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Un wto global report on food tourism


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Interesante estudio sobre el Fenomeno del Turismo Gastronomico a nivel mundial

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  • Yo trabajo en el año de 1972 hasta el añó de 1976 en la OMT como asesor al Secretario General que en esa época era el Señor Lonatti (Italiano). Tengo buenos recuerdos de esa institución y de Madrid donde está localizada.
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Un wto global report on food tourism

  1. 1. World Tourism Organization, 2012Secretary General: Taleb RifaiExecutive Director for Competitiveness, External Relations and Partnerships: Márcio Favilla L. de PaulaEditorial team: Dmitriy Ilín, Project Manager, Global Report on Food TourismIñaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant, TANGIBLE - Tourism Industry ConsultantsSeries editor: Peter JordanUNWTO would like to sincerely thank all those who contributed material to this report. Copyright © 2012, World TourismOrganization (UNWTO)Global Report on Food TourismPublished by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain.First printing: 2012All rights reserved.Printed in Spain.The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinionswhatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country,territory, city or area, or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.Photos by UNWTO and DreamstimeWorld Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Tel.: (+34) 915 678 100Calle Capitán Haya, 42 Fax: (+34) 915 713 73328020 Madrid Website: www.unwto.orgSpain E-mail: omt@unwto.orgCitation:World Tourism Organization (2012), Global Report on Food Tourism, UNWTO, Madridpublication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,work and is pleased to consider permissions, licensing, and translation requests related to UNWTO publications.Permission to photocopy UNWTO material in Spain must be obtained through:Calle Monte Esquinza, 14 Fax: (+34) 913 08 63 2728010 Madrid Website: www.cedro.orgSpain E-mail: cedro@cedro.orgFor authorization of the reproduction of UNWTO works outside of Spain, please contact one of CEDRO’s partner organizations,with which bilateral agreements are in place (see: all remaining countries as well as for other permissions, requests should be addressed directly to the World TourismOrganization. For applications see:
  2. 2. Global Reporton Food Tourism
  3. 3. CONTENTSForeward Taleb Rifai / 4Introduction / 5Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourismdestinations in the world / 6Global trends on food tourism / 10What our Members say / 12CASE STUDIESInternational InitiativesEuro-toques in Europe:3500 artisan cooks in defence of “eating well” / 18Food and the Tourism Experience / 20Foda / 22Tourism DestinationsAzerbaijan:aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist / 26Brazil and its Paths of Flavour / 28Egypt: food tourism experience / 30Food and wine tourism in Georgia / 32Kazakhstan:tracing the country’s ancient history through its food / 34Gastronomic tourism in Korea - Globalizing Hansik / 36A taste of Moscow / 38Malaysia: at the cross-roads of Asian food culture / 40Morning pilau, or peculiarities of Uzbek cuisine / 42Business organizationsTasting Spain:the creation of a product club for gastronomic tourism / 46Food and wine tourism: Challenges and Opportunities / 48Sustainable gastronomy: Prospects for the Future / 50Fine dining:an “awakening to art de vivre” Relais & Châteaux-style / 52A brief summary of the SETE study “Gastronomy & the Marketingof Greek Tourism” / 54Educational organizationsThe Basque Culinary Center / 58Safety Food – the Brazilian Experience / 60Presentation of the B.E.S.T. concept / 62
  4. 4. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismIn recent years, Food Tourism has grown considerablyand has become one of the most dynamic and creativesegments of tourism. Both destinations and tourismcompanies are aware of the importance of gastronomyin order to diversify tourism and stimulate local, regionaland national economic development. Furthermore,Food Tourism includes in its discourse ethical andsustainable values based on the territory, the landscape,the sea, local culture, local products, authenticity, whichis something it has in common with current trends ofcultural consumption.This new volume of the “AM Reports” series, “GlobalMembers of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO),and was produced with the support of Member States,In this Report, we have attempted to carry out ananalysis of the current situation of Food Tourism, throughof tourism and gastronomy professionals with extensiveexperience in international organizations, in destinationtraining.The aim was to try to obtain a series of conclusionsregarding some of the initiatives that are going onworldwide in Food Tourism for possible inclusion in thethe public sector and businesses about policies forimportance of gastronomy in the development of tourismdestinations in the world and reviews the global trends inFood Tourism. It also reports on the results of the surveythe current situation of Gastronomic Tourism.The second part of the report presents case studies ofFood Tourism. First, it presents international initiativessuch as Eurotoques, an organization of chefs that includesmore than 3,500 restaurateurs from 18 countries; thestudy carried out by the OECD on “Food and the TourismExperience”; and the Slow Food movement, whichwas founded in 1986 and is present in more than 122countries.regional and national tourism destinations, such asBrazil, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Uzbekistanand Moscow.It also includes the experience of business organizationsthe management and promotion of Food Tourism ofSpain; the Portuguese Institute for Tourism Planningand Development (IPDT); the Hotel and GastronomyBusiness Federation of Argentina (FEHGRA); Relais& Chateaux, an exclusive collection of 475 charminghotels and gourmet restaurants in 55 countries; and theAssociation of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE) .educational institutions, such as the Basque CulinaryCentre in San Sebastian, the National Confederation ofTrade in Goods, Services and Tourism of Brazil (CNC-SENAC) and the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, on theirvision and the role of human resources training in thedevelopment of Food Tourism.For many of the world’s billions of tourists, returning tofamiliar destinations to enjoy tried and tested recipes,cuisine, gastronomy has become a central part of thetourism experience.Against this background, food tourism has gainedincreasing attention over the past years. Tourists areattracted to local produce and many destinations arecentering their product development and marketingaccordingly. With food so deeply connected to its origin,this focus allows destinations to market themselves astruly unique, appz zvv zvvealing to those travelerswho look to feel part of their destination through itsThis is especially important for rural communities, manyof which have struggled in the face of rapid urbanizationand shifts away from traditional economic sectors. Withtheir proximity to food-producing lands, rural communitiesoften enjoy a comparative advantage when it comesto serving up traditional fare. Tourism, particularly foodtourism, allows these communities to generate incomeand employment opportunities locally, providing jobs forvineyard tour guides or local chefs, while fuelling othersectors of the local economy such as agriculture.The Global Report on Food Tourism, the latest in thetakes a closer look at the links between tourism and food,highlighting the importance of this industry to the tourismsector and economies worldwide. Bringing togetherexperiences from some of the world’s top tourismdestinations, as well as from food tourism experts, thereport offers important insight and recommendationsinto this growing segment of tourism.Members and other organizations who have contributedto this report. I trust it will serve as a delicious appetizerto the improved knowledge and continued developmentof food tourism.UNWTO Secretary-General, Taleb RifaiIntroductionForewordTaleb Rifai,Secretary-General,World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)4 5
  5. 5. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourismgastronomic tourism?Today, travellers are more experienced, have moredisposable income and more leisure time to travel, andthus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of theirusual environment and immerse themselves in a world offreedom and novelty. Thus, more and more tourists in theworld are looking for concrete learning experiences, and inthis endeavour the gastronomic experience, in highly diverseways, is playing an increasingly prominent part.Current research in gastronomic tourism is scarce andis mainly focused on wine, and “oenotourists” are notnecessarily the same individuals who engage in other, non-oenological gastronomic activities.Gastronomic tourism is an emerging phenomenon thatis being developed as a new tourism product due, interalia, to the fact that according to the specialized literature(among others, Quan and Wang, 2004) over a third of touristspending is devoted to food. Therefore, the cuisine of thedestination is an aspect of utmost importance in thequality of the holiday experience.used in the literature is that proposed by Hall and Sharples(2003), according to which food tourism is an experientialtrip to a gastronomic region, for recreational or entertainmentpurposes, which includes visits to primary and secondaryproducers of food, gastronomic festivals, food fairs, events,farmers’ markets, cooking shows and demonstrations,tastings of quality food products or any tourism activityrelated to food. In addition, this experiential journey isrelated to a particular lifestyle that includes experimentation,learning from different cultures, the acquisition of knowledgeand understanding of the qualities or attributes related totourism products, as well as culinary specialities producedin that region through its consumption. Thus, the experienceof gastronomic tourism is considered as such, provided thateverything mentioned above constitutes the main reason ormotivation to travel for visitors to a particular destination orBut even without gastronomy being the main motivationfor choosing a destination, the fact is that it is increasinglyoccupying a substantial role as a secondary or partialmotivation of tourists in the world (according to recentresearch, eating in restaurants is the second favouriteactivity of foreigners visiting the United States and is thenumber one leisure activity for U.S. travellers when theyvisit other countries).outside the scope of the product “gastronomic tourism”,and adaptable to tourism-motivation dynamics that areincreasingly plural and complex. Thus, we can take astep further and say that gastronomic tourism appliesto tourists and visitors who plan their trips partiallyor totally in order to taste the cuisine of the place orto carry out activities related to gastronomy.Gastronomic tourism comprises many different subtypesif we look through the prism of the food or dish inquestion. Thus we have, for example, offerings related towhisky, cider, cognac, cava, horchata, sake, or tea.Gastronomic routes are becoming without doubt one ofthe most developed products in this area. A gastronomicroute is a system that constitutes a comprehensive andthematic tourism offering, generally branded, and isarea (although in reality, gastronomy has no borders), witha series of tourism products or sites, such as factoriesand restaurants, which are listed in tourism guidebooksdish, generally with differentiated quality, or gastronomicevents or activities. The route also informs about othersites of historical