Introduction to the Social Semantic Web

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OVERVIEW:
1. INTRODUCTION TO THE SEMANTIC WEB
2. PRINCIPLES OF LINKED DATA
3. THE SOCIAL SEMANTIC WEB
4. VALUE OF THE SOCIAL SEMANTIC GRAPH

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Introduction to the Social Semantic Web

  1. 1. Social Semantic Weband its applicationsDay 1: The (Social) Semantic Web    Maciej  Dabrowski  
  2. 2. What?1.  INTRODUCTIONTOTHESEMANTIC WEB 2.  PRINCIPLES OF LINKED DATA 3.  THE SOCIAL SEMANTIC WEB 4.  VALUE OFTHE SOCIALSEMANTIC GRAPH
  3. 3. CLASSIC WEBTARGET CONSUMERS: HUMANS •  MEANING IS NOT EXPLICIT GRANULARITY: DOCUMENT •  CAN’T REFERTO SIMPLE STATEMENTS INTEGRATION AND REUSE: LIMITED •  NO MEANINGFUL LINKS AND LOWAUTOMATION
  4. 4. LIMITATIONS•  FINDING INFORMATION •  RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION •  DATA INTEGRATION •  DATA AGGREGATION AND REUSE •  DATA GRANULARITY •  INFERENCE OF NEW INFORMATION
  5. 5. THE SEMANTIC WEB“THE SEMANTIC WEB IS AN EXTENSIONOFTHE CURRENT WEB IN WHICHINFORMATION IS GIVEN WELL-DEFINEDMEANING, BETTER ENABLINGCOMPUTERS AND PEOPLETO WORK INCOOPERATION.“ (TIM BERNERS-LEE, 2001)
  6. 6. IRELAND?
  7. 7. Network of knowledgeENABLINGINNOVATION ANDINCREASEDPRODUCTIVITY INTERCONNECTED UNIVERSAL ALL ENCOMPASSING ASSISTS HUMANS,ORGANISATIONS ANDSYSTEMS WITHPROBLEM SOLVING
  8. 8. Two Key Ingredients: RDFRESOURCE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK GRAPH BASED DATA: NODES AND ARCS IDENTIFIES OBJECTS (URIS) INTERLINK INFORMATION(RELATIONSHIPS)
  9. 9. MACIEJ DABROWSKI!maciej.dabrowski@deri.org!lecturerAtco-PIcontactco-PIworksWithresearcherAtgraduatednameexample
  10. 10. Two Key Ingredients: ontologiesVOCABULARIES (ONTOLOGIES) PROVIDE SHAREDUNDERSTANDING OF A DOMAIN ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE IN AMACHINE-COMPREHENSIBLE WAY GIVE AN EXPLOITABLE MEANINGTOTHE DATA
  11. 11. SPARQLQUERY LANGUAGE FOR RDF DATA USES PATTERN MATCHING RECENTVERSION INCLUDES UPDATES HTTP://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/RDF-SPARQL-QUERY/ HTTP://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/SPARQL11-QUERY/
  12. 12. Linked DataA PRAGMATICVIEW ONTHESEMANTIC WEB
  13. 13. Better machine-readible dataYahoo  Google  Rich  Snippets  
  14. 14. “Semantic Data” on the WebLINKED DATA / WEB OF DATA IS NOT THE SEMANTIC WEB FOCUES ONTHE DATA NO LOGIC INFERENCE A DIRECTION FORTHE FUTURE?
  15. 15. What is the Web of Data?
