Atomic structure


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Atomic structure

  1. 3. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Definition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Atom, Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Particles of an Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass Number </li></ul><ul><li>Mole </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Recap </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul>
  2. 4. What are these ? These are the substances having mass and occupies space So, They are called matter .
  3. 5. An atom is a tiny particle made up of proton Neutron & electrons. Molecule Eg- Hydrogen atom, Nitrogen atom A molecule is group of similar or dissimilar atoms . Example _ H 2 O, C 6 H 12 O 6 Atom
  4. 7. PARTICLES OF AN ATOM <ul><li>Proton: A Particle of an atom having + charge present inside the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of proton __P+ </li></ul><ul><li>Protons are discovered by Ernest- Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>Rutherford got Noble prize for describing the structure of atom . </li></ul>
  5. 9. NEUTRON <ul><li>A Particle present inside the nucleus having no charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of neutron__ N </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons were discovered by James Chaddvick </li></ul><ul><li>Protons and Neutrons together in the nucleus are called Nucleons . </li></ul>
  6. 10. NEUTRON Neutrons Protons Electrons
  7. 11. ELECTRON <ul><li>A minute particle of an atom revolving around the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of an electron e- </li></ul><ul><li>An electron was discovered by J.J. Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>It has less mass compared to other constituents . </li></ul>
  8. 12. ELECTRON
  9. 14. ATOMIC NUMBER ‘Z’ <ul><li>Atomic Number of an atom is nothing but Number of protons of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen {O} consisting of 8 protons – so ‘O’ s atomic number is 8 . </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number is Unique . </li></ul><ul><li>But, Number of protons = Number of electron </li></ul><ul><li>No. of p+ = No. of e- </li></ul><ul><li>if 10 = 10 But neutron No. varies from proton No. P+ > N or =N </li></ul>
  10. 15. ATOMIC MASS NUMBER ‘A’ <ul><li>Number of protons and Neutrons together called atomic mass number or Nucleon number is called atomic mass number . </li></ul><ul><li>EG_ ‘N’-atom it consist of 7 protons &7neutrons, so its A.M.N is 14 . </li></ul><ul><li>Every element has unique A.M.N </li></ul><ul><li>A symbol of A.M.N is A </li></ul>
  11. 16. Atomic mass and number can be represented as follows:
  12. 17. NUCLEONS
  13. 18. MOLE CONCEPT <ul><li>A gram atomic weight of substance is defined as mole . </li></ul><ul><li>EG -  A.M.N of H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>No. of H atoms  2X 01=02 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of O atoms  1X16 =16 </li></ul><ul><li>Total No of atoms  18 </li></ul><ul><li>One mole of water = 18 X 1 gram = 18gms . </li></ul><ul><li>Avogadro discover the mole concept, & given a number 6.023 X10 23 called Avogadro. No . </li></ul>
  14. 19. AVOGADRO
  15. 20. Problem on mole Calculate the mole value of Methane ( CH 4) ( C = 12, H = 1 ) Atomic mass of Carbon ---  01 X 12 = 12 Atomic mass of Hydrogen -  04 X 01 = 04 Atomic mass of Methane -  16  One mole of Methane -  16 X 01 gm = 16 gm
  16. 21. PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>In universe more than 100 elements. In early days Mendeleev construct periodic table, according to him _All the characters of an atom are periodic </li></ul><ul><li>function with their atomic mass . </li></ul><ul><li>This law stood better for so many years. </li></ul><ul><li>Table consist of 7 periods & 9 groups . </li></ul><ul><li>This periodic table is near similar to modern periodic table . </li></ul>
  17. 22. MENDLEEVE
  18. 24. CONTINUED ( P . T ) <ul><li>On the base of previous table modern chemists construct Long form of periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern period law  All characters of an atom are periodic function with their atomic number . </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of 7 periods & 18 groups . </li></ul><ul><li>We learn all matters of elements through periodic table. </li></ul>
  19. 26. CONTINUED.. <ul><li>Elements are place by their characters, and also named so. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a inter relation between periods &groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are distributed in 4 blocks named as s, p, d, f. </li></ul><ul><li>The place is reserved for coming elements. </li></ul><ul><li>By knowing their atomic number we can guess the place of an element . </li></ul>
  20. 27. BASE OF PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>The modern periodic table stands on atomic number. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number is proton number . </li></ul><ul><li>Proton number is equal to electron number. </li></ul><ul><li>Characters of an element is nothing but the pattern in which an element take part in the chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are responsible for reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the valence electrons base of table . </li></ul>
  21. 28. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION <ul><li>Definition  An arrangement of electrons in orbits & sub-orbit is called electronic configuration . </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit  A provided path for revolving electrons. Eg  K, L, M, N, O. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-orbits  s, p, d, f. </li></ul><ul><li>E.C is called backbone of the long form of periodic table. </li></ul>
  22. 29. CONTINUED ( E . C ) Sub-Orbit Electron gain capacity s 2 p 6 d 10 f 14
  24. 31. FILLING OF ELECTRONS 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s 7p 7d
  25. 32. RECAPITULATION <ul><li>Definition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Atom, Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Particles of an Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass Number </li></ul><ul><li>Mole </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Configuration </li></ul>
  26. 33. EVALUATION <ul><li>Fill in the blanks with suitable words . </li></ul><ul><li>Proton has --------------charge. </li></ul><ul><li>An atomic weight of oxygen is ------------. </li></ul><ul><li>1 mole of water is equal to ------------gms. </li></ul><ul><li>The modern periodic table is periodic function with its -------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>The backbone of the periodic table is </li></ul><ul><li>------------------------ </li></ul>+ve 16 18 Atomic Number Electronic Configuration