research skills for the 21st century - secondary


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  • Student research Problems they have Struggle with it? Lovin it?
  • After watching: think of questions you need to ask in order to extend and clarify your understanding - share (with students would do this on chart paper) Hand out, Developing questions Using the 5’s and How – in groups develop more questions about the Historica Minute using this framework The do pg 11, extend your thinking using these prompts, based on the minute Discuss this improves level and quality of questions Individually develop questions for your own topic considering the 5 W’s/How and the higher level types Would then conference with students the monitor their questions/ try to focus research by completing the focus your question section
  • When students are asked how they like to get their information for school assignments, the Net is the clear winner over books from a library. Sixty-two per cent of Grade 4 students prefer the Internet, while 38 per cent choose the library. Ninety-one per cent of Grade 11 students prefer the Internet, with only nine per cent choosing the library.
  • Starting with heavily used servers and popular pages a software program called a “spider” crawls the web. It will follow the links of the pages on each site. Have built in method to detect spamming To make for more useful results, most search engines store more than just the word and URL. An engine might store the number of times that the word appears on a page. The engine might assign a weight to each entry, with increasing values assigned to words as they appear near the top of the document, in sub-headings, in links, in the meta tags or in the title of the page. Location and frequency method is used – where it appears in the page (near the beginning is better) and how often it appears
  • Go in and change an entry in wikipedia – discuss how this affects the validity of wikipedia as a research source.
  • All sites except .edu and .gov can be purchased!
  • Truncate the address to learn more about who hosts the site
  • Type in the website address to find out who owns the site
  • Do a search for martin luther king in google Go to the website Read some of the content At the bottom is a link to stormfront – click on the link Note – make sure both and are unblocked by your site admin before you do this.
  • Looking for relationships Teach students to put one piece of information per sticky note.
  • Webbing- a strategy that uses the relative size of circles to indicate the importance of ideas and lines to indicate relationships. Lines are used to connect one circle to another to indicate that the concept in the connected circles are related in some way.
  • The Table or Grid organizes information under categories and subcategories using columns and rows.
  • The Table or Grid organizes information under categories and subcategories using columns and rows.
  • research skills for the 21st century - secondary

    1. 1. Research Skills for the 21st Century Greg Scotchburn and Isabelle Hobbs December 2008
    2. 2. Student Research Habits Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    3. 3. Information Literacy “ Information Literacy is defined as “the ability to acquire, critically evaluate, select, use, create and communicate information in ways which lead to knowledge and wisdom” (Information Studies K-12, OLA) Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    4. 4. Information Literacy in the Workplace Presentation created by G. Scotchburn Finds best solutions for family counseling Social Worker Reads journal for latest procedures Doctor Checks local building codes City Planner Revises menu to improve nutrition Chef Compares specs of new models for emissions testing Automotive Shop Owner Gathers archival background for novel Writer Updates knowledge of computer systems Video Game Designer Research Activity Field From TDSB Information Literacy presentation
    5. 5. DDSB Information Literacy Skills Continuum Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    6. 6. Designing Research Assignments – Some Models <ul><ul><li>Take a position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Re-Create Model </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn Loertscher, David and others. Ban Those Bird Units 15 Models For Teaching and Learning in Information-rich and Technology-rich Environments . Salt Lake City UT: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2005.
    7. 7. Take a Position Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    8. 8. Compare and Contrast Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    9. 9. Re-create Model Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    10. 10. Preparing for Research Define, Explore, Identify, Relate
    11. 11. Explore <ul><ul><li>You are researching MARC records – develop 5 questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources – Grolier (no username or password necessary at school, home access for students and teachers username: durham password: research12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Encyclopedia ( ) no useraname or password required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other encyclopedias (ex. Worldbook, Britannica),, library resources, textbook </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    12. 12. Setting the Context: Developing Questions Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    13. 13. Think Literacy Resources <ul><ul><li>Access Think Literacy documents online at: </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    14. 14. Accessing Resources <ul><ul><li>Locate, Select, Gather, Collaborate </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    15. 15. Where can they look? <ul><ul><li>Internet searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopaedia/Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    16. 16. School work – Finding and Evaluating Information <ul><ul><li>The Internet is the clear winner over books from a library: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grade 4: Sixty-two per cent of students prefer the Internet, while 38 per cent choose the library </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grade 11: Ninety-one per cent of students prefer the Internet, with only nine per cent choosing the library. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From: Young Canadians in a Wired World Study (2005) </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    17. 17. Where do they go? Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    18. 18. How do search engines work? Presentation created by G. Scotchburn From:
    19. 19. Google <ul><ul><li>“ Anatomy of a Search” in the Skills Continuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No human review! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keywords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity (as determined by how often other sites link to the page) </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    20. 20. Presentation created by G. Scotchburn Paid results Computer Generated Results
    21. 21. How much for that Keyword? <ul><ul><li>Video - Bidding on keywords </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    22. 22. Buying Keywords <ul><ul><li>How much does a keyword cost? </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    23. 23. Searching Hints Presentation created by G. Scotchburn From:
    24. 24. Searching Hints – Boolean Searches <ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searches automatically use AND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR must be capitalized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT is represented by a “-” sign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try the advanced search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juno Beach –Florida </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    25. 25. Searching Hints <ul><ul><li>Quotation marks to finding an exact phrase – great for finding plagiarized papers! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ctrl f to find words on a page </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    26. 26. Evaluating Websites <ul><ul><li>When students are asked what Internet-related subjects they would like to learn about in school, the top choice for 68 per cent is “How to tell if information you find on the Net is true or not.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    27. 27. Evaluating Websites <ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity/Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    28. 28. Check for Authority <ul><ul><li>Who is the author of the site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the authority or expertise of the individual or group? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What else comes up when you type the author’s name into a search engine? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the source have a political or business agenda? </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    29. 29. Wikipedia ( ) <ul><ul><li>What is a wiki? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A wiki is computer software that allows users to easily create, edit and link web pages. (definition from Wikipedia of course!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create your own? </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    30. 30. Objectivity/Bias <ul><ul><li>Check for any indication of bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the domain address: </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn commercial site .com Canadian site .ca organization or advocacy group .org British site .uk government site .gov personal web page ~ educational site .edu
    31. 31. Reading a website address Truncate the address to find more information Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    32. 32. Objectivity and Bias <ul><ul><li>Find the owner of a site at: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    33. 33. Objectivity/Bias <ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of the site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the source have a political or business agenda? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there an organization sponsoring the site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sponsored by a political, business or advocacy group? If so, what can you find out about that group? </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    34. 34. Objectivity and Bias Example <ul><ul><li>Students have been asked to research the life of Martin Luther King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to google and search for Martin Luther King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the top hits in Google is: </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a good source? </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    35. 35. Objectivity/Bias <ul><ul><li>Who is the intended audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the information free from advertising? </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    36. 36. Content and Accuracy <ul><ul><li>Can the information be verified using another source? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there documentation to indicate the sources of the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the site provide a list of sources or a Works Cited page? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you locate any of the source material? How reliable is this material? </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    37. 37. Content and Accuracy <ul><li