interest, thus promoting economicdevelopment throughout the area. Therefore, the idea isto bring together different types of tourist attractions andto offer them in a conveniently packaged form so thattourists stay longer in the area than if only one kind ofattraction is featured.In our opinion, gastronomic routes will be successful if theymanage to activate gastronomic heritage and convert itinto food tourism as an attraction for tourists, while at thesame time differentiating it from the competition as visitorslook for variety, new sensations and authentic experiences.But, any creation or value proposition made to strengthentravel motivations centred on gastronomy should beunderpinned by sustainability principles and practices andorganized around an effective system of public-privatecooperation. Both approaches are inseparable and canrestaurants and food industries, but also other sectorsindirectly related but linked to tourism, creating conditionsfor improving local employment and the promotion of newGastronomic tourism, lifestyle andtourism motivationsLifestyle is used in tourism to assess involvement intourism experiences. Researchers have pointed outthat culinary tourism is an authentic experience ofa sophisticated lifestyle in a pleasant environment,associated with the good life and the economic well-being of consuming exclusive, high-quality locally grownproducts.Tourist motivations constitute a key concept for the designand creation of products and services that add value fortourists. Motivations are related to consumer satisfactionand are considered a key component in understandingthe decision-making process of visitors. Thus, severalphysical or physiological needs (sensory perception andhedonism) security, cultural and social needs, the needto belong or interpersonal needs, the need for prestige(local delicacies), status or self-realization. In addition,Gastronomy’simportance inthe developmentof tourismdestinations inthe worldCarmina Fandos Herrera,Senior Lecturer in Marketing, Universidad deZaragozaJavier Blanco Herranz,PhD Student in Marketing, Universidad de ZaragozaCarmina Fandos Herrera6 7
  6. 6. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourismthe literature posits two dimensions for motivation: thehedonistic, with regard to aesthetic products, and theutilitarian or rational.tourist motivations as either internal stimuli or “push”,or external stimuli or “pull”. The former are consideredfrom the perspective of demand, and they lead thetourist to travel to gastronomic tourism destinations thatoften include desires as well as psychological, socialand ego-centric needs such as escapism from the dailyroutine, relaxing with family, rest, exploration and socialinteraction and affective or emotional bonding. Theresources considered pull factors are cultural and naturalattractions, special events and festivals, experiences withfood products in the destinations and other opportunitiesfor leisure and entertainment, value, friendliness ofresidents, gastronomic diversity and variety, attributes orcharacteristics of the destination such as proximity, etc....the cuisine of the destinationis an aspect of utmostimportance in the quality of theholiday experience.Tourism destination image and thegastronomic tourism experienceSeveral studies have found that tourists travel to thosedestinations that have established a reputation as aplace to experiment with quality local products.whose brand image is connected, with varying levels ofintensity, to gastronomic values. By way of example, itis possible to give a non-exhaustive list that includes,among others, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Belgium,Portugal, USA (especially in areas such as California’sNapa and Sonoma Valleys), Brazil, Peru, Mexico, NewZealand, South Africa, Australia, Chile, Malaysia, Japan,example, that the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece,Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list ofIntangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November2010.As for the gastronomic tourism experience, it can bea number of attributes (attractiveness of the food andenvironment, quality of service), after a stay in a touristdestination where the tourist engaged in an activityrelated to gastronomy. The tourist’s perceived value ofa particular destination or establishment is thereforemultidimensional.Post-experience satisfaction is a critical indicator forassessing the effectiveness or performance of theproducts and services of the destination. The tourist’ssatisfaction with the purchase depends on the product’sperformance in relation to the tourist’s expectations.It should be kept in mind that different cultures havedifferent perceptions of satisfaction and evaluation ofgastronomy and that high quality of service can resultin dissatisfaction among consumers if their expectationshad been too high, for example, due to exaggeratedadvertising.Satisfaction with the destination leads to customerloyalty and this in turn gives a higher level of intention torepeat the visit. Quality gastronomy is a decisive factorin satisfaction, as it produces a lasting memory aboutthe experience lived by the tourist. Thus, dependingon the expectations held by the consumer as to the1 QUAN, S. & WANG, N. 2004, “Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism” Tourism management,vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 297-305.2 HALL, C.M. & SHARPLES, L. (2003). “The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste” in Food tourismaround the world. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 1-24.gastronomy of the destination, such expectations predictbehaviour. Here is where success lies: having touristsrevisit the destination due to its gastronomy. The festiveatmosphere, relaxation and fun experienced by the touristduring a gastronomic route, and the social interactionwith people of similar interests create associations in thetourist’s mind linked to the good times experienced bythe visitor.To recap, gastronomic tourism is a local phenomenon ofuniversal scope that is in a clear growth phase; it has apositive impact on the economy, employment and localheritage, as tourists seek to get to know not only thelocal food but also to know its origin and productionprocesses, making it an expression of cultural tourism;it has great potential for expansion as a main motivationfor tourism trips and although this type of tourism is stillpractised by a minority of tourists, the fact is that it isattracting a very select type of tourist with a high volumeof expenditure on very high-quality products, and lastly,the development of gastronomic tourism contributes toimproving the general perception of the destination.the Mediterranean diet of Spain,Greece, Italy and Morocco wasincluded in UNESCO’s list ofIntangible Cultural Heritage ofHumanity in November 2010.Javier Blanco Herranz8 9
  7. 7. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism“A people that does not drink its wine and eat its cheese hasa serious identity problem.”The development of tourism today is paradoxical. Itsimultaneously generates processes of globalizationand enhanced appreciation of local resources. Tourismdestinations, obliged to maintain increasingly intensecompetitiveness and engaged in a constant struggle toretain some of their market, face an increasingly dynamicand sophisticated environment. The world is increasinglyopen; however, tourists seek experiences based onlocal identity and culture.In recent years gastronomy has become an indispensableelement in order to get to know the culture and lifestyle ofa territory. Gastronomy embodies all the traditional valuesassociated with the new trends in tourism: respect for cultureand tradition, a healthy lifestyle, authenticity, sustainability,experience…Likewise, gastronomy represents an opportunity to revitalizeanddiversifytourism,promoteslocaleconomicdevelopment,involves different professional sectors (producers, chefs,markets, etc.), and brings new uses to the primary sector.This leading role of gastronomy in the choice of destinationand tourism consumption has resulted in the growth ofgastronomic offerings based on high-quality local productsand the consolidation of a separate market for food tourism.What are the major global trends and the keys to successthat can be observed in this development of food tourism?It is a growing market. The growth of food tourismworldwide is an obvious fact. It is one of the most dynamicsegments within the tourism market.But what are food tourists like? They are tourists whotake part in the new trends of cultural consumption. Theyare travellers seeking the authenticity of the places theyvisit through food. They are concerned about the originof products. They recognize the value of gastronomy as ameans of socializing, as a space for sharing life with others,for exchanging experiences. Such tourists have higher-than-average expenditure, they are demanding and appreciative,and they eschew uniformity. Therefore, gastronomycannot become a bland and anonymous product; itmust have personality, because otherwise it will becomevulnerable, de-localized and subject to adulteration.The territory is the backbone of gastronomic offerings.The terroir is an element that differentiates and is thesource local identity. It encompasses environmentaland landscape values, history, culture, traditions, thecountryside, the sea, the own cuisine of the place. In thisregard, the conversion of the territory into a culinarylandscape is one of the challenges of tourismdestinations.The product is the basis of Food Tourism. Therefore,natural resources we are going to convert into tourismproducts that make it possible to identify this territory.Cultural Heritage. Culture is the set of behaviours,knowledge and customs that shape a society and onwhich a sense of belonging is based. The design ofany food tourism offering will not viable if it does nottake into account the cultural characteristics of theterritory. Gastronomy allows tourists to access thecultural and historical heritage of destinations throughtasting, experiencing and purchasing. That is, it makesit possible to approach culture in a more experiential andparticipatory way that is not purely contemplative.We must also take into account the emergence of newcultural values, which increase the richness and culturaldiversity of the country.In this regard, Tradition and Innovation coexist in anatural manner. Gastronomic tradition is in a process ofcontinuous evolution, and the challenge for professionalsis to incorporate innovation in order to renew and adapttheir offerings to the needs of the new cultural consumer.Sustainability. Food tourism is capable of addressingcultural and environmental concerns in a way thatis compatible with purely economic arguments. Therecent history of global tourism development is litteredwith nominally sustainable models and manifestlyunsustainable actions. The idea is not to create newindiscriminate pressure on culinary heritage, but toleverage it rationally with an eye to sustainability. It isnot about “touristifying” gastronomy, by creating newofferings or scaling up existing ones. It is not so muchabout creating in order to attract, but rather attractingvisitors to participate in the destination’s own culturalreality, well explained and interpreted, through cuisine,local products and all the services and activities thatsurround them.Quality.Destinationsthatwanttopromotefoodtourismhaveand recognition of local products, the development of acompetitive offering, the professionalism of human resourcesthroughout the value chain of food tourism through trainingand retraining, and consumer protection and reception inorder to increase visitor satisfaction.Communication. Destinations must articulate acredible and authentic narrative of their food tourismofferings. The travel experience has changed and is notlimited to the days of actual travelling, but rather it startsmuch earlier, with its preparation (the tourist becomesinspired, gathers information, compares, purchases),and the experience ends when the traveller assessesand shares his experiences through social networks.Playing key roles in the process are: the great chefs whohave ignited a revolution in the segment of high-endcuisine as a revitalizing element for tourism, the media(especially television), tourist guides, food blogs andsocial networks in the image building of a destination.And destinations must be present in all channels and allparts of this process.Cooperation. It is necessary for the actors operating inchefs, restaurateurs, public administrations, hoteliers,food tourism product offerings.Global trendsin food tourismIñaki Gaztelumendi,Consultant on food tourismIñaki Gaztelumendi10 11
