• Conservation measures to stop effects of problems like high
nitrogen deposition, artificially settled dunes and fast
How to save all this biodiversity?
How to keep the balance?
• Doing already a lot and future plans (N2000, PAS, Life+,
etcetera) are asking much more action.
• Taking these measures can give rise to a feeling as if we are
constantly on the verge of losing biodiversity due to our
measures. Or are we regenerating processes in which our
biodiversity can increase even more?
Natural dynamic frontdunes
Dynamics: creating small blowouts and large scale management
in white dunes.
Grazing: different densities, different scale.
Another large scale example:
Large scale dynamics > regenerating dune processes
Time aspect: c. >50 year development soils in dune grasslands
Can fauna keep in pace?
Discussion topic: “Too much emphasis on large scale rejuvenation processes may
give magnificent landscape views, however, without the important biodiversity.”
Small scale: creating blowouts
Idea is not new……………….
Especially in the countryside
Small scale dynamics
• Due to human activities, declining rabbit populations and
increasing N-deposition, small scale dynamics disappeared;
• Creating small scale blowouts are known measures in a
programme counteracting the negative effects of nitrogen in the
• First results show positive results.
Counts on insects and arthropods:
small scale versus large scale reactivation
Small scale blowouts
at Westerberg 2013
Large scale dynamics
at Houtglop 2014
Countings after one year Countings after two years
Counts on insects and arthropods: small scale versus large scale
High impact of scale on
On average factor 10
Ook kleinschalig: aanleg stuifkuilenDynamics
• Small scale dynamics > important in dune grasslands
• Large scale dynamics > important in recovering large
• Insect fauna react swift and in small scale blowouts
• Specialist species needs more time
• In large scale rejuvenation projects much slower recovery
of insect populations
Large parts in PWN-dunes are managed by grazing
Recent research: grazing increases the microclimatic
conditions for (at least) grasshoppers.
• Heterogeneity is thus very important; every type of
vegetation is home for different insects and, therefore, for
different insectivorous predators.
Conservation measures and fauna in dune grasslands
• Gradient rich mosaic structure including dynamic parts, stable
parts with short and tall vegetation and scrub preferably over
Fauna very important link
• Urgent need to save smaller fauna !
Discussion on objectives
Too much emphasis on large scale rejuvenation processes
may give magnificent landscape views, however, without the
External factors are more important: nitrogen
deposition, toxic substances (like dioxins), climate
change. We can not change these external factors.
Taking measures will not help to stop decreasing
There are already many projects in our dunes and more is
expected. Our fauna needs recovery time and rest!