Margaret Czart , MPH, DrPH (c ) University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health The Prevalence of Overweight and...
Defining Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than ...
How is Overweight and Obesity Measured <ul><li>The  body mass index (BMI)   is the medical standard used to measure overwe...
Obesity Health Consequences <ul><li>Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for many diseases and health co...
Overweight & Obesity Treatment <ul><li>The first step to weight loss should be a 10% weight loss over a 6-month period. Th...
Overweight & Obesity Trends in the United States 2004 1996 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%  20%–24%  ≥25% Source: Center ...
Overweight by BMI in the United States 1990-2002 Nationwide Median (%) Year 37.0 2002 37.2 2001 36.7 2000 36.8 1999 36.3 1...
Obesity by BMI in the United States 1990-2002 22.1 2002 21.0 2001 20.1 2000 19.7 1999 18.3 1998 16.6 1997 16.8 1996 15.8 1...
Overweight & Obesity by BMI for Gender in the  United States 1990-2002 18.3 18.4 27.4 44.8 1998 2002 2001 2000 1999 1997 1...
Study Objectives <ul><li>To meet with individuals currently doing research on obesity in Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine...
Study Resources <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute of Hygiene  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natio...
Data & Methodology <ul><li>Data for the study has been obtained from survey conducted on a sample population in 2004 by th...
Data & Methodology <ul><li>Sample Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total: 914 Adults  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females: ...
Poland’s Voivodships & Regions
Trends of Overweight  in Sample Population by Region * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Region
Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by  Voivodship and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by  Voivodship and Gender
Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Age and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Age and Gender
Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Education and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Education and Gender
Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by  Marital Status and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by  Marital Status and Gender
Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by  Income and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by  Income and Gender
Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by  Town Size and Gender
Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by  Town Size and Gender
Socio-Demographics Statistically Significantly Related to  BMI Category <ul><li>Total Sample Population   </li></ul><ul><u...
Other Factors Related to Being  Overweight & Obese <ul><li>In today’s society there are both environmental and behavioral ...
Results: Hypermarkets & BMI <ul><li>Is there a relationship between the number of hypermarkets and BMI? </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Results: Hypermarkets & BMI Buckwheat Grouts Honey Pork Fat Blood Sausage Salted Herring Lard Sausage Bacon  Pork Loin wit...
Results: Restaurants & BMI <ul><li>Restaurants examined included in the study are:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-food Resta...
Results: Physical Activity & BMI <ul><li>Physical Activities and Recreational Centers taken under consideration include:  ...
Conclusion <ul><li>Based on the results of the study the causes of being overweight or obese in Poland are the same as tho...
What Are The Next Steps?   <ul><li>Compare the results of the 2004 with those of the 2005 National Representative Survey c...
Questions and Comments <ul><li>If you have any questions feel free to contact me at:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email:  [email...
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The Overweight And Obesity Prevalence Among Poles Final

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  • Hello and Welcome! I would like to talk to you about the overweight and obesity prevalence among Poles. Allow me to begin be defining overweight and obesity.
  • There are three main definitions of Overweight and Obesity and they are as follows:
  • Slide 6: Overweight &amp; Obesity Trends in the United States Here we see three maps showing the steady increase of obesity in the United States. In 1991 only a few states had an obesity rate of 15-19% while others had a rate of 10-14%. By 1996 the rate of obesity was between 10-19% with a majority between 15-19%. In 2004 many southern states had a rate of 25% or above while the remaining majority were between 20-24%. Only a few states had a rate of 15-19%.
  • Slide 7: Obesity by BMI in US In 1990 the nationwide median of BMI was at 11.6 and by 2002 the median increased to 22.1.
  • Slide 12: Here we see two maps where one shows the 16 Voivodships of Poland and the other shows how the Voivodships were separated into 9 regions. They are as follows: The North region consists of Zachodnio-Pomorskie and Pomorskie Voivodships The North-East region consists of Warminsko-Mazurskie and Podlaskie Region The Mazowieckie Voivodship makes up the Central Region while Lodzkie is labeled as the Middle region and Lubelskie as the Middle-East region. The Swietokrzyskie,Malopolskie and Podkarpackie Voivodships make up the South-East region while Opolskie and Slaskie make up the south region. Lubuskie and Dolnoslaskie make up the South-West while Wielkopolskie and Kujawsko-Pomorskie are considered the west region.
  • Slide 15: Trends of Overweight by Region This graph show the rates of overweight individuals of the sample population based on region and gender. In 7 out of 9 regions males have a higher overweight rate than females. The regions in which females have a higher overweight rate are the Middle-East (Lubelskie) and Central (Mazowieckie).
  • Slide 16: Trends in Obesity in Sample Population by Region This graph show the rates of obese individuals of the sample population based on region and gender. When you take only the obese individuals under considerations you will notice that females have a higher rate of becoming obese in 3 regions (the West, South-west and Middle-East regions) while males have a higher rate in the remaining 6 regions.
  • Slide 17: Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Voivodship and Gender Looking at the overweight rates by Voivodships males have a higher rate in majority of the regions with exception of Dolnoslaskie and Lubelskie which make up the the South-West region. Males have the highest overweight rate in the Podkarpackie Voivodships while females have the highest overweight rate in the Swietokrzyskie Voivodship and both of these two Voivodships make up the South-east region.
  • Slide 86: Trends of Obesity by Voivodship and Gender In regards to obesity by Voivodship and gender females have a highest Obesity rate in Dolnoslaskie. Females also have a slightly higher rate of obesity than males in the Lubelskie, Swietokrzyskie and Wiekopolskie Voivodships. Notice that there are no obese female in either the Lubuskie or Opolskie Voivodships Males on the other hand have the highest obese rate in the Podlaskie Voivodship and then there is no obese males in Lubuskie.
  • Slide 19: Trends of Overweight by Age and Gender This graph shows the rate of overweight individuals based by age groups. Based on the sample population as individuals get older the overweight rate increase as well. The highest overweight rate is between the ages of 60-65 for males and above 65 years old for females.
  • Slide 20: Trends of Overweight by Age and Gender Looking at the obese individuals based by age groups. The highest obese rate is between the ages of 60-65 for both males and females. Please note the sudden rise in obesity rate occurs between the 21-29 and 30-39 age group. and that in this particular sample population between the ages of 21-29 there are no obese females.
  • Slide 21: Trends of overweight in Sample by Education and Gender Looking at the graph we see that for both males and females the Overweight rate is at approximately 60% at the primary education level. However, as females become more educated the overweight rate decreases. For males however, the overweight increases.
  • Slide 22: Trends of obesity in Sample by Education and Gender When taking into consideration only the obese individuals for both males and females the obesity rate decrease as they become more educated. However, the obesity rate for females is still lower than the rate for males.
  • Slide 23: Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Marital Status and Gender In this graph we see the relationship between the marital status and overweight individuals. Individuals who are single have a lower rate of becoming overweight than those that are married, divorced or widowed. However, single males have a higher overweight rate than single females. It should also be noted that the divorced overweight rate is higher than the single status but it is much lower than that of the married individuals. Finally, looking at the Widow status you will notice that females have a slightly higher overweight rate than males.
  • Slide 24: Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Marital Status and Gender For obese individuals the trend is slightly different. For females the single status has the lowest obesity rate and widow has the highest rate. The lowest rate for males is at the divorced marital status and the highest at the married and widow marital status which are at approximately 15.00%.
  • Slide 25: Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Income and Gender This table shows the relationship between gender and income. You will notice that males have a higher overweight rate for all income rages with exception of the lowest income group where females have a higher overweight rate.
  • Slide 26: Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Income and Gender When we take a look only at the obese individuals you will notice that females again have the higher rate at the lowest income rate.
  • Slide 27: Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Town Size and Gender In comparing the town size to the overweight rate males have a higher overweight rate than males no matter if they live in a small rural village or a large urban area. The males highest overweight rate is in towns with 50,000 residents while for females the highest rate is in towns with 200,000 residents.
  • Slide 26: Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Town Size and Gender For obesity the rates are slightly different. In small villages males have only a 5 % higher obesity rate than females whereas females have a slightly higher rate in towns above 500,000 residents. The largest obesity rate differences between genders is in towns with 50,000 residents and towns of 200,00 residents.
  • Slide 27: Socio-Demographics Statistically Significantly Related to BMI Based on the statistical data analysis for the total sample population , males and females are the following:
  • The Overweight And Obesity Prevalence Among Poles Final

    1. 1. Margaret Czart , MPH, DrPH (c ) University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Poles
    2. 2. Defining Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. </li></ul><ul><li>The terms also identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of certain diseases and other health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The intake of more calories than the body uses, the extra calories are stored as fat. These fat cells enlarge or decrease in size depending on the balance of energy in the body. </li></ul>
    3. 3. How is Overweight and Obesity Measured <ul><li>The body mass index (BMI) is the medical standard used to measure overweight and obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>BMI is determined by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by a person's height in meters squared ( kg/m 2 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The BMI consists of four distinct categories based on the effect body weight has on disease and death. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underweight : Below 18.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal : 18.5 – 24.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overweight : 25 and above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obese : 30.0 and above </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Obesity Health Consequences <ul><li>Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for many diseases and health conditions, including the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallbladder disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Overweight & Obesity Treatment <ul><li>The first step to weight loss should be a 10% weight loss over a 6-month period. The rate of weight loss should be 1 to 2 pounds a week. </li></ul><ul><li>A successful weight management plan will include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting reasonable goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Monitoring by weighing yourself once a week at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A diet with 1,000 to 1,200 calories a day is appropriate for most women. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A diet with 1,600 calories a day is appropriate for most men. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific dietary recommendations should be given to be sure the person gets enough essential nutrients. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US National Institute of Health recommends moderate levels of physical activity 30 to 45 minutes a day, 3 to 5 days a week. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicine and Surgery are a possible option for individuals with a BMI of 27.7 and above. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Overweight & Obesity Trends in the United States 2004 1996 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% Source: Center for Disease Control (CDC) (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) 1991
    7. 7. Overweight by BMI in the United States 1990-2002 Nationwide Median (%) Year 37.0 2002 37.2 2001 36.7 2000 36.8 1999 36.3 1998 36.3 1997 35.4 1996 35.5 1995 35.4 1994 35.3 1993 34.6 1992 33.6 1991 33.1 1990
    8. 8. Obesity by BMI in the United States 1990-2002 22.1 2002 21.0 2001 20.1 2000 19.7 1999 18.3 1998 16.6 1997 16.8 1996 15.8 1995 14.4 1994 13.7 1993 12.6 1992 12.6 1991 11.6 1990 Nationwide Median (%) Year
    9. 9. Overweight & Obesity by BMI for Gender in the United States 1990-2002 18.3 18.4 27.4 44.8 1998 2002 2001 2000 1999 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 Year 21.4 23.1 29.5 44.7 20.8 21.2 29.8 44.8 19.8 20.6 28.5 45.1 19.7 19.9 28.9 45.2 16.5 17.1 27.8 45.1 16.8 16.3 27.1 43.9 14.7 16.3 27.2 44.3 14.6 14.7 27.1 44.2 13.9 13.2 26.3 44.2 12.7 12.3 25.1 44.1 12.7 12.2 24.9 43.1 11.5 11.5 24.4 42.6 Females Males Females Males Obesity Nationwide Median (%) Overweight Nationwide Median (%)
    10. 10. Study Objectives <ul><li>To meet with individuals currently doing research on obesity in Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the trends in overweight and obesity as measured by the average Body Mass Index (BMI) among Poland’s adult population. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the extent to which adult overweight/obesity in Poland are related to socioeconomic privilege, area of residence, gender, age and education </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any possible nutritional or lifestyle correlates that could help explain current levels in average BMI across Poland’s subpopulations </li></ul><ul><li>Examine if the access to hypermarkets and fast-food restaurants affects the overweight and obesity trends. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Study Resources <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute of Hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Food and Nutrition Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warsaw Agricultural University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Anthropology in Warsaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Warsaw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution Directors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritionists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Fulbright Scholars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Articles and Data Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Source Books from Central Statistical Office (GUS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles written by the Institute of Anthropology-Wroclaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Health Organization “Poland MONICA Project” Source Book </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Data & Methodology <ul><li>Data for the study has been obtained from survey conducted on a sample population in 2004 by the University of Warsaw in collaboration with GFK Polonia, a market research firm in Warsaw </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling Design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: The planned sample size was randomly distributed among the gminas/communes (smallest administrative unit) proportionally to the number of inhabitants of Poland, in terms of regions, town size class and Voivodship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: In the second step, locality (village, town, city) and its inhabitants are drawn from the randomly chosen gminas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Carried out by GfK interviewers – the respondent is chosen from among the persons residing in the household of the chosen inhabitant. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Data & Methodology <ul><li>Sample Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total: 914 Adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females: 533 individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males: 381 individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample Sociological Demographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Region (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voivodship (16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender (Male/Female) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age (21 – 92 years old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Status (Single/Married/Divorced/Widow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education (Primary/Vocational/Secondary/University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment (Student/Housewife/White & Blue Collar/Farmer/Retired) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Town Size </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Poland’s Voivodships & Regions
    15. 15. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Region * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
    16. 16. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Region
    17. 17. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Voivodship and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
    18. 18. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Voivodship and Gender
    19. 19. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Age and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
    20. 20. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Age and Gender
    21. 21. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Education and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
    22. 22. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Education and Gender
    23. 23. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Marital Status and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
    24. 24. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Marital Status and Gender
    25. 25. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Income and Gender * Overweight includes Obese Individuals
    26. 26. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Income and Gender
    27. 27. Trends of Overweight in Sample Population by Town Size and Gender
    28. 28. Trends of Obesity in Sample Population by Town Size and Gender
    29. 29. Socio-Demographics Statistically Significantly Related to BMI Category <ul><li>Total Sample Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural Living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Status – Single & Married </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education – Primary Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Employment – White & Blue Collar, Farmer, Student and Retired Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s Age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Status - Single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Status – Single and Widow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education – Primary & High School Education, Degree & Non-Degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Employment - White & Blue Collar, Farmer, Student and Retired Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children - No children, One Child and Two Children </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Other Factors Related to Being Overweight & Obese <ul><li>In today’s society there are both environmental and behavioral factors which affect an individuals BMI </li></ul><ul><li>The environmental and behavioral factors taken under consideration in this study include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypermarkets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a relationship between the number of hypermarkets and the average BMI of that Voivodship? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the price of food make a difference? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a relationship between the number of restaurants and BMI? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recreational Activity Centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recreational Activity Rental Centers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Results: Hypermarkets & BMI <ul><li>Is there a relationship between the number of hypermarkets and BMI? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings show a positive and significant relationship where as the number of hypermarkets within a Voivodship increases so does the BMI. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the price of food make a difference? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The findings show that the price of food affects a persons BMI. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the average prices of certain foods within a Voivodship increase, the BMI decreases (negative relationship). </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Results: Hypermarkets & BMI Buckwheat Grouts Honey Pork Fat Blood Sausage Salted Herring Lard Sausage Bacon Pork Loin with Bone Milk Chocolate Multi-fruit Juice Head Cheese Cured Pork Shoulder Milk – 3% Barley Yogurt – Fruit Flavor Fresh Carp Eggs Cocoa Milk – 2% Poultry Tenderloin Frozen Strawberries Tea Baked Ham Roast Beef with Bone Jam Coffee Rye Bread Butter Macaroni Sugar Chicken Rape Seed Oil Buns Flour Rice Foods Where as the average prices increase, BMI decreases Foods Where as the average prices increase, BMI increases
    33. 33. Results: Restaurants & BMI <ul><li>Restaurants examined included in the study are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-food Restaurants (McDonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cafés ** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snack Bars ** </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are restaurants related to obesity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All restaurants types are positively related to obesity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the number of restaurants increase the BMI increases </li></ul></ul>* Data Self Created ** Data Obtain from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw (GUS)
    34. 34. Results: Physical Activity & BMI <ul><li>Physical Activities and Recreational Centers taken under consideration include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness Clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming Pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tennis Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volleyball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basketball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini Golf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sauna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horseback Riding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming Equipment Rental Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicycle Rental Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship of physical activity and centers related to obesity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All with exception of Mini Golf and Sauna show a negative relationship where as the number of fitness clubs increase the BMI decreases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increase of physical activity lowers the BMI . </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>Based on the results of the study the causes of being overweight or obese in Poland are the same as those in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>In both countries the changes in lifestyle and the types of food eaten increase the persons BMI. </li></ul><ul><li>Males tend to have a higher rate for becoming overweight than females </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing number of restaurants and hypermarkets and the decrease in physical activity increase an individuals BMI. </li></ul>
    36. 36. What Are The Next Steps? <ul><li>Compare the results of the 2004 with those of the 2005 National Representative Survey conducted by the University of Warsaw. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare not only the adult population but children and youths. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine if the differences in the relevant socio-demographics between youths and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>To examine if the number of fast-food restaurants and fitness centers by Voivodship make a difference in a persons BMI. </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the data at a more local level. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions and Comments <ul><li>If you have any questions feel free to contact me at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul></ul>

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