  8. 8. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismWith a view to the publication of the Global Report on FoodTourism, a survey was conducted among the UNWTOMembers, working in diverse sectors around the world,were received in this regard.StrategyAccording to the results this survey, 88.2% of respondentsthe brand and image of their destination. Only 11.8% wereof the opinion that gastronomy plays a minor role.“gastronomy is a strategicand image of their destination”However, a smaller percentage of respondents believethat their country has its own gastronomic brand: onlypercentage (32.3%) believe that their country has notstructured its own brand of gastronomy, meaning that, ingeneral, destinations still have some ways to go in terms ofGastronomic CultureAmong the elements of the gastronomic culture of thedestination which they consider should be featured inpromotional campaigns today, most respondents citethe quality, variety and regional diversity of foods, notably,meat, etc. As added value they lean towards broaderconcepts such as the Mediterranean diet, included on theUNESCO World Heritage list, healthy cooking, sustainability,or multiculturalism. They also point to the importance ofrestaurant offerings with a strong local basis (Mediterranean,oriental, ethnic, etc.) that combine tradition and innovation,and the role of international cuisine.As for gastronomic tourism products that exist in theirplace the importance of food events (expressed by 79% ofrespondents).This is followed by gastronomic routes andcooking classes and workshops, with 62% answeringand visits to markets and producers (53%). Having lessweight among gastronomic tourism product offeringsare museums (cited by only 12% of respondents), andpresentations with 6% of positive answers.68% of the organizations consulted carry out marketingactivities or promotion based on Food Tourism. Themarketing and promotional tools most used by theseentities are: organizing events (91%), producing brochuresand advertising (82%) and dedicated websites on foodtourism (78 %). At a lower level are promotional tools suchas tourism guides (61%), blogs (43%), and familiarizationtrips for journalists and tour operators (13%). And lastly,only 4% of the organizations surveyed said they usedsocial networks for the promotion of food tourism.What ourMembers say12 13
  9. 9. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismCurrently food tourism is still a regional phenomenon.According to the results of the survey, the marketing ofgastronomic tourism products gives top priority to theregional market. At a second level are the local and nationalmarkets. And in last place is the international market.CooperationAsked about the existence at their destination ofcollaboration between the tourism sector and localgastronomy actors (producers, restaurants, markets,etc.), the general opinion is that there is cooperationon concrete marketing actions, in particular, with localrestaurants, but there are currently no stable instrumentsof cooperation for the development and promotion offood tourism. In fact, 37.5% of respondents recognize“we need to create stableinstruments of cooperationfor the development andpromotion of food tourism”Economic ImpactFinally, the survey asked respondents for an estimate ofthe economic impact of food tourism on their destination.In general, most of the organizations surveyed indicatedthat there is still no systematic analysis of the economicimpact of food tourism. However, they consider that theweight of gastronomy in tourism revenue in destinationshave a large margin to work with in this respect.From the results of the survey it is possible to draw aset of general recommendations for tourism destinationspromotion of food tourism.First, traditional strategies in the development of foodtourism must give way to strategic tools to articulatethe quality, variety and uniqueness of local products andgastronomy of a territory. These offerings, presentedwith authenticity and as experiences to be lived, must bebased on the values of cultural identity, sustainability, thequality of tourism products and services, and consumerprotection. Also, in a highly competitive situation like thecurrent one, market knowledge should be one of theTherefore, the creation of plans to establish developmentguidelines and create gastronomic tourism products isseen as a priority for destinations.of seizing the opportunity represented by gastronomy fordestinations. Key factors in this regard are: bringing chefson board as interpreters of the territory, the developmentof high-quality and credible promotional tools—such asfood guides—the organization of events, the media anduse of the Internet and social networks.Third, both in the conceptualization as well as in theMembers agree on the importance of establishingcooperation instruments among all actors in the valuechain of Food Tourism at the local level (producers,tour operators, public administrations, etc.).Finally, the survey shows the need to promote knowledgeand research on Food Tourism.14 15And additionally the following partners:
  10. 10. CaseStudiesInternationalInitiatives
  11. 11. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismEuro-toques in Europe:3500 artisan cooks indefence of “eating well”President, Euro-Toques SpainEuro-Toques is neither a promotion association nor a newwhich are our best products.Our goal is to give value to seasonal products and to defendregional artisan production.Euro-Toques is recognized by the European Union as anorganization that defends Quality Food. It forms part of theprivileged network of contacts of the European Commission.Euro-toques acts as a lobby group in European and nationalinstitutions. The organization focuses its activities on FoodLaw as well as on the new Common Agricultural Policy, theCommon Fisheries Policy and DG SANCO activities.Our bywords: Taste, Safety, Authenticity. And therefore: Actin order not to suffer.The art of cooking should adapt itself to our times. Let us becreative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let uspreserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them tomodern tastes.These are the foundations of quality gastronomic tourism.We advocate a model based on the diversity of traditionsand regions, quality products, products of the land andtraditional recipes, which are the guarantee of the culinaryheritage and continuity of local products. The products usedin our kitchens are fresh and are prepared on the premises.Our work is based on seasonal products in order to respectthe cycles of nature and ensure an authentic taste. Andthis respect for tradition is compatible with modernity: thepleasure and the art of living are passed on.Moreover, we chefs play an important role in consumerprotection and the preservation of knowledge of our territory.Not only do we help people eat well, but we also welcomevisitors and advise them about our gastronomy, products,places...At present, one of the major projects of Euro-toquesis the creation of a gastronomic map of Spain. A mapin which typical local products are represented in eachcommunity, province, city and town; and if possibleaccompanied by recipes. Traditional recipes, and modernones as well. Recipes that show that the identity of a landis also determined by its products, by the producers whocultivate them, and by the cooks who buy and transformthem, thus disseminating a gastronomic culture.The idea is to ultimately develop a collection of recipes thatrepresent a distillation of local cuisines, thus highlightingthe diversity of the different territories of Spain.The project consists of putting together an anthologyof the products and recipes of the various peoples ofSpain, with the ultimate goal of producing a manualand a history of the different parts of our country thatare named or are renowned for a product, a dish or anoutstanding gastronomic activity.Let us be creative, let us beopen to neighbouring cultures,but let us preserve ourbeautiful regional traditions andadapt them to modern tastes.Euro- toques is an international organization representingmore than 3500 chefs and cooks from 18 countries. Itwas founded by Pierre Romeyer, Paul Bocuse, Juan MariArzak and Pedro Subijana, among other famous chefs,on 18 November 1986, in Brussels, at the urging of theEuropean Commission President Jacques Delors.The main objectives of Euro-toques are:To promote the good practices of artisan foodproducers.To protect the culinary heritage of Europe in all itsdiversity and with its different origins.To safeguard the healthiness of food products andencourage natural combinations.To demand proper labelling in order to provideconsumers with clear information allowing them tomake choices based on solid criteria.euro-toques.org18 19
  12. 12. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismFoodand the tourismexperienceGreg Richards,Tilburg University, NetherlandsFood and tourism play a major part in the contemporaryexperience economy. Food is a key part of all cultures,a major element of global intangible heritage and anincreasingly important attraction for tourists. The linkagesbetween food and tourism also provide a platform for localeconomic development, and food experiences help tobrand and market destinations, as well as supporting thelocal culture that is so attractive to tourists (Hjalager andRichards, 2002; OECD, 2009).Food experiences have become more important in tourismas the ‘Experience Economy’ has developed. Pine andGilmore (1999) argue that the consumer no longer pays forthe basic service, but for the complete experience. In thecase of food, people are willing to pay a premium for theadded value offered by food experiences, which provide agateway into local culture, creativity and landscapes. Touristfood experiences in particular are often contrasted with‘everyday’ or basic eating, as people search for ‘authenticity’and distinction in local food and gastronomy.Food provides a basis for tourism experiences by:Linking culture and tourismDeveloping the meal experienceProducing distinctive foodsDeveloping the critical infrastructure for food productionand consumptionSupporting local cultureFood experiences can also stimulate localdevelopment, because food tourism is high yieldtourism, that can extend the tourist season anddiversify rural economies. Food experiences are labourintensive and create jobs while creating backward linkagesthat stimulate agriculture, and they generally do not requiremajor new investment. Food can contribute to regionalattractiveness, sustain the local environment and culturalheritage and strengthen local identities and sense ofcommunity.Food and gastronomy can also in themselves be consideredas creative industries, helping to stimulate innovation byinvolving the consumer in co-creation, stimulating linksbetween global and local cultures (e.g. Fusion foods,foodways that link cultures) and creating narratives aroundfood. In this sense, gastronomic tourism can be seen asa form of ‘creative tourism’ (Richards, 2011), which