  16. 16. Linked Data Principles1.  USE URIS AS NAMES FORTHINGS 2.  USE HTTP URIS SOTHAT PEOPLE CAN LOOKUPTHOSE NAMES 3.  WHEN SOMEONE LOOKS UP A URI, PROVIDEUSEFUL INFORMATION, USINGTHESTANDARDS (RDF*, SPARQL) 4.  GOODTO LINKTO OTHER URIS SOTHATTHEY CAN DISCOVER MORETHINGS HTTP://WWW.W3.ORG/DESIGNISSUES/LINKEDDATA.HTML
  17. 17. STAR SCHEMEMAKEYOUR DATA AVAILABLE ONTHE WEB MAKE IT AVAILABLE AS STRUCTURED DATA USE NON-PROPRIETARY FORMATS USE URISTO DENOTETHINGS, SO PEOPLECAN POINT ATYOUR DATA LINKYOUR DATATO OTHER DATATOPROVIDE CONTEXT EXAMPLES: HTTP://5STARDATA.INFO/
  18. 18. BUILDING BLOCKS: URIS“TO BENEFIT FROM ANDINCREASETHEVALUE OFTHEWORLD WIDE WEB,AGENTSSHOULD PROVIDE URIS ASIDENTIFIERS FOR RESOURCES” PAGES, PEOPLE, INTERESTS… HTTP://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/WEBARCH/  
  19. 19. A UNIFORM RESOURCE IDENTIFIERCOMPACT SEQUENCE OF CHARACTERSTHAT IDENTIFIES AN ABSTRACT ORPHYSICAL RESOURCE FOO://EXAMPLE.COM:8042/OVER/THERE?NAME=FERRET#NOSE _/ __________________/___________/ __________/ __/ | | | | | SCHEME AUTHORITY PATH QUERY FRAGMENT
  20. 20. COOL URISIMPLICITY, STABILITY AND MANAGEABILITY COOL URIS DONT CHANGE” TIM BERNERS-LEE IN (1998)
  21. 21. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)AN APPLICATION-LEVEL PROTOCOL FORDISTRIBUTED, COLLABORATIVE, HYPERMEDIAINFORMATION SYSTEMS. THROUGHEXTENSION OF ITS REQUEST METHODS,ERROR CODES AND HEADERS,ANDNEGOTIATION OF DATA REPRESENTATION,IT ALLOWS SYSTEMSTO BE BUILTINDEPENDENTLY OFTHE DATA BEINGTRANSFERRED. [RFC2616]
  22. 22. HTTP: USEFUL DETAILSHTTP MESSAGES CONSIST OF REQUESTSFROM CLIENTTO SERVER ANDRESPONSES FROM SERVERTO CLIENT SET OF METHODS IS PREDEFINED (SUCHAS GET, POST, ETC.), BUT CAN BEEXPANDED
  23. 23. HTTP: STATUS CODESINFORMATIONAL 1XX, PROVISIONAL RESPONSE SUCCESSFUL 2XX, REQUEST SUCCESSFULLYRECEIVED, UNDERSTOOD,AND ACCEPTED (201CREATED) REDIRECTION 3XX, FURTHER ACTION NEEDSTO BETAKEN BY USER AGENTTO FULFILLTHE REQUEST(301 MOVED PERMANENTLY) CLIENT ERROR 4XX, CLIENT ERRED (405 METHODNOT ALLOWED) SERVER ERROR 5XX, SERVER ENCOUNTERED ANUNEXPECTED CONDITION (501 NOT IMPLEMENTED)
  24. 24. HTTPGET /html/rfc2616 HTTP/1.1!Host: tools.ietf.org!User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0!Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8! HTTP/1.x 200 OK!Date: Thu, 05 Mar 2009 08:17:33 GMT!Server: Apache/2.2.11!Content-Location: rfc2616.html!Last-Modified: Tue, 20 Jan 2009 09:16:04 GMT!Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8! REQUEST  RESPONSE  
  25. 25. Google.com/facebook
  26. 26. CONTENT NEGOTIATIONCONTENT NEGOTIATION ISTHEPROCESS OF SELECTINGTHE BESTREPRESENTATION FOR A GIVENRESPONSE WHENTHERE ARE MULTIPLEREPRESENTATIONS AVAILABLE
  27. 27. Linking Open Data Project27  May  2007  
  28. 28. Linked data growth2820082007
  29. 29. Linked data growth20092008
  30. 30. Notable datasets of the LOD cloudLINKING OPEN DATA [HTTP://LINKEDDATA.ORG]:COMMUNITY PROJECT STARTED IN 2007 DBPEDIA [HTTP://DBPEDIA.ORG] IS WIKIPEDIA INRDF WITH “MORE THAN 2.6 MILLION THINGS” GEONAMES [HTTP://GEONAMES.ORG]: “OVEREIGHT MILLION GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES”:COORDINATES, ETC. FREEBASE [HTTP://RDF.FREEBASE.COM/] “5203825TOPICS 14110006 NAMED ENTITIES”
  31. 31. Querying dbpediaPROGRAMMATICALLY: VIA SPARQL OR VIA USER INTERFACE ENDPOINT: HTTP:/DBPEDIA.ORG/SPARQL/ QUERIES: HTTP://DBPEDIA.ORG/ONLINEACCESS
  32. 32. Typical architectures of applicationsFROM: HEITMANN, B., ET AL.,“TOWARDS A REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE FOR SEMANTICWEB APPLICATIONS,” PROCEEDINGS OFTHE 1ST INT.WEB SCIENCE CONFERENCE, 2009 34  
  33. 33. Social websites are like data silosimage  from  pidgintech.com  
