Juvenile Recidivism: What is it?
Recidivism refers to a youth’s relapse into criminal behavior,
often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes
intervention for a previous crime. Recidivism is measured by
criminal acts that resulted in rearrest, reconviction or return to
prison with or without a new sentence following the prisoner's
National Institute of Justice, 2014
Michigan Youth Statistics on
Michigan criminal history records show that those who
recidivate commit a substantial portion of crime in Michigan.
Only 11% of the 132,606 total convictions in 2013 were of
individuals with no prior arrests.
• 48% of those released each year will recidivate within 3 years
• 19% will recidivate within 1 year of release
Cost of Recidivism
Each instance of recidivism in Michigan costs approximately
Michigan Sentencing Policy Advisory Council
• In Michigan, recidivism can also be defined as a
technical violation; an arrest; adjudication (term used
in juvenile cases which means conviction)
• According to The Pew Charitable Trusts At least 12
state juvenile correctional facilities does not currently
collect or report recidivism.
• A report by the Annie E. Casey foundation found that
40% of Juvenile offenders are held in long term youth
correctional facilities, a recent study found that
placing juveniles in these correctional facilities
actually increases the chances of juveniles
“The High Cost of Recidivism”. Michigan Policy, 2015
Drug Offenses Have Highest
Recidivism Rates in Michigan
Class 4 felony sentences range from 1-3 years.
• least severe felony class in Michigan
• typically have more extensive criminal histories
• higher recidivism rates.
What Doesn’t Work!
Famous Programs Based On Flawed Theories/Models
• Scared Straight – deterrence theory; “make them
o Nearly every study over the past 25 years has found dismal results, many
even showing higher recidivism rates for Scared Straight participants. Has
been characterized as criminal justice malpractice.
• Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) – didactic
model; “kids don’t know drugs are bad for them.”
o Most studies have found neutral effects for DARE. More recent versions of
DARE, based upon cognitive-behavioral principles, have been more promising
• Sheriff Joe Arpaio’s (Maricopa County Jail, Arizona)
Tent Cities and Chain Gangs – more deterrence
theory; “make them hate prison.”
o By the jail’s own admission, its recidivism rate exceeds 60 percent.
Latessa, What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism: Applying the Principles of Effective Intervention to Offender Reentry
Give these young men their purpose and power
back that society otherwise would have tried to
take away from them, indefinitely. Giving them
a piece of their power back that undercuts the
likelihood of recidivism.
• Identify 8 Youth
• Assign 8 Youth Mentors
• Implement Curriculum/Programming
• Healing-Centered Engagement
• Re-entry Skills
• Coping Skills
• Community Service
• Speaker Engagements
• Character Building
• Travel Immersion Experience in December over Winter Break
• Past Participants become mentors for 2nd Program Year
• 2nd Program year is Data Collection Year
• Participants do not re-offend (specifically 5 years
after program year)
• Impact academics, behavior and attendance in
• Participants graduate or obtain GED
• 25% of participants attend college
• Graduates of participants will be apart of a
transition program where we monitor their
progress and still offer alumni support
• Get involved with greater Detroit community
• Impact Legislation
• Obtain & Maintain Partnerships
• Qualitative Data:
• Surveys from participants
• Surveys from guardians of participants
• Interviews with participants and mentors
• Quantitative Data
• Participant Recidivism Rate
• Participant Graduation Rate
• Participant College Acceptance & Completion
National Institute of Justice. "Recidivism." National Institute of Justice, 17 June 2014. Web. 1 Mar. 2017.
McCollister, K.E., French, M.T., and Fang, H. (2010). The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108, 98-109
Jackson, B. "The High Cost of Recidivism." Michigan Policy | Michigan' Comeback Story Starts Here. N.p., 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 Mar. 2017.
Latessa, E.J. (n.d.) “What works and what doesn’t in reducing recidivism: applying the principles of effective intervention to offender reentry” PowerPoint Presentation. University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.