allowstouriststodeveloptheircreativitythoughcontactwithlocalpeople and their creative lives. Major areas of innovationcurrently taking place around food, gastronomy andtourism include creative tourism experiences (such ascooking and food appreciation courses), food events,food trails, new cuisines (e.g.New Asian Cuisine inSingapore) and building narratives around food.Food can also provide the basis of branding andmarketing activities, including:Partnerships between food producers, rastaurantsand the tourism industrySetting standards for local foodsLifestyle positioning, emphasizing the attractivenessof lifestyles related to gastronomyIndentifying nichesTheming and packagingDeveloping specialty restaurantsCommunicating the national or regional brand throughgastronomy (such as the Prove Portugal programme).The numerous case studies in the OECD study indicatethat the critical success factors for food experiences intourism includeProviding a good culinary offer at home, that stimulateappreciation of food and support gastronomy that isalso attractive to visitors.Developing a network of good quality restaurantsDeveloping food and wine exportation.Education and training and attracting talentPositioning chefs in world rankings (for example‘Gastrostars’ such as Ferran Adria)Linking food experiences to tourist needsProviding ‘glocalised’ fods that link to tourist needs aswell as showcasing authentic local cuisinefor national and regional authorities:Ensure a solid base of local food cultureStart from the basics (Quality, authenticity, locality)Build coalitions (Public, private partnership)Spread the message (Build the brand, communicate clearly)Develop a holistic approach (Tourism should be seenas one aspect of the entire food value network)tilburguniversity.eduReferencesIn Dodd, D. (ed.) Food and theTourism Experience. OECD, Paris, pp. 13-46.Gastronomy. Routledge, London.OECD (2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: OECD.Boston:Harvard Business School Press.Richards, G. (2011) Creativity and tourism: The state of the art.Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), Pages 1225–1253.Greg Richards20 21
  13. 13. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismFODACatherine Gazzoli,fuel”. If it is thought of as a nourishing substance, taken intothe body to sustain life, provide energy, and promote growth,then we’re on the way to healthy living. If however, it is thoughtof merely as fuel, to be consumed as quickly and as cheaplyas possible, as it is so often these days, we’re heading in adangerous, unsustainable direction; we’re heading towardsmonoculture of the lowest common denominator, leading toall manners of physical and social ills.Thankfully, increasing numbers of people around the worldand tradition, and the positive social impacts of developingculinary tourism.The Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity shares theseaims. It protects the environment, defends food biodiversity,promotes sustainable agriculture, supports small-scaleproducers and values their traditional knowledge. It runsprojects around the world, such as the Ark of Taste, aninternational catalogue of traditional products at riskof extinction; Forgotten Foods, saving original breeds,vegetable varieties, breads and cheeses; Earth Marketspromoting regional producers in their local communities;A Thousand Gardens In Africa, creating food gardens inschools, villages and urban areas.In Britain we recently presented Slow Food UK Week,featuring occasions such as Eating the Italian Way, a foodart performance from the year 2062, a ground-breaking– Kentish Cob Nut.The climax of the week was a form of Food Roulette,where members of the public spun our nine-foot, greenand orange Forgotten Foods Wheel, featuring British foodsthat are largely unknown to the general public. Samples ofeach were placed in trays set in each section. Whatever youlanded on was yours!People tried Dove’s Farm Einkorn Flour, an ancient grainmade into a dense, nutty bread, and quite rightly asked“Why have we heard of cous cous from Morocco, andquinoa from Peru, but not einkorn from Britain?”There were also Three Little Pigs chorizo, made from big,black hairy Rare-Breed Berkshire Pigs, and Jersey BlackButter, a fruit based condiment that a Food Roulettewinner said tasted like “Christmas in a Jar”. These andmany other foods have been collected as ForgottenAnother wonderful legacy of Slow Food UK Week isour Chef Alliance. Many of Britain’s best chefs are nowactively championing small-scale producers and their topquality, local, sustainably produced food. The chefs havecreated special menus using seasonal Forgotten Foods,and helped people to discover food that really matters,and drink that quenches more than thirst.Double Michelin-starred chef Marcus Wareing created aspecial menu for Slow Food UK Week using ForgottenFoods and heritage products such as Middle WhiteColchester oysters and Herdwick sheep, and hasrecently added Joe Schneider’s Artisan Stilton to thecheeseboard. Including these foods on the menu,increases interest in these products and encouragespatrons to seek them out on their own.The chefs play a vital role in spreading awareness ofquality produce threatened by the onslaught of industrialagriculture, environmental degradation, and markethomogenization. They support artisan producers torevive and even rediscover traditional techniques.Slow Food UK also has a retail partner, Booth’s, a smallchain of family-owned supermarkets in Northern England.producers. For example, the sales of Morecambe Bayas a Forgotten Food. By highlighting a particular heritagefood and community, consumers are encouraged to visitthat community, widening the reach for the programme.Further good news is that the popularity of farmersmarkets, the appreciation of artisan producers, and thedemand for culinary tourism are all on the rise.are voting with their feet and wallets for good, clean,fair food.Culinary tourism does not have to mean gourmet food. Itis increasingly about unique and memorable experiences.It includes the dining experience itself, but also anawareness that supporting such endeavours has theability to generate rural development. It helps to diversityrevenue sources, and improves rural employment andincome levels.Economic objectives are as crucial as environmental,measurable, via better prices, quantities produced,and numbers employed. Local foods are disappearingtheir activity, producers must have economic assuranceabout their future.A wonderful example of integrated economic,environmental, cultural and social activity, are theFood Safaris run by Henry and Carolyn Chesshire inHerefordshire, Shropshire, Worcestershire and Wales.They are a local couple who have lived in this tranquilrural area their whole lives. They take groups of people –birthday parties, hen and stag parties, work outings, etc.– on culinary mystery tours, introducing them to the bestlocally produced food and drink. The visitors literally “eatthe landscape”.So returning to our original topic, you can see that moreand more people around the world are valuing foodbiodiversity and tradition, and the culinary tourism that thisgenerates positively impacts communities. Here at SlowFood UK we will keep working passionately to promotegood, clean, fair food. And you I am sure will be doing thesame for your local, regional and national communities.When it comes to foda, let’s all vote for nourishment ratherthan Gazzoli22 23
  14. 14. TourismDestinations
  15. 15. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismAzerbaijan:Aromas and tastesof the East with aEuropean twistLarisa Javanshir,Editor-in-Chief, international tourism magazineAzerbaijan ReviewThe culinary masters of Azerbaijan have always attracted theadmiration of visiting guests with their artistic skills. Whenmerchants and warriors, historians and ambassadorsof the Great Silk Road crossed the country, they oftenshared memories of the generous balmy cuisine ofthe Caspian state and brought home stories about thewonderful dishes they had been treated to.Azerbaijan cuisine has long won recognition both in theEast and in Europe as one of the most interesting on anhistorians and travelers and recorded in ancient writtensources. The history of the art of creating culinary recipesin Azerbaijan is centuries old and based on the hugeexperience of ancestral cooks which has been kept to thepresent day.people have become famous for their longevity.According to scientists this is down to the country’s favorableclimate, lifestyle, ecologically pure products and principles ofand vegetable dishes, all supplemented with soft greensand piquant spices. Friendliness towards those who cometo eat and constant readiness to invite as many friends totable as possible, as well as the generous variety of offereddishes and snacks never cease to amaze foreign an invitation to a come to a generously laid table forthe richest feast of tastes.Kebab houses in Azerbaijan have a similar importance totaverns in Italy, eating-houses in the Slavic countries, bistrosin France etc. In the case of kebab houses however, everySince ancient times, ‘shashlik’ (kebab) has been the mostfavourite and traditional food among Azerbaijanis who livein northern, southern and western Azerbaijan. Shashlikcourse, taste it. The famous and delicious Azerbaijan ‘tendirchorek’ is, too, baked in natural ovens, just as juicy andaromatic shishlik is.The Azerbaijan people’s favorite is pilaw, the mainbutter and saffron. Pilaw lovers are particularly fond ofthis type of rice cooked with Cornelian cherries. It is anexclusively impressive, beautiful and healthy dish, cookedfor a long time while the aroma of meat, rice, butter andgreens start teases the senses two to three hours beforedinner. Be patient and you won’t regret it afterwards!Weather-wise, March is one of the most uncertainmonths in Azerbaijan, though it is also the merriest sinceit is when the Novruz holiday is celebrated. The nationalcuisine of Azerbaijan always abides by centuries-oldtraditions, while the spring nuances of oriental dishes arethe yet sparing sun and the awakening land help youngherbs and vegetables to grow juicy, spicy, sweet or ‘witha touch of bitterness’.The Azerbaijani autumn brings health. This effect isalso largely promoted by subtropical plants, the fruitsof which are sparingly supplied to markets becausewhen ripe this tender masterpiece of gardening art isbalmy drink – none other than date-plums. There arenearly two hundred kinds of persimmon, of which only4 or 5 are cultivated as garden residents. The best sort– the so-called ‘korolyok’ – is popular not only for itssugary pulp, but also for its magical salubrious qualities.Be aware that round and solid fruits of quince concealmagical qualities of southern gardens. They are coveredwith thin velvet bloom and are hard to chew on, but onceprocessed, quince is irreplaceable for tea-drinking. It isalso indispensable as an ingredient for garnishing meatdishes, or for cooking special diet dishes. Condensedquince juice is used both as a sauce and as a panaceaagainst anemia. Seeds and leaves of quince are alsomedicinal, as their aqueous tincture enfeebles and stopsmore popular than imported bananas, pineapples andcoconuts. They are successfully replaced by kiwi, feijoa,walnuts and chestnuts.A sweet fairytaleBy tradition, meals are crowned with sweets. In addition,main holidays of the country, e.g. ‘Novruz bayram’,inspire a true championship of baking. According tonumerous foreign tourists who have tasted many localdesserts, Azerbaijani national confectionery creates anunforgettable feeling of joyful discovery of a new worldwhich tempts and allures over and over again.The main advantage of these dishes is that theyare cooked on the basis of ancient, centuries-oldrecipes by using organic and ecologically pure productshoney, select walnuts and hazelnuts, village eggs, perfectspices, as well as different additives which render anymany unique recipes among which are those of ‘rakhat-lukum’, ‘gozinaki’, ‘noghul’, jellied fruits and other “sweetfairy-tales” of Azerbaijan cookery which can stay fresh,soft and exquisite in appearance.You can taste the dishes of Azerbaijan cuisine listed inthis article in almost any restaurant or kebab house,particularly in Baku, the capital city. Hospitable ownersand cooks will offer you the best menu of the season andwill always wish you “Noosh olsoon!”Larisa Javanshir26 27
