Ch. 2 -_the_biological_perspective

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Ch. 2 -_the_biological_perspective

  1. 1. Chapter 2
  2. 2. What does biology have to do with psychology?  Everything psychological is simultaneously biological .  Reciprocal relationship between biology and behaviors and mental processes.  Chemistry  Electrochemical  Hormonal  Genetics
  3. 3. What is the nervous system?  Electrochemical communication system  Gathers and processes/integrates information  Produces responses to stimuli  Coordinates working of cells  Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, Neurons  Sensory information in, processing, commands out
  4. 4. How is the nervous system organized? Parasympathetic (Calming) Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic (Voluntary) Autonomic (Involuntary) Sympathetic (Arousing) Brain Spinal Cord
  5. 5. What do the different branches do?  CNS  Brain  Spinal cord  PNS  Somatic  Autonomic  Sympathetic  Parasympathetic
  6. 6. How do the different branches communicate?  Electrochemical impulses  Specialized cells  Neurons – send, carry, receive messages  Glial cells – provide support to neurons, maintain neural environment
  7. 7. What does a neuron look like?
  8. 8. What else is involved in neural communication?  Glial cells  Oligodendrocytes – brain  Schwann cells – body  Nerves – clusters of axons  Myelin  Neurilemma – membrane  Only in PNS
  9. 9. How do these cells communicate?  Resting potential  Semipermeable membrane  Negative ions inside  Positive ions outside  Action potential  Threshold, all-or-none principle  Reverse charge
  10. 10. What stimulates communication?  Neurotransmitters – chemical messenger  Synaptic vesicles – sacs of neurotransmitters  Receptor sites – binding site on receiving cell  Neuron or muscle/gland  Synapse – junction between two neurons
  11. 11. Neural Communication
  12. 12. Neural Communication
  13. 13. What happens after the neuron fires?  Cleaning up the synapse  Reuptake – sucks NTs back up into the pre- synaptic neuron  Enzymes break down NTs in the synapse
  14. 14. What prevents neurons from firing all the time?  Excitatory synapse  Inhibitory synapse  Multiple synapses with each cell  Effect is based upon combination
  15. 15. What are the different neurotransmitters?  Acetylecholine (Excitatory)  Skeletal muscle  Memory, arousal, attention  Glutamate (Excitatory)  Learning, memory  Synaptic plasticity
  16. 16. What are the different neurotransmitters?  GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid; Inhibitory)  Inhibit neural communication  Maintain  Serotonin (Excitatory or Inhibitory)  Produced in brain stem  Sleep, mood, appetite
  17. 17. What are the different neurotransmitters?  Dopamine (Excitatory or inhibitory)  Movement (Parkinson’s)  Pleasure/reward (learning, motivation)  Mood  Endorphins (Neural peptide)  Analgesic  Endogenous opiods
  18. 18. Can substances act like neurotransmitters?  Agonists – drugs that mimic or increase effect of neurotransmitter  Binds to receptor and activates  Antagonists – drugs that block the effect of the neurotransmitter  Blocks receptor/absorption  Abuse and withdrawal
  19. 19. What controls our body?  CNS  Brain  Spinal Cord  Purposes  Processing/integration of information  Decision making  Commanding other systems
  20. 20. Sensory nerve root (Carries information in) Motor nerve root (Carries commands out) White Matter (Axons, carry information to/from brain) Gray matter (cell bodies)
  21. 21. Can the spinal cord work independent from the brain?  Pain - Reflex Arc  Sensory neurons – carry sensory information to the spinal cord  Interneurons – connect sensory and motor neurons  Motor neurons – carry commands out to muscles/glands
  22. 22. What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?  All parts of the nervous systems other than the brain and spinal cord  Somatic nervous system – senses and voluntary movement  Autonomic nervous system – organs, glands, involuntary muscle movement
  23. 23. What makes up the somatic nervous system?  Sensory pathway – all incoming sensory information  Motor pathway – commands to skeletal muscles
  24. 24. What are the branches of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic – arousal, threat  Parasympathetic – restore/maintain normal functioning  Cooperative systems
  25. 25. What do the two systems do to the body? Sympathetic Parasympathetic Dilates pupils Contracts pupils Increased Heart Rate Decreases heart rate Activates sweat glands Deactivates sweat glands Stimulate release of stress hormones Signal adrenals to stop releasing stress hormones Increased respiration Slows respiration Inhibits digestion and excretion Activates digestion and excretion
