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Geo-annotations in Semantic Digital Libraries


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Presentation given at the Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructures Workshop

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Geo-annotations in Semantic Digital Libraries

  1. 1. Geo-annotations in Semantic Digital Libraries Geospatial Knowledge Infrastructures Workshop Maciej Dąbrowski , Sebastian Ryszard Kruk Digital Enterprise Research Institute National University of Ireland, Galway maciej . dabrowski
  2. 2. About us <ul><li>Sebastian Kruk </li></ul><ul><li>Lead researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Digital Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Social Web </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Search and Browsing </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Maciej Dąbrowski </li></ul><ul><li>PhD student, project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Human-Computer Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizations of tagging </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  3. 3. DERI Galway – Mission <ul><li>DERI Galway’s Mission is “to exploit semantics for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>to collaborate and interoperate on a global scale” </li></ul>
  4. 4. DERI – Project Partners IFOMIS
  5. 5. Social semantic information spaces: Semantic (Web 2.0) Web 2.0 and social software
  6. 6. Semantic Web and Web Services Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Semantic Web RDF, RDF(S), OWL Dynamic Web Services UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Intelligent Web Services <ul><ul><li>Bringing the web to its full potential </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Semantic Web Foodchain Semantically Interlinking Online Semantic Web Search Engine: Multi-Faceted Metadata Browsing Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering Creating Metadata Searching Metadata Navigating Metadata Locally Sharing Metadata Globally Sharing and Deploying of Metadata Social Semantic Desktop SALT – Semantic Annotated LaTex Dynamics & Versioning DINO Dynamics, INtegration, Ontologies JeromeDL MarcOnt Multi- Bee Brows e Foaf-Realm Didaskon
  8. 8. Outline <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies in the world of digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li>JeromeDL – Social Semantic Digital Library </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt – Collaborative ontology development </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-tagging </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motivation <ul><li>World of Digital Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Identified Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Format translation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple data formats in DL: </li></ul><ul><li>How to support them? </li></ul><ul><li>How to translate between them? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should create mappings? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Real-life problems – user’s expectations <ul><li>Searching: </li></ul><ul><li>Effective and Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>We want correct and fast answers!! </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive and Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions should be easy. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Jaguar – a car or an animal? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Give me articles written by students of X in Galway? </li></ul><ul><li>Identified problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive interface for asking complex querries </li></ul>
  11. 11. Real-life problems - summary <ul><li>Digital Libraries should provide: </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Support for many (legacy) formats </li></ul><ul><li>Complex search features </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive interfaces </li></ul>
  12. 12. Yesterday’s world of digital content <ul><li>Digital library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database and archive (storage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital bibliographic descriptions (metadata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-text search (interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content accessible online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federations of libraries – visit less places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lonely user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one to talk to, we need to find the right keywords, what if we do not know them (“man without an ear” paintings example) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still many problems with interconnecting other sources, incl. libraries </li></ul></ul>6 Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  13. 13. Today of interconnected, social media <ul><li>Social Semantic Information Spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic description (interconnected metadata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annotations provided by users (social metadata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative search and browsing (interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and browsing based on semantics empowers users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users contribute to the classification process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can understand community driven annotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users enhance digital content using blogs, wikis on the side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library can interact with other Internet services </li></ul></ul>7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  14. 14. JeromeDL - Properties <ul><li>JeromeDL is the social semantic digital library that provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated social networking with user profiling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced personalized search facility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnects meaningful description of resources with social media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible access control based on social networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative browsing and filtering. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic collections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with Web 2.0 services. </li></ul></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  15. 15. Metadata and Services in JeromeDL Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  16. 16. Creating Semantics <ul><li>Each resource is described with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structure annotations - chapters, media parts, attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic bibliographic annotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge organization systems - keywords, categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social annotations (soft semantics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geotags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource can be annotated with hard semantics during the uploading process </li></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  17. 17. Exposing Semantic Annotations
  18. 18. Ontologies in JeromeDL
  19. 19. Search based on semantics <ul><li>Natural language templates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows to perform complex queries using natural language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be created and modified based on the needs of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easily internationalized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Query Expansion (alpha) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refines query based on current context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensible context definition: user profile, history of queries, current query, etc. </li></ul></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  20. 20. Access to semantics <ul><li>Exposing underlying semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rendering RDF in various flavors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exposing semantics in JSON and SIOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>syndication feeds (RSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Querying semantic database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF query endpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI-PMH (beta) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delivering metadata to other services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Mediation Services </li></ul></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  21. 21. Beyond JeromeDL - connecting to Web 2.0 <ul><li>Other Web 2.0 services can easily hook up to information and services provided by JeromeDL </li></ul><ul><li>Example - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggregates semantics from different sources, including JeromeDL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involves users in providing more annotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exposes content to other services, such as Learning Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains components familiar from JeromeDL </li></ul></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  22. 22. Browsing on semantics <ul><li>Exhibit (SIMILE, MIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>powerful faceted filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rendering related dates on timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rendering related places on google maps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MultiBeeBrowse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows to perform complex browsing operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user can overview browsing context and look up browsing history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>search, browse, filter ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword, RDF querry </li></ul></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  23. 23. Exhibit