  16. 16. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismBrazil and itsPaths of FlavourPresident of National Administrative Council, BrazilianAssociation of Bars and Restaurants (ABRASEL)There are many ways of knowing the soul of a people. Oneof the most fascinating is, without a doubt, the gastronomy.The art of combining foods and seasonings, the rituals ofpreparing and serving, the pleasure of being together by thedining table, all of that is part of the much wider universeof this cultural heritage, this never ending set of values thatdetermine our identity. It is exactly because of that, thatgastronomy, besides being a competitive differential fortourism, is one of the tools that reveal the characteristics,traces, and culture of a people.Tourism, one of the most growing activities in the wholetourism – by focusing its attention on valuing physical andintangible heritage, restoring traditions and preserving andspreading the symbols of national identity – is capable ofopening borders for different investments and businesses.Few nations in the world have the privilege of having a culinarywith such abundance of raw material, products, seasoningsand aromas. Nature was generous with Brazil. We havesome of the most beautiful natural scenarios of the planet,that helped create our country.Our gastronomy is a rare combination of simplicity andexoticism, with traces of the identity of a one-of-a-kindculture. The discovery of Brazil is a never-ending adventure.The continental enormity of the country divides it into regionswith clearly distinct gastronomic characteristics. In a simpleway, it can be highlighted the gastronomy from the North/Central-West, from the Northeast and from the South/Southeast.In the North/Central-West regions, the intensity of the forestsand rivers result in a great variety of exotic ingredients, diverseregion’s tourist destinations related to nature, the AmazonForest and the Pantanal – very exclusive ecosystems thatare highly preserved – are strongly explored. The Forestand the Pantanal are certainly two of the biggest naturalattractions of the country.Mother Nature was especially generous with the BrazilianNortheast region. There are three thousand kilometres ofthe most beautiful beaches of clear and warm water,blessed with a permanent summer. In each state ofthe Northeast, elements of African, indigenous, andEuropean origins are joined in an explosion of sounds,richest Brazilian gastronomies, symbol of the hospitalityof a people of simple soul and chanted speech.Much more than the basic trilogy of sun, beach andsea food, the Northeast is a region that has alreadyconsolidated its touristic calling and explores with originalityits traditions and typical products. On this aspect, it shouldbe highlighted the appropriation by the coastal culinary ofelements of the countryside cooking, putting side by sidecolonizerswashighlighted:Portuguese,Italians,Germansand Arabs. Each of them lent to Brazilians ingredientsand techniques that were developed here and allowedgreat part of the diverse gastronomy that characterizesus. Born in the South, the Gaúcho barbecue spreadall over the country and became a product of export,becoming one of the most recognized strengths of theBrazilian gastronomy abroad. In the countryside of theSoutheast region, the culinary from Minas Gerais andSão Paulo are mixed with subtle borders, resulting indifferent, outstanding and highly representative dishes ofthe Brazilian gastronomy and its culture.OurCaipirinhadeservesspecialattention–importantmarkof the Brazilian intangible heritage and an internationallyrecognized icon. Every year the production of Cachaçagains more importance with the development of highlyelaborated products for the Brazilian’s and the foreigntourist’s tastes.However, so many gastronomic values reunited, suchdiversity and gigantic harmony existing between culturalheritage and Brazil´s natural beauties may be useless ifthereisnosafetyintheproductionchainrelatedtothefoodand beverage in the country. The Brazilian Governmentauthorities are permanently concerned with the patternsof Food Safety of all that is served to its residentpopulation as well as to the foreign tourists that are eithervisiting or on business in Brazil. The rules of surveillanceand control in Brazil are comprehensive and strict, butknowing this is not enough for us. It is necessary thatcountries they visit or work safety criteria acknowledgedinternationally. This acknowledgement will guarantee thatinternational tourists can travel from country to countryconsuming the local food with tranquillity at the sametime that they feel that their health is not in jeopardy.ABRASEL – The Brazilian Association for Bars andRestaurants is committed to assisting and developingthese international criteria with special concern regardingimportant international sports events that will be hostedin a near future in our country. The FIFA World Cup in2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016 will certainly helpto disseminate the greatness of Brazilian gastronomyand the beauty and diversity of our tourist 29
  17. 17. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismThe Egyptianfood tourismexperienceEgyptian Tourism AuthorityConsumption is an integral aspect of the tourism experience,with the tourist consuming not only the sights and sounds, butalso the taste of a place. Nearly all tourists eat out when theyinto another culture as it allows an individual to experience the“other” on a sensory level, beyond the purely intellectual.Locally produced food is a fundamental component of adestination’s attributes, adding to the range of attractions andthe overall tourist experience. This makes food an essentialconstituent of tourism production as well as consumption.Furthermore, eating out is a growing form of leisure wheremeals are consumed not out of necessity but for pleasure,and the atmosphere and occasion are part of the leisureexperience as much as the food itself.However, for tourists, eating out can both be a necessityand a pleasure. While some tourists dine simply to satisfytheir hunger, others will head for a particular restaurant toexperience the local food and cuisine, because it forms animportant component of their travel itinerary.The growth of eating out as a form of consumption and themarket forces of globalization have made the food productsand cuisines from all over the world more accessible. Thishas stimulated the emergence of food as a popular topicin magazines, radio shows and television, with food showsfocusing on travel and travel shows on food. In fact, thepopularity of 24 hour television channels, such as Fatafeetdevoted to food and its origins intertwines food with tourismso much that quite often it is hard to determine whether oneis watching a food show or a travel show.Such developments have spurred an interest in experiencingthe unique and indigenous food, food products andcuisines of a destination, so much so that people cancuisines or to taste the dishes of its “celebrity chef”. A verygood example would be Gulf Tourists coming to Cairo inRamadan to enjoy the unique food and atmosphere duringthe holy months in Egypt.Very often, tour operators tend to include a visit to KhanEl Khalili in all Cairo schedules in order for tourists to enjoyoriental food and a unique atmosphere. From an economicpoint of view, nearly 100% of tourists spend money on foodat their destination. Data shows that restaurant operatorsreported that tourists are important to their business.This suggests that tourists’ food consumption makes asubstantial contribution to the local restaurants, diningplaces, and food industry, and thereby the destination’seconomy.In an increasingly competitive tourism marketplace,every region or destination is on a constant searchfor a unique product to differentiate itself from otherdestinations. Local food or cuisines that are unique to anarea are one of the distinctive resources that may be usedas marketing tool to attract more visitors.The growth of special interest tourism is seen as aof the early 21st century leisure society. Post-moderntourism is slowly moving away from the traditionaltourism attractions to being a part of an overall lifestylethat corresponds to people’s daily lives and activities.The growth of culinary tourism is seen as an outcome ofthis trend, as well as peoples’ tendency to spend muchless time cooking, but choose to pursue their interest infood as part of a leisure experience such as watchingcooking shows, dining out etc.Thus culinary tourism is a special interest for the touristtravel behavior and falls on the upper end of the foodtourism interest continuum. The culinary tourist is alsoa cultural tourist. Thus, the obvious overlap of food as aspecial interest component as well as a cultural componentmakes the culinary tourist possibly both a special touristand a cultural tourist.A survey of Special Interest Tours on the internetdemonstrates that there are numerous tour operatorsconducting culinary tours all over the world. The culinaryCooking school holidays,Dining at restaurants famous for their local cuisines ortheir celebrity chefs and visiting food markets,Visiting food producers with tours specially relatedto just one product. Most culinary tours include acombination of all three types. In addition to the annualand periodical Culinary Awards Conferences that takeplace worldwide.Food is now listed as one of the components of culturaltourism, implying that food is representative of a culture.One of the dominate approaches in the social sciencesused to explain food consumption is the cultural approach,with the others being economic and the psychological.With respect to tourism, even though tourists come acrosspotentially unfamiliar foods to a greater degree at thedestination than they would at home, globalization with itstime and space compression has permitted more peopleto experience ethnic and foreign foods at their home.Finally and as previously stated, in an increasinglycompetitive world of tourism marketing, wheredestinations look for unique selling propositions inpositioning themselves, there is nothing more unique thanthe foods and cuisines based on locally-produced food ineach destination.egypt.travel30 31
