What Every Teacher Should Know about Phonics! Video: What is Phonics?
What makes learning to read in English difficult? Video: How to teach reading with phonics.Phonemic and phonologicaldifferences between Spanishand English - website
There are many ways to teach phonics when learning to read in English! Article: What we Know About How to Teach Phonics• Teaching the alphabetic principle (letters and sounds)• Teach generalizations not rules• Analogy Phonics or onset-rime phonics (word families)• Chunking finding known parts within words• Word Study (e.g. Making Words)• Writing with invented to conventional spelling
The argle zoolked the bordiddy in the ershent because the bordiddy larped the argle.How did you read these nonsensewords? Nonsense sentence is from: Pearson, P.D., & Johnson, D.D. (1978). Teaching reading comprehension. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
When can a word be decoded using phonics generalizations versus being taught as a whole word?When a generalization leads to the correctpronunciation.• If there is one vowel between two or more consonants, try the short vowel sound. – Examples: fat, flat, shack – Exceptions: mind, gold• If a one syllable word ends with a final e try the long vowel sound. – Examples: cake, dive, home – Exception: have
Most of the phonics generalizationstaught in elementary school onlywork with words that are regularlyspelled. This is most often true ofvowel generalizations than consonantgeneralizations.See the classic article The utility ofphonic generalizations in the primarygrades by Theodore Clymer.
Whole Word Methodology• What is it: – Naming an unknown word as a whole.• When to use it: – When children are first starting to be readers because they need to develop a group of words that will help them decode other words. – When the word can not be decoded using phonics generalizations. This is especially a good idea for high frequency words that are outlaw words.
Exceptions to Phonics Generalizations: Outlaw Words (high frequency – common words)Come (cum) Have (hav) Four (for)One (wun) Was (wuz) Been (bin)Said (sed) Who (hoo) Does (duz)To (too) From (frum) Many (menny)Two (too) Know (no) Some (sum)Do (dew) Of (uv) Your (yore) Whole class lesson that is good for outlaw words 4 Step Sight Word Intervention
What is decoding by analogy and how can it be taught?Decoding by analogy also known as Analogy-basedPhonics. Children learn to use parts of wordfamilies (rime) they know to identify words theydon’t know that have similar parts (rime). Video on teaching word families which makes possible decoding by analogy.
Making words lessonsReading Online - Articles: Making and Writing Words Making words is a playful way to engage students in word study. Students are guided in using a limited number of letters to make a series of words. Video of a Making Words Lesson with a Whole Class
How about chunking and finding words within to decode single and multisyllabic words?Look for familiar letter chunks within a word. – prefixes, suffixes, endings, whole words, base words, familiar spelling patterns• Have the child read each chunk by itself.• Try putting the chunks together to sound out the word. Starfall Website: Chunk That Word Compare/Contrast Game: Looking for same chunk