 2012 Problem: Link discovery requires configuration Existing work: Use supervise techniques to learn these configurations Solution: Use genetic algorithms to learn them in an unsupervised manner Evaluation: Quantitative - through a benchmark
  22. 22. Example of constructive research in KA/KE/SW d'Aquin, Mathieu and Motta, Enrico (2011). Extracting relevant questions to an RDF dataset using formal concept analysis. In: K-CAP 2011. Problem: Understanding what is in a linked dataset is long and difficult Existing work: Metadata, tagging, visualisations, giving indirect views of what can be done with the dataset Solution: Extract relevant questions automatically using Formal Concept Analysis Evaluation: Quantitiative - based on a survey
  23. 23. Example of empirical research in KA/KE/SW Scheuermann, Andreas; Motta, Enrico; Mulholland, Paul; Gangemi, Aldo and Presutti, Valentina (2013). An empirical perspective on representing time. In: K-CAP 2013. Theory: Different representations of time have different impact on people's ability to use them Testing method: survey / questionnaire Analysis: Mostly quantitative - compare results with different representations, but also a bit qualitative
  24. 24. Example of empirical research in KA/KE/SW Ilaria Tiddi, Mathieu d'Aquin and Enrico Motta, Quantifying the bias in data links. In EKAW 2014. Theory: Linked datasets are biased towards certain situations;Tthese biases can be extracted from links to other datasets Testing methods: Automated measurement of the significance of differences between datasets Analysis: Quantitative - t-test
  25. 25. Example of exploratory research in KA/KE/SW Mathieu d’Aquin, Claudio Baldassarre, Laurian Gridinoc, Sofia Angeletou, Marta Sabou, and Enrico Motta, Characterizing Knowledge on the Semantic Web with Watson. In EON at ISWC 2007. Area to explore: Ontologies on the web Exploration method: Extract characteristices (e.g. size, lang, logic) Analysis: Quantitative - Analysis of distributions
  26. 26. Why is this important? Research is about contributing to knowledge in an area. Doing a PhD is about making one, substantial, self-contained, valid research contribution.
  27. 27. In other words... Constructive Research Empirical Research Exploratory Research y1 Understand domain Read Read Read y1 Develop hypothesis There is a better solution to a problem There is a theory to prove/disprove There is a domain with phenomena to explore y2 Develop research Create a new solution to the problem Design the experiment Design the exploration method y3 Obtain results Evaluate solution Analyse experiment Extract patterns y3 Synthetise Write Write Write
  28. 28. Conclusion There are many ways learn the ukulele. There are many ways to do research in KA/KE/SW. Some are more common than others. You are playing the ukulele well when: Your friends don't run away when you start. You have done good research when: It is validated, evaluated, proved. Choosing an established methodology makes you life easier, and helps your peers
  29. 29. validate your research. Image:
  30. 30. Things that can help... Doctoral consortium PhD Symposiums (EKAW, ISWC...), (ESWC, ...) Summer Schools : SSSW 2015 is especially good! http://sssw.org/2015
  31. 31. Thanks! Carlo Allocca Fouad Zablith Ilaria Tiddi Enrico Daga
  32. 32. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  33. 33. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  34. 34. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  35. 35. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  36. 36. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  37. 37. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  38. 38. Doing a PhD Source: http://matt.might.net/articles/phd-school-in-pictures/
  39. 39. A proper research methodology so that you can prove that you did...
  40. 40. ... and not that...

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