  26. 26. Why are we talking about hormones?  Hormones – chemical messengers manufactured by endocrine glands  Travel within the bloodstream  Affect muscles, organs, glands, and brain activity  Slower but longer lasting action
  27. 27. What are the major glands and hormones?  Pituitary Gland – master gland  Adrenal Glands  Stress response  Epinephrine & Norepinephrine – sympathetic arousal  Cortisol – stimulates release of glucose (brain) and fatty acids (muscles) to provide energy during stress response
  28. 28. Through what path does a stress response occur?  Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis  Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary  Pituitary stimulates adrenal glands  Adrenal cortex releases stress hormones that increase metabolic activity (fight or flight response)
  29. 29. Are there other important glands?  Pineal Gland – melatonin  Thyroid Gland – thyroxin, metabolism  Pancreas – insulin and glucagons, regulates blood sugar  Gonads – sexual behavior and reproduction
  30. 30. What are the different parts of the brain?  Hindbrain  Limbic system  Cerebrum
  31. 31. Cerebrum Limbic System Hindbrain
  32. 32. What are the different parts of the hindbrain?  Medulla  Pons  Reticular formation  Cerebellum
  33. 33. What are the functions of the medulla?  Spinal cord entry  Heart rate  Breathing,Waking, Swallowing  Sensory crossover
  34. 34. What is the purpose of the pons?  Links cerebellum and cortex  Motor nerves crossover  Coordinates movements of left and right sides of the body  Sleep, dreaming, arousal
  35. 35. Pons Medulla
  36. 36. What is the purpose of the reticular formation?  Network of neurons that go from the spinal cord to the cortex  Alertness, arousal  Selective attention
  37. 37. What is the purpose of the cerebellum?  Involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement (e.g., sitting upright, balance)  Coordinates voluntary rapid muscle movements (e.g., typing)  Reflexes, skills, habits
  38. 38. Cerebellum Reticular Formation
  39. 39. What are subcortical structures?
  40. 40. What makes up the limbic system? Amygdala Emotional control and expression, emotional memories, fear, recognition of emotions
  41. 41. What makes up the limbic system? Hippocampus Memory storage, acquiring new memories, organizing memories, learning
  42. 42. Amygdala & Hippocampus
  43. 43. What makes up the limbic system? Thalamus Sensory relay station (except smell)
  44. 44. What makes up the limbic system? Hypothalamus Eating, drinking, sex, emotion, stress, sleep, body temp, fear, endocrine system
  45. 45. Thalamus & Hypothalamus
  46. 46. What makes up the limbic system? Basal Ganglia Coordinates voluntary muscle movement with cerebellum and cortex (inhibition)
  47. 47. Basal Ganglia
  48. 48. What is the cortex?  The outermost layer  Higher order functions  Executive functioning – thoughts, planning  Association areas – connects sensory info and memory
  49. 49. How is the cerebrum divided?  Hemispheres (Left & Right)  Corpus Collosum  Lobes  Occipital  Frontal  Temporal  Parietal
  50. 50. What do the different lobes do? Lobe Functions and areas Occipital Primary visual cortex - Processes visual information that comes in from the eyes Visual association cortex – helps identify and make sense of visual information Parietal Somatosensory cortex – receives sensory information from skin & muscles (touch, temperature, pressure) Temporal Primary auditory cortex & auditory association area – processing and making sense of auditory stimuli Frontal Higher mental functions – planning, personality, memory storage, complex decision making, language, control of emotions Motor cortex – controls voluntary muscle movements
  51. 51. Are the two halves different?  Both hemispheres work in tandem  Left side:  language (ability to produce meaningful sounds/gestures),  analytical processing (bit by bit)  Right side:  Holistic processing (global patterns)  Creative and integrative/fluid processing
  52. 52. Can the brain change?  Plasticity – rewiring, recovery  Lateralization does not mean that the other side can’t do it if it needs to  Can train the brain
  53. 53. Plasticity
  54. 54. Conclusion  Biologically, behaviors are influenced by a combination of  Neurotransmitter levels  Brain functioning/structures  Hormones  Biology + environment + personal + cognition = behavior

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