  34. 34. Many isolated communities and their dataimage  from  pidgintech.com  
  35. 35. Need ways to connect these islandsimage  from  pidgintech.com  
  36. 36. Allowing users to move from one to anotherimage  from  pidgintech.com  
  37. 37. Enabling users to easily bring their data with themimage  from  pidgintech.com  
  38. 38. Semantics
  39. 39. Which ontologies to use ?42  
  40. 40. Prefix.cc
  41. 41. Extending ontologies ?IF EXISTING ONTOLOGIES ARE NOT ENOUGH: •  CREATE A NEW ONE •  EXTEND EXISTING ONES ! DECENTRALIZATION OF EXTENSIONS: •  CREATE A SUBPROPERTY OF FOAF:KNOWS,“attendedLectureWith”, INYOUR OWN ONTOLOGY •  PUBLISH IN ONYOUR OWN OR USE HTTP://OPEN.VOCAB.ORG
  42. 42. Social semantic representation modelsUSING ONTOLOGIESTO MODELSOCIAL DATA
  43. 43. Two-way streetSEMANTIC WEB CAN DESCRIBE PEOPLE,CONTENT OBJECTS ANDTHE CONNECTIONSTHAT BINDTHEM ALLTOGETHER SOTHATSOCIAL SPACES CAN INTEROPERATEVIASEMANTICS OBJECT-CENTERED SOCIAL SPACES CAN SERVEAS RICH SOCIAL DATA SOURCES FORSEMANTIC APPLICATIONS IMAGE FROM TINYURL.COM/HIGHWAY2
  44. 44. The Social Semantic Web
  45. 45. FRIEND OF A FRIEND (FOAF)AN ONTOLOGY FOR DESCRIBING PEOPLEANDTHE RELATIONSHIPSTHAT EXISTBETWEENTHEM IDENTITY, PERSONAL PROFILES ANDSOCIAL NETWORKS http://foaf-project.org/
  46. 46. FOAF at a glance
  47. 47. Distributed identity with FOAF
  48. 48. Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities(SIOC)ADDRESS INTEROPERABILITY ISSUESONTHE SOCIAL WEB SIOC-PROJECT.ORG W3C MEMBER SUBMISSION IN 2007 DEPLOYED ON HUNDREDS OFSITES
  49. 49. SIOC core ontology classes and properties
  50. 50. Some applications using SIOC
  51. 51. RDFa on newsweek.com
  52. 52. RDFa in Drupal 7DRUPAL CMS USED BY 2% OF ALL SITES (7%OF CMS), INCLUDING 24% OF GOV SITES DRUPAL 7 RELEASE HAS SEMANTIC WEBSUPPORT BUILT-IN RDFA (SIOC, FOAF, DUBLIN CORE, SKOS)DATA FOR BLOG POSTS, FORUMS, ETC. VIDEO AT WWW.SEMANTIC-DRUPAL.COM image from tinyurl.com/drupaper
  53. 53. image from tinyurl.com/orionw SIOC can be used to......PROVIDE A LAYER OF RDFA METADATA FROMA SOCIAL WEBSITE, E.G.TO ENHANCE SEARCHRESULTS SUPERCEDED BY SCHEMA.ORG? ...GET A COMPLETE REPRESENTATION/XMLDUMP OF A SOCIAL WEBSITE (EXPORT, IMPORT) ...BE A NATIVE FORMAT FOR SOCIAL WEBSITES ...DO OTHER STUFF; JUST IMAGINE!
  54. 54. How much SSW data is out there?images (this one and later backgrounds) from publicdomainpictures.net
  55. 55. CommonCrawlMUEHLEISEN AND BIZER LDOW @ WWW2012 1.5 BILLION WEB PAGES 3 BILLION RDF QUADS SIOC AVAILABLE FROM AT LEAST 22K PLDS(PAY-LEVEL DOMAINS) FOAF ON 27K PLDS Monday 2 July 2012 at webdatacommons.org/vocabulary-usage-analysis/index.html
  56. 56. OPO (online presence ontology)AIMSTO UNIFY PRESENCE INFORMATION ANDSTATUS NOTIFICATION PROCESSES ACROSSDIFFERENT SOCIAL SERVICES HELP SOLVETHE INFORMATION OVERLOADISSUE ATTHE SAMETIME, BY PROVIDING AMEANSTO IDENTIFY WHO / WHICHCOMMUNITYTHE INFORMATION SHOULDREACH: SHARING SPACES
  57. 57. MOAT (meaning of a tag)MOAT-PROJECT.ORG A MODELTO DEFINE MEANINGS OFTAGS SPARQL → DBPEDIA.ORG/RESOURCE/SPARQL USER-DRIVEN INTERLINKING TAGGED CONTENT ENTERS LINKED DATA WEB COLLABORATIVE APPROACHTOWARDSTHESHARING OF MEANINGS IN A COMMUNITY image from tinyurl.com/whichapple
  58. 58. An ontology stack for the Social Semantic Web
  59. 59. SOCIAL GRAPH: SIMPLE LINKS
  60. 60. SOCIAL SEMANTIC GRAPH
  61. 61. SummaryOBJECT-CENTRED SOCIALITY REFERSTO HOWWE REALLY USE SOCIAL SPACES DESCRIBE PEOPLE, NETWORKS, CONTENT,PRESENCE, KNOWLEDGE,TAGS, ETC.WITHSEMANTICS NEW APPLICATIONS USING SEMANTICS  ONTHEPUBLIC WEB AND IN ENTERPRISE INTRANETS LINK INFORMATION, PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

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