  18. 18. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismFood and winetourismin GeorgiaGeorgian National Tourism AdministrationThere is a strong direct link between gastronomy and tourism,and gastronomy’s role in the development of niche travel isbecoming even more important. When it comes to Georgia,gastronomy plays an extremely important role in the waytourists experience the destination, and for that matter sometravellers return for the sole reason of savouring the uniqueand diverse gastronomy the country has to offer. Therefore, itwould be well substantiated to assert that gastronomy is oneof the key elements of our destination’s brand image.The enjoyment of good food and drink should not beunderestimated; nowadays, there is a greater appreciationof how quality food and drink contribute to individual/societalwellbeing; Georgia is making all-out efforts to gain a niche in thehighly competitive global tourism market, and is keen to assertitself as an attractive destination for gastronomy tourists.From ancient times agriculture has played a major role inGeorgia, and to this day it remains one of the most promisingsectors of Georgia’s economy. Forty-four percent of Georgia’stotal area is considered to be agricultural. The country’sagricultural production is diverse, including viticulture, cerealproduction, and a wide range of vegetables, fruits, nuts,livestock, dairy, citrus and tea. Wheat and corn along withthe milk and dairy sector are particularly strong, with theregions of the country. Georgia’s diverse climatic conditionsand natural resource endowment allow production of a widevariety of agricultural products and favour the competitivedevelopment of the sector. Agriculture, apart from beingcrucial for economic development, is an essential element ofGeorgian culture. No agriculture means no cuisine; agricultureplays an essential role in keeping the beautiful landscapesof this country alive which constitute the major assets thattourists appreciate and value when arriving to Georgia.Georgia boasts the oldest, continuous, unbrokentradition of wine making in the world which stretchesback 8,000 years. In fact it is said to be the birthplace ofwine. Many say that the generic word ‘wine’ stems fromthe Georgian word ‘gvino’. Over 500 indigenous grapevarieties are still cultivated here. The warm climate and moistair rising from the Black Sea provide the perfect conditionsfor the cultivation of grapevines. After many centuries ofperfecting the tradition, it is not surprising that Georgianwines - Saperavi, Tsinandali, Mukuzani, Teliani, Napereuli -are exquisite. Winemaking remains a vital part of Georgianculture and national identity. Georgian families throughoutthe country grow their own grapes and produce wine theold-fashioned way, by placing grape juice in undergroundclay jars, or kvevri, topped with a wooden lid, covered andsealed with earth, to ferment during the winter.In Georgia, the food, just like wine, is quite reasonablyan expression of the culture. Georgian cuisine, likethose of other countries, varies from region to region. Awhen traveling east to west. Each historical province ofGeorgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as, forexample, Megrelian, Kakhetian, or Imeretian cuisines. Thedishes found in these regions feature distinct ingredients,Generally speaking, Georgians, take great pride in havingthe rich, savoury, piquant, strikingly original and verymineral-rich landscape fed by the pure waters of theCaucasus Mountains. Most of the food is organic, and thethe mild climate that provides fresh vegetables for threequarters of the year. The cuisine offers an assortment ofdishes, high in herbs and spices, a variety of vegetarianmeals in addition to meat dishes: organic fresh meatswalnuts, various sorts of cheese, pickles and pungentseasonings, eggplant, plums, corn, pomegranates, kidneybeans, wild herbs, coriander, scallions, hot peppers, mint,The Georgian table is well-known for its frequent use ofcheeses. However, unlike French, Dutch or Swiss cheeses,those of Georgia are typically of the brined curd variety,like the Greek feta. Cheeses produced in Western Georgiacheese considerably differ from the cheese found in theWestern world. Also, in contrast to the typical Europeancheese course, where different types of cheeses areconsumed “as is”, Georgian cheeses are usually cooked:stewed in milk, grilled on a spit, fried in a skillet, baked inis also a general tendency of people living in mountains touse the same cooking methods for meats and cheesesalike. For example, melting, cooking and frying cheeseis also common in Alps: think of the traditional Swissfondue! Much like French cuisine, the Georgian traditionis based on complex and varied sauces. But unlike theFrench, who use cream (Normandy), lard (Alsace), or oliveoil (Provence) to create body for their world-renownedsauces, Georgians favour sour fruit juices, soured milk(known as matsoni), eggs, and nuts to enrich theirsauces. One of the best-known sauces (one can buy itin jars in ethnic food stores) is tkemali, made from sourplums of the same name. Other sour ingredients used inGeorgian sauces include pomegranate juice, blackberries,barberries, and pureed tomatoes. Combined with thetraditional secrets of the chef‘s art common products doacquire a special taste and aroma, which make Georgiancuisine very popular and unique.With such an abundance of delicious food and wine, overthe centuries Georgia has developed a strong tradition oftable culture. The spirit of open-handed, huge-heartedgenerosity and hospitality is nowhere better displayed thanat the table during a traditional Georgian feast, or Supra.As mentioned above, gastronomy produces additionaleconomic value to the regions and is crucial forboosting Georgia’s economy in general. Well-developedgastronomic tourism may help extend length of stay andincrease visitor expenditure on local production. Broadlyspeaking, gastronomic tourism is strongly associated withcreating sustainability within a country. Utilizing goodsand services produced within the country, not onlybut also minimizes the dependence on importseconomic returns close to home.Culinary tourism in Georgia has immense potential tofacilitate development of new quality tourism products andexperiences; on its part, the Georgian National TourismAdministration is doing its best to promote gastronomictourism both nationally and internationally. Promotionaland marketing activities include food fairs and events,cookery workshops, wine tastings, creation of food andwine brochures, and others. Overall, Georgia’s culinaryand wine sector plays an important social and economicrole. Based on the survey data, 35 % of internationalvisitors arrive to Georgia for tasting cuisine and wine. Itis our intention to create a stronger image for Georgia’sgastronomy and make the most of the culinary/wineheritage of the country.georgia.travel32 33
  19. 19. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismFood tourism inKazakhstanCommittee on Tourism, Ministry of Industryand New Technologies, Republic of KazakhstanTracing the country’s ancient history through its foodand welcoming guests with warm Kazakh hospitalityNational cuisine is an important factor in attracting foreignpeculiarities and traditions of the people. Undoubtedly,tourists that came to Kazakhstan want to taste the country’straditional dishes. Therefore, one of the most importantaspects of the tourism industry in the country is to familiarizevisitors with the national peculiarities of the Kazakh people’straditional cuisine.Gastronomic tourism in developed countries oftenfundamentally affects the choice of travel destination by thetraveller. People are willing to spend over a third of their tripcost on food. Sometimes the desire to enjoy unique cuisineis the main motivation for travelling. For this reason thereare gastronomic tours in Italy and France, whiskey tours inScotland, Nordic cuisine tours, etc.Kazakhstan has a lot of potential for the development of thistype of tourism. The long ethnic and cultural history of theproducts available, their processing methods, dish types andtheir cooking recipes, in the tradition of eating preferences andfoods that are restricted or prohibited. The way of organizingmeals, the rituals and etiquette involved and the material andspiritualcultureaspectsofeatingareinterestingandunusualtoo.The development of national Kazakh cuisine has been stronglyIndeed, many of the legends, rituals, ceremonies andcustoms surrounding meals are directly related to thenomadic lifestyle of Kazakhs in ancient times.Since ancient times, Kazakh national cuisine has been basedon the products of cattle breeding: meat and milk. Later, withproducts. Later, fruit and vegetables appeared regularly ontables. This seems to be the result of the Kazakh people’sgastronomic cultures. Like every sphere of human action,Kazakh food culture is changing, moving and improving. Butit has not lost its identity, and at a higher level it connects thenew with the old.In summer almost every Kazakh family prepares two oldnational drinks, known as “the drinks of heroes”. (this isespecially true for the inhabitants of rural areas but thetourists can also enjoy them in the city). The names ofis specially fermented mare’s milk known for its healingproperties far beyond the borders of Kazakhstan. Thesecond one is camel milk made in a similar way.Kazakh families they also widely prepare another drink:“airan”, sour milk diluted with water. It is drunk as arefreshing drink and many different cereal soups aredressed with it too. “Kurt” and “irimshik” are made from“airan”. “Kurt” is salty cottage cheese, rolled into balls anddried in the sun, and “irimshik” is fatty, crumbly cheese.As well as “kymyz” and “shubat”, strong black tea is oneof the most favourite drinks of Kazakhs who drink it at anytime of the year. Usually milk and cream are added to tea.But the main national dish of Kazakhs is meat. It isthe basis, pride and beauty of the Kazakh table or the“dastarkhan”. In the countryside, especially in winter themeat diet still dominates. Since ancient times, the ramwas the symbol of material wealth among the Kazakhpeople. The meaning of the ram as a symbol of earthlylife is shown through the custom of treating guests bycutting up the cooked ram and serving it to guests. Manycustoms associated with mutton consumption have beenpreserved to the present day.The most beloved and popular national meat dish is“beshbarmak”. It is consists of mutton and pieces ofdough boiled in broth. “Beshbarmak” in Kazakh meansfrom a large dish. Usually beshbarmak is preceded by“kuyrdak”, it is roast made from liver, lung, meat andpotatoes. Cut into thin slices of liver boiled with fat of thetail “kuirykbauyr”, as well as, delicious smoked sausages“kazy” and “shuzhyk” made of horse meat, are served ascold entrées.Baursaks are almost always an essential attribute of theKazakh table. Baursaks are pieces of sour dough friedsour dough or tary (roasted wheat) with milk or tea.Nowadays in the epoch of rapid expansion of more orpeoples in the material and domestic spheres is graduallybeing erased. But that is exactly what evokes a specialinterest of tourists in national cuisine, because the culinaryand customs.For a long time the most distinctive feature of the Kazakhpeoplewastheirhospitality.NowadaysKazakhgastronomyhas changed in many ways but its people have not lost theancient laws of hospitality. On the contrary, its boundarieshave extended and around today’s “dastarkhan” gathernot only Kazakhs but also guests who live in a large multi-national country: Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Uzbeks,Germans, Uigurs, Dungans, Koreans, etc.Modern Kazakh cuisine includes not only traditionalKazakh food but also popular Uzbek, Uighur, Russian,Tatar, Korean dishes among others. Maintaining purelynational features, sometimes you can see internationallines in modern Kazakh cuisine.Getting to know Kazakh cuisinethrough specialized toursIn order to become acquainted with the traditionalcuisine of the Kazakh people, visitors can take part in agourmet tour, which is best take in the Almaty region. Thisgastronomic tour is known as the “Dastarkhan tour”.Starting with an Almaty city tour and a visit of the city’sbest restaurants and wine-distilleries the tour programmeincludes a visit to Kegen village with its ethnographicmuseum – village where visitors can taste national Kazakhcuisine; participate in equestrian competitions and folka visit to one of the most beautiful lakes in Kazakhstan,Almaty to take part in an enchanting farewell dinner in therestaurant with traditional cuisine.We believe that gastronomic tourism is one of the mostinteresting and a cognitive type of tourism as it representsa means of intense integration between the countries ofpersonnel capable who, under market conditions can givenew impetus to this dynamic industry development.visitkazakhstan.kz34 35
  20. 20. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismGastronomicTourism in Korea:GlobalizingHansikJeon Yong-Chan,Director, Tourism Quality improvement Team, KoreaTourism OrganizationThe effects of globalization have helped people across theworld to become familiar with foreign cuisines, often withThis has created great potential for the promotion of Hansik(Korean cuisine) which has been further boosted by the greatimpact of the Korean wave (Hallyu) in the United States, Asiaand Europe. Today, Kimchi (fermented spicy cabbage), andbibimbab (rice mixed with vegetables and meat) are alreadyrenowned as healthy foods all throughout the world.In May 2009, the government-funded Hansik Foundation Actwas enacted, and the the Hansik Globalization DevelopmentAgency inaugurated, comprising 36 members from relevantgovernment departments, academic institutions and CEOsfrom the food industry. Indeed, the Korean Ministry of Food,Agriculture, Forest and Fisheries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairsand Trade, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and the Ministryof Knowledge and Economy, as well as local governmentsnationwide, have all been involved with strategies for Hansikglobalization, thus ensuring the long-term prosperity of the‘Hansik Globalization Project’.With the support of government and related institutions, foodindustries are seeking to perform their role on the world stagepromoting food exports and Korean food culture.Developing policy strategies for Koreancuisine to become a tourist attractionThe linkages between food and local, regional and nationaldevelopment and its impact in the tourism and travel industryare growing, and nations are now becoming more aware ofits importance. Since 1999, the task of turning traditional foodinto a tourism product for domestic and foreign tourists inKorea has been pursued with vigor.The Korea Tourism Organization has developed gastronomictours in Korea in collaboration with celebrities such astop chefs or gastronomists, as well as famous Koreanentertainers. This “celebrity promotion” of Korean cuisinesand travel destinations is attracting an increasing number oftourists each year. Also, combining gastronomic culture withTV shows, whose popularity helps to promote Korean cuisineand food culture, has been particularly effective.The Korea Tourism Organization’s Website offers acomprehensive introduction to local delicacies and foodproducts, and also to traditional Korean table manners,using detailed written descriptions and photos.Furthermore, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourismhas developed a tourism product based on the themeof Korean cuisine in which guests can participate in theprocess of making Korean food, including traditionalfermented foods such as kimchi, sun-dried sea salt, redpepper paste (gochujang), bean powder paste (doenjang),cured and preserved foods (jutkal), soy sauce (ganjang),etc. The aim is to extend such products to company-trips, training sessions for government employees, etc.The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism is bringingputting its best efforts into advertising Korean cuisineabroad. The Ministry is using overseas Korean CultureCenters and Korean plazas to offer classes on Koreancooking, to play videos publicizing Korean cuisine, displayphotos, distribute publicity materials and sponsor eventsfor visitors. In addition to this, the Ministry is sponsoringlarge key international meetings related to food such asthe 2012 General Meeting of the World Association ofChefs’ Societies.www.visitkorea.or.krJeon Yong-Chan36 37
  21. 21. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismA tasteof MoscowSergey Shpilko,Chairman, Moscow City Committee onTourism and Hotel Industry.Today gastronomic tourism is becoming more and morepopular around the world. For foreign tourists, a visit to Moscowis not just about monuments, architecture and other culturalattractions , but also getting to know the different aspects of theexciting and unique Russian culture . For this reason visiting arestaurant becomes a must for tourists wanting to taste a bitof the ethnic Russian cuisine. After all, gastronomy is not justone of the main cultural elements of this country, it’s a way toshare its customs, traditions and character.There are some traditional Russian dishes which are knownall over the world. For instance, the famous black breadknown in Russia since the IXth century, traditional porridges,birch juice.Russian national cuisine try to use our ancient recipesvisitors but also among local residents.However, Moscow is also known for its international cuisineoffering, those visiting the city can also enjoy typicalfood from almost all over the world: European, Russian,Japanese, Chinese, Italian, Mediterranean, Caucasian,French, Georgian, Fusion, American, etc. Moscow can satifyanybody’s wishes when it comes to food .There is no doubt that tourists have their own gastronomicpreferences: Europeans are normally interested in typicalRussian cuisine , while Chinese, Japanese and tourists fromSouth East Asia prefer, even when they are travelling, not tochange their habits regarding food and eat only in nationalrestaurants.There is also a whole segment of tourists who come toperiod. Apart from a wide range of excursion programs androutes around historical places, travellers have the possibilityto visit places related to the Soviet period, where they canand also the ever so peculiar atmosphere. Such restaurants,dining rooms and cafes are also very popular.In spring 2012 an exhaustive investigation of Moscow’srestaurant market was carried out. According to the resultsof the research, the volume of restaurants , bars, cafes andcanteens in Moscow outstripped the growth of those inSt. Petersburg by 2.6 percent last year, and in the all-Russian size of the market of public catering the share ofMoscow exceeded a share of St. Petersburg in 2,5 times.Restaurants within the structure of enterprises in thepublic catering sector of the Russian capital occupy twicea bigger share than in the northern capital.These researches testify that the Moscow market ofrestaurants, bars, cafes and canteens in 2011 grew byrestaurants, varies within 75 %. Regarding competitors,they are advanced by “fast food” institutions (about 60 %);about 14 % cafes and bars, other share is occupied byself-service cafeterias, and companies which perform adelivery at door/off-trade and street booths, stalls.According to the results provided by travel agencies’ polls, the sum which Europeans are ready to spend for lunch,averages between $8 and $10. There is a large number ofsuch fast food places and institutions of a casual segment,in other words, ‘democratic’ restaurants, where the bill perperson doesn’t exceed 1000 rubles.It is worth taking into consideration restaurants that arepart of the service infrastructure of all hotels — from 2-starsto 5-stars. First of all, it is focused on guest service. If theorganization is good enough such restaurants create notonly a positive image of a hotel, increases its popularity,but it also brings an essential income.The reception of tourists groups is another interestingpossibility for capital restaurants. Today tour operatorshave close contacts with 400 Moscow restaurants thatoffer an attractive menu to tourists. And no wonder, themajority are very interested in foreign tourists. At least,travel agencies are not short on demand.According to market researchers during 2011, about 4thousand restaurants operate in Moscow. More than a thirdof all Moscow restaurants are in the Central administrativedistrict, that is, in close proximity to the main sights andcapital museums.Ethnic cuisine is a very important segment of non-material culture for every country. Therefore we considerthat the support and promotion of gastronomic tourismin Moscow is a key element in the development of thetourism industry in our city.mos.ruSergey Shpilko38 39
  22. 22. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismMalaysia: at thecross-roads ofAsian foodcultureLee Choon Loong,President/CEO, DISCOVERYMICE MalaysiaMalaysia is a multiethnic and multicultural country and thistourism has been strategically positioned to ride on thecultural diversity of the country with Tourism Malaysia aptlyadopting the slogan – “Malaysia, Truly Asia.”Straits Settlements and the Spice RouteUNESCO World Heritage SiteThe root of Malaysia’s multi-ethnic society is attributed toone of the most important food ingredients in ancient andmodern times – spices. The importance of spices wasrecorded way back in the 1800’s, when the spice-producingSouth East Asia region was a thriving trading hub. TheStraits of Malacca located between the island of Sumatra(Indonesia) and the Malay Peninsular (Malaysia) was animportant sea route for transportation of valuable tea andspice cargos between Europe and Asia.but it was a tumultuous period when Portuguese tradersfollowed by the Dutch and the British fought over the controlof land as well as the precious spices bound for Europeanmarkets. The early spice traders and workers comprised ofPortuguese, Dutch, English, Arabians, Chinese and Indiansand they were also Christians, Buddhists and Muslims. Thespices together with their nationalities and their religionstourism.At the Straits of Malacca, a British trading company controlledimportant spice trading ports at Penang and Malacca (nowStraits Settlements were established in 1826, more than190 years ago. It was colonised by the British Crown for130 years before merging with other States to form Malayaand gained independence in 1957.and the Spice Route, together with the restored builtinternationally recognised with the inscription of Georgetown(Penang) and Malacca as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.An Asian Gastronomic Cultural ExperienceWith the abundance of aromatic spices, the culinaryexceptionally strong compared to the blander Europeancuisine, but it was the mass migration of Chinese fromSouthern China and Indians from Southern India in thelate 1800’s to work in the booming tin mining and rubberplantation industries that brought an extraordinarythe 1980’s, Malaysia’s tourism industry started to growand the multicultural culinary landscape progressed toprovide a truly Malaysian gastronomic cultural experiencefor tourists.The various ethnic groups in Malaysia have their owntraditional dishes but over the years the culinary industryhas evolved to deliver modern fusion Malaysian cuisinebased on a subtle balance of tropical spices andingredients used in Malay, Chinese and Indian cuisines.This went well with tourists as they could taste Malaysiandishes yet able to differentiate the ethnic origins of eachdish. In this regard, Malaysian cuisine, widely enjoyedby Malaysia’s multi-ethnic population may well be trulycuisine has become a positive factor in attractingwere from the Asian region.While some countries try to attract tourists through theirmono-ethnic gastronomic cuisines, Malaysia welcomesMalaysian cuisine. Based on many surveys, the majoritygastronomic comfort in Malaysian cuisine, accentuatedwith various cultural experiences depending on thehost’s ethnic background.Food Street, Street Food and Budget Tourist HubsFood tourism in Malaysia is particularly prominent incity centre areas where the Government has allowedthe development of “night food streets” offering “streeta unique cultural habit among Malaysians who naturallylove to eat; from morning to the small hours of the nextmorning. The food stalls, many of them having operatedfor generations, offer an extensive array of Malaysianfavourite food delights and snacks, where one wouldbe astounded by the sheer variety. In recent years, newbudget hotels and accommodation have mushroomed intourist hubs in city centres as well as in suburban areas.Food streets and street food is often regarded as acelebration of Malaysian local culture and a touristattraction by itself. While Asian tourists joined locals todive into steaming hot local delicacies, western touristsoften choose to sit in awe of the festival-like atmosphereand quietly absorb the sights, sounds and smells of foodand people, and always with their cameras ready.The linkage between food and tourism is most profoundin Muslim tourism. Access to halal food is the principalcriteria for Muslim tourists to choose their holidaydestination. Across Peninsular Malaysia, food servedin all restaurants except some Chinese and Westernrestaurants are halal. The convenient access toestimated at US$126.1 billion a year.In a recent survey conducted by 2 Muslim specialistorganisations, nearly 70 percent of Muslim travellerssurveyed listed halal food as their top priority, followed byoverall price (53 percent) and Muslim-friendly experience(49 percent). The 2012 study also reported Malaysiaas one of the top 3 preferred destinations for Muslimtravellers. Malaysia recorded 3.6 million tourist arrivalsfrom Muslim countries, including Indonesia, Brunei andcountries in the Middle East in 2011.discoverymice.comLee Choon Loong40 41
  23. 23. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismThe essence ofUzbek cuisine:morning pilauElena Ikaeva,National Company “Uzbektourism”, UzbekistanThe formation of Uzbek cuisine goes centuries back throughhistory. Like its ethnos, culture and art, it has taken shapeover the space of thousands of years. Given Uzbekistan’sother nations populating the Central Asian region, it is quiteof their culinary experiences. Thanks to the exuberance ofcrops, fruit and vegetables as well as meat and dairy producegrown on the Uzbek soil, the Republic’s national cuisineproves to be one of the richest and most diverse cuisinesin the world. Moreover, it is presently acquiring ever greaterpopularity throughout the globe alongside the celebratedcuisines of India, China, Japan, Thailand and other easternstates. Uzbek restaurants have opened in many cities aroundthe world often with easily recognizable names such as“Uzbekistan”, “Bukhara”, “Samarkand”, “Khodja Nasreddin”,“1001 Nights” etcFor anyone who is new to Uzbek cuisine, the startingprevalent dish, symbolizing national hospitality. Given itsuniversal character, pilau can be dietry, for special occasionsor a simple everyday staple. Uzbek families serve it withoutfail on Thursdays and Sundays and always to mark a festiveoccasion. What’s more, since it bears a huge ritual meaning, itcrowns the table during wedding ceremonies, funeral repasts,religious rites and the like. Today dozens of classic Uzbekpilau recipes can be widely found in cookery books and onthe internet, with each of them containing its own peculiarfeature. Some cooks prefer adding raisins or barberry, whileothers cannot imagine pilau without capsicum or crocus. Thesame is true of their selection of rice varieties – kenzha, lazer,devzira etc. For all these individual preferences and versions,one thing remains immutable: when cooking pilau, the Uzbeksuse only mutton, the main source of protein in their nationalcuisine. There are also distinctive regional peculiarities of howpilau is cooked in Samarkand, Bukhara, Ferghana, Khorezmand other provinces of Uzbekistan. What’s more, each familyboasts its own recipe of this favourite dish.Visitors to the country cannot fail to notice the importanceof ‘nakhorgi osh’ the morning pilau ceremony. Intendedexclusively for men, it takes place at dawn, after the morningprayers. Though the morning pilau ceremony remainspopular, these days it is increasingly conducted during thelunch-hour, which is far more convenient for working people.Osh is also served to celebrate a national wedding ceremony– “nikokh”, as well as sunnat toy, funerals (on the 20thday), anniversaries or jubilees. As for jubilee occasions, itshould be observed that in the Muslem world, marking bycelebration birthdays or jubilees, in the European senseof the word, was not accepted. But festivities dedicatedto the 63rd birthday (“paigambar yoshi” – ProphetMuhammad’s age of death) are widely held in traditionsthat have survived through to the modern age.Many people including acquaintances, friends, relativesand neighbours are invted to nakhorgi osh. At the sametime, each of those invited may come with his friend, sonor sometimes with all the males of his family. Many guestsarrive from other towns or even from abroad. As a result,such ceremonies number from 100 to 3,000 visitors,depending on where they are held and the host’s socialcontributes to the strengthening and further developmentof close ties between kinsfolk, acquaintances andneighbours, irrespective of their nationality.Exactly how and when the morning pilau tradition aroseremains unknown. It is supposed that it began takingshape in Tashkent in the 1920s as an attempt to feedpeople, engaged in hard physical labour, early in themorning, before their working day started. There aresome data, however, that testify to far earlier instances oforganizing mass pilau-eating ceremonies. Legend has itthat the outstanding poet and humanitarian Alisher Navoifed up to 1,500 students every day with this extremelynourishing and excellent dish. The invention of the pilauas Amir Temur and even Alexander Makedonsky, whohad to provide their enormous armies with the good foodon a march. And pilau was the only dish that met all therequirements.Needless to say, the organization of such a mass event ona large scale requires a great deal of serious planning andorganization. With this in view, relatives assemble severaltimes for special meetings (“maslakhat”), during whichpilua, called “maslakhat osh”, is also served. On the eve ofthe morning pilau ceremony, a group of men meet togetherat the selected venue to cut the carrots required for themeal with male participants, mainly elderly near relationsand friends, bringing with them their own knives and planksto do the job. Sometimes, younger ones can participatein the process, too. In the course of cutting carrots intopieces, unhurried conversations are held. This processobvious, in terms of passing national traditions fromfather to son. When the work is done, tables are laidfor all its participators, with drinks being served (except inthe case of funerals). Very often, such feasts drag on tillmidnight. And since pilau should be ready at daybreak,they soon start preparing large kettles, hearths and so on.Making a precise calculation of how much rice to cook isa very complex task, as nobody knows for sure how manyamount of pilau (in cases where not all the guests aretreated) is regarded as a good indicator, testifying to ahigh degree of the ceremony’s attendance and, therefore,to a profound respect for the family, which organizes it.In such cases, an additional amount of pilau is quicklybrought from near-by cafes or late-comers are served onlyof pilau is left after the ceremony is over, it is distributedamong relatives, with the remainder delivered to children’shomes and student hostels.Morning pilau is, thus, not so much a meal (although theentire amount of this delicious dish used to be eaten) asa vital, unalterable tradition of sharing meal with eachother, which, at the same time, affords its participantsan opportunity to meet clever and helpful individuals,inaccessible in other places, to carry on importantnegotiations, to discuss several issues, to solve problemsor simply to associate. Nakhorgi osh, in this respect, is aunique venue, where social interaction on such a massivescale is possible.uzbektourism.uzElena Ikaeva42 43
  24. 24. BusinessOrganizations
  25. 25. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismTasting Spain:The Creation of aproduct club forGastronomic TourismVice-President of the Tasting Spain Association,First Vice-Mayor of Valladolid (Spain)In 2011, Spain received 56.7 million tourists, generatingreceipts of more than 43 billion euros. Spain is ranked fourthin the world by the UNWTO in terms of international touristarrivals, behind France, the United States and China; andit is second in tourism receipts, behind the United States.Moreover, tourism accounts for 11% of Spanish GDP and11.5% of jobs.Among the reasons for visiting Spain, oenogastronomy isone of the fastest-growing motivations over the past years.Out of these 56.7 million international tourists, more than 5million said that the enjoyment of Spanish food and wineconstituted one of their main reasons for choosing Spainas a tourism destination. These visits generated receipts ofover 5 billion euros and the visitors rated their satisfactionat 8.3 out of 10. For its part, the food and agriculture sectorin Spain represents 7.6% of GDP and employs more than400,000 people.Tourism’s leadership position in Spain and the internationalrecognition of Spanish gastronomy, referring to aspectssuch as its regional diversity, the Mediterranean diet, theNew Basque Cuisine in the 1980s, the New Spanish Cuisineled by Ferrán Adrià, or the tapas culture, have promptedmunicipal governments, hotel and restaurant operators,the development of gastronomic tourism: TASTING SPAIN.This initiative, promoted by the Spanish Association ofDestinations for the Development of Culinary Tourism,consisting of 23 destinations, the Spanish Federation ofHospitality (FEHR), the International Organization of Chefsand Cooks (Euro-Toques) and the Cultural Federation of theAssociation of Cooks and Confectioners (FACYRE), seeksto capitalize on the crest of popularity that Spanish cuisineand gastronomy is currently enjoying both within the countryand abroad, in order to ensure its continuity and to seize theopportunity it represents for the development and promotionof tourist destinations.TASTING SPAIN is based on the idea of presenting therichness and variety of Spain’s culture, history and traditionsthrough its chefs, its food products, its wines, and its territory.The challenge is to introduce our country’s cultural heritageto visitors through tastings, experiences and purchases.TASTING SPAIN came into being within the conceptualframework of the Spanish Tourism Plan Horizon 2020,which recommended the promotion and creation of newnetworks of products that make it possible to strengthendistinctive and high value-added product offerings andto encourage the joint management of tourism productswere:To develop the “Spanish Experience” by promotingthe generation of tourism products with high value forthe client.New models of public and public-private cooperation.Deseasonalization and socio-territorial rebalancing.Tourism cooperation for international promotion.In this regard, the product club TASTING SPAIN has thefollowing goals:To broaden the concept of food tourism by developingthe concept of authentic Spanish gastronomy linkedto the territory.Developing experiences revolving around Spanishfood culture.Creation of different categories of tourism products.Broadening the content and adding value to currentofferings.Creating a brand that represents the products relatedto the varied range of Spanish gastronomic offerings.To develop more ambitious and innovative strategiesand formats for promotion and marketing.To identify and capture new markets for Spanishtourism destinations.One of the main keys to success of Tasting Spain hasconsisted of considering the destination as the main focusof attention, as it is the space where the gastronomicexperience is enjoyed.The concept of Culinary Destination consists in combiningthe tourism resources and services of a territory withits gastronomic products in keeping with the followingvalues:conceived to provide an authentic experience,aimed at creating a unique tourism product based onthe quality and identity of the destination,optimizing joint promotion and marketing,seeking to increase the level of satisfaction of thedemand,fostering local networking, andseeking the overall socio-economic development ofthe territory.TASTING SPAIN is based onthe idea of presenting therichness and variety of Spain’sculture, history and traditionsthrough its chefs, its foodproducts, its wines, and itsterritory.tastingspain.es46 47