  24. 24. Multi-Bee Browse
  25. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>JeromeDL delivers a set of components that enables semantic web technology </li></ul><ul><li>It enhances users experience through the social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>It uses semantics existing on the web </li></ul><ul><li>It delivers semantics for other services </li></ul>Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  26. 26. <ul><li>JeromeDL brings Semantic Web and Online Communities to the Digital Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>as the Digital Library on Social Semantic Information Spaces </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sebastian Ryszard Kruk </li></ul><ul><li>DERI, NUI Galway, Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  27. 27. MarcOnt Initiative <ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Build a bibliographic ontology for </li></ul><ul><li>the Jerome Digital Library </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Initiative goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver a set of tools for </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative ontology </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>Create a community of domain expert </li></ul><ul><li>Enable mediation between formats (MMS) </li></ul>
  28. 28. MarcOnt Ontology <ul><li>Central point of MarcOnt Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Translation and mediation format </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous collaborative ontology improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge from the domain experts </li></ul><ul><li>Community influence and evaluation </li></ul>
  29. 29. MarcOnt Ontology <ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Capture concepts from the legacy bibliographic formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MARC21, Bibtex, Dublin Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lattes, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a uniform bibliographic description format for digital libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable the use of Semantic Web technologies (eg. reasoning) to improve capabilities of digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Improve interoperability </li></ul>
  30. 30. Format Translation Scenario <ul><li>Author: </li></ul><ul><li>John Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Birth: </li></ul><ul><li>1956-10-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Date of death: </li></ul><ul><li>2004-09-10 </li></ul>Author: John Smith Date of Birth: ?? Date of death: ?? Author: John Smith Date of Birth: ?? Date of death: ?? Author: John Smith Date of Birth: ?? Date of death: ?? Dublin Core
  31. 31. Format Translation Scenario <ul><li>Author: </li></ul><ul><li>John Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Birth: </li></ul><ul><li>1956-10-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Date of death: </li></ul><ul><li>2004-09-10 </li></ul>Author: John Smith Date of Birth: ?? Date of death: ?? Author: John Smith Date of Birth: ?? Date of death: ?? Author: John Smith Date of Birth: 1956-10-15 Date of death: 2004-09-10 RDF Storage Dublin Core Author: John Smith Date of Birth: 1956-10-15 Date of death: 2004-09-10 Author: John Smith Date of Birth: 1956-10-15 Date of death: 2004-09-10
  32. 32. MarcOnt Tools <ul><li>MarcOnt Initiative involves development of tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Mediation Services (MMS) – allows users to retrieve the description of the given bibliographic resource in multiple formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF Translator – tool for RDF data translation between formats using the set of given mapping rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulegenerator – allows defining mapping (translation) rules between concepts from different ontologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Portal – enabling collaborative ontology development </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. MarcOnt Mediation Services
  34. 34. MarcOnt Mediation Services <ul><li>Format translation </li></ul>Interoperability MarcOnt Mediation Services RDF Translator
  35. 35. Rulegenerator – a tool for mapping rules creation
  36. 36. MarcOnt Portal – ontology lifecycle <ul><li>Collaborative ontology development. </li></ul><ul><li>Portal provides: </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Versioning </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology editor </li></ul>
  37. 37. MarcOnt Portal <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver set of tools for domain experts enabling ontology development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support collaborative ontology development process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy access (no installation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuitive interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology versioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology visualizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology editing </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. MarcOnt Portal - architecture
  39. 39. MarcOnt Portal - features <ul><li>On-line ontology editing </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization of ontologies </li></ul>
  40. 40. MarcOnt Portal - features <ul><li>Comparing versions of ontologies </li></ul>
  41. 41. MarcOnt Initiative Roadmap <ul><li>Lattes – CV platform used in Brasil </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology visualisation and graphical edition </li></ul><ul><li>User profiling </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOntX agent – automatic integration of concepts from Digital Libraries </li></ul>
  42. 42. MarcOnt Initiative summary <ul><li>MarcOnt Initiative goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Create a framework for collaborative ontology development </li></ul><ul><li>Provide domain experts with tools to share their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Offer tools for data mediation between different data formats </li></ul><ul><li>Develop MarcOnt bibliographic ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Create a community of users (domain experts) </li></ul>
  43. 43. MarcOnt Initiative references: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  44. 44. Geotagging <ul><li>Geotagging ( Geocoding ) is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as websites, RSS feeds, or images. This data usually consists of latitude and longitude coordinates , though it can also include altitude and place names </li></ul><ul><li>Geocoding also refers to the process of taking non-coordinate based geographical identifiers, such as a postal address, and assigning geographic coordinates to them (or vice versa). </li></ul>
  45. 45. Geotags
  46. 46. Examples <ul><li>Geo-tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>geotagged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geo:lat=51.483387 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geo:lon=-3.169792 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geo-Metatags </li></ul><ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot;geo.placename&quot; content=&quot;Cardiff, Cardiff, UK&quot; /> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot;geo.position&quot; content=&quot;51.483387;-3.169792&quot; /> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot;geo.region&quot; content=&quot;GB-Wales&quot; /> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot;ICBM&quot; content=&quot;51.483387, -3.169792&quot; /> </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Flickr
  48. 48. Exhibit
  49. 49. Why geo-tagging? <ul><li>Geotagging can help users find a wide variety of location-specific information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>find images taken near a given location by entering latitude and longitude coordinates into a Geotagging-enabled image search engine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>n ews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>w ebsites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine the localisation of a given „concept” in the scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Copernicus in action
  51. 51. Summary <ul><li>Semantics can bring digital libraries to a new level of providing services. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need for usable and community based appication that would allow annotations (Semantic Web + Web 2.0). </li></ul><ul><li>Search and browsing services are crucial from the user’s perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul>