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A Formidable Foe: The Search for an Environmentally Safe Zebra Mussel Control Method Daniel P. Molloy, Ph.D. Research Scie...
<ul><li>Michael Schmidt </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board...
<ul><li>Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic freshwater biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Study diseases of aquatic organisms </l...
 
<ul><li>Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic freshwater biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Study diseases of aquatic organisms </l...
 
<ul><li>Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic freshwater biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Study diseases of aquatic organisms </l...
Who is my (our) foe?
 
 
 
Two North American Species  Quagga mussel Dreissena  rostriformis bugensis Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha
 
 
1988 – Zebra mussels were first discovered in Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie
<ul><li>http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/mollusks/zebramussel/maps/current_zm_quag_map.jpg </li></ul>… current distribution...
Credit: Minnesota DNR
How did these mussels get to North America?
 
 
So what’s the problem? 1. Ecological 2. Recreational 3. Industrial
Ecological Impacts
 
 
Ecological effects of filtration by  Dreissena  spp. <ul><li>Decrease in phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in zoopl...
Eurasian water-milfoil
 
 
 
Recreational Impacts Cut foot Pelican Lake, MN  (Credit - Bob Gilsdorf  to Fargo The Forum )
Industrial Impacts
 
Weeks and weeks of chlorination How to reduce the use of chlorination and other biocides?? Trihalomethanes Dioxins
Find a control method to reduce the use of broadspectrum chemicals. Biological control
Find a control method to reduce the use of broadspectrum chemicals. Discover a bacterium with specificity to  Dreissena  s...
 
 
 
For decades polluting broadspectrum chemical insecticides were used for black fly control in New York State
 
B t i Bacteria used to control black fly larvae
Metropolitan Mosquito Control District 165 small streams 28 large river sites Program began in 1984 Bti bacteria are appli...
Use of bacteria successful against black flies Maybe success against  Dreissena  spp. too?? ?????
 
Pseudomonas fluorescens  CL145A
Dreissena  spp. die following ingestion of large quantities of  P. fluorescens  cells Individual  P. fluorescens  cells ar...
Trials within power plants NYPA Hydro-electric power plant Crescent, NY Mohawk River RG&E Coal-fired power plant Rochester...
Lab trials = 100% kill. Veligers appear to be the most susceptible life stage.
Specificity of  Pf- CL145A product Trout  Salmo trutta Fathead minnow  Pimephales promelas Bluegill sunfish  Lepomis macro...
If  Pf -CL145A is going to really be used to reduce the use of chemical biocides in pipes, my New York State government la...
Pf -CL145A  Product name:  Zequanox
OK, the future of  Pf -CL145A looks promising for use in pipes.... but could it be used to in lakes and rivers? We will no...
The  current  overriding approach in the fight against zebra mussels is  CONTAINMENT SLOW the spread! = Inspections
Minnesota has been and continues to be a leader in educating its citizen about slowing the spread
Federal  agencies University of Minnesota Sea Grant
State   governmental agencies
Local  governmental agencies
Minnesotan   citizen  groups
OK, the future of  Pf -CL145A looks promising for use in pipes.... but could it be used to in lakes and rivers? We will no...
 
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Dan Molloy - Zebra mussels presentation 9/12/11

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Dan Molloy - Zebra mussels presentation 9/12/11

  1. 1. A Formidable Foe: The Search for an Environmentally Safe Zebra Mussel Control Method Daniel P. Molloy, Ph.D. Research Scientist: State University of New York at Albany Consultant: Molloy & Associates
  2. 2. <ul><li>Michael Schmidt </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Evenson </li></ul><ul><li>Administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Minnehaha Creek Watershed District </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lois Sinn Lindquist </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Director </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Waters </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic freshwater biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Study diseases of aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases in invertebrate aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Especially diseases of pest organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental research </li></ul></ul>Who is Dan Molloy?
  4. 5. <ul><li>Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic freshwater biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Study diseases of aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases in invertebrate aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Especially diseases of pest organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied research (can we control the pest with the disease) </li></ul></ul>Who is Dan Molloy?
  5. 7. <ul><li>Biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic freshwater biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Study diseases of aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases in invertebrate aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Especially diseases of pest organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied research (can we control the pest with the disease) </li></ul></ul>Who is Dan Molloy?
  6. 8. Who is my (our) foe?
  7. 12. Two North American Species Quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha
  8. 15. 1988 – Zebra mussels were first discovered in Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie
  9. 16. <ul><li>http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/mollusks/zebramussel/maps/current_zm_quag_map.jpg </li></ul>… current distribution of Dreissena in North America
  10. 17. Credit: Minnesota DNR
  11. 18. How did these mussels get to North America?
  12. 21. So what’s the problem? 1. Ecological 2. Recreational 3. Industrial
  13. 22. Ecological Impacts
  14. 25. Ecological effects of filtration by Dreissena spp. <ul><li>Decrease in phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in zooplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in water transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in macrophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Alteration of fish community </li></ul><ul><li>Alteration of benthic (bottom) community </li></ul>
  15. 26. Eurasian water-milfoil
  16. 30. Recreational Impacts Cut foot Pelican Lake, MN (Credit - Bob Gilsdorf to Fargo The Forum )
  17. 31. Industrial Impacts
  18. 33. Weeks and weeks of chlorination How to reduce the use of chlorination and other biocides?? Trihalomethanes Dioxins
  19. 34. Find a control method to reduce the use of broadspectrum chemicals. Biological control
  20. 35. Find a control method to reduce the use of broadspectrum chemicals. Discover a bacterium with specificity to Dreissena spp.? Biological control Why a bacterial control agent?
  21. 39. For decades polluting broadspectrum chemical insecticides were used for black fly control in New York State
  22. 41. B t i Bacteria used to control black fly larvae
  23. 42. Metropolitan Mosquito Control District 165 small streams 28 large river sites Program began in 1984 Bti bacteria are applied:
  24. 43. Use of bacteria successful against black flies Maybe success against Dreissena spp. too?? ?????
  25. 45. Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A
  26. 46. Dreissena spp. die following ingestion of large quantities of P. fluorescens cells Individual P. fluorescens cells are ~1 x 2  m 2 mm
  27. 47. Trials within power plants NYPA Hydro-electric power plant Crescent, NY Mohawk River RG&E Coal-fired power plant Rochester, NY Lake Ontario
  28. 48. Lab trials = 100% kill. Veligers appear to be the most susceptible life stage.
  29. 49. Specificity of Pf- CL145A product Trout Salmo trutta Fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus Freshwater ciliate Colpidium colpoda Zooplankton Daphnia magna Mytilus edulis, Pyganodon grandis, Lasmigona compressa, Strophirus undalatus, Lampsilis radiata, Pyganodon cataracta, Elliptio complanata 7 Bivalve species Mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos Freshwater shrimp Hyalella azteca
  30. 50. If Pf -CL145A is going to really be used to reduce the use of chemical biocides in pipes, my New York State government lab needed to partner with a company….. … ..one with expertise in commercializing biopesticides
  31. 51. Pf -CL145A Product name: Zequanox
  32. 52. OK, the future of Pf -CL145A looks promising for use in pipes.... but could it be used to in lakes and rivers? We will not know without additional research
  33. 53. The current overriding approach in the fight against zebra mussels is CONTAINMENT SLOW the spread! = Inspections
  34. 54. Minnesota has been and continues to be a leader in educating its citizen about slowing the spread
  35. 55. Federal agencies University of Minnesota Sea Grant
  36. 56. State governmental agencies
  37. 57. Local governmental agencies
  38. 58. Minnesotan citizen groups
  39. 59. OK, the future of Pf -CL145A looks promising for use in pipes.... but could it be used to in lakes and rivers? We will not know if the Pf -CL145A bacterium can be used for containment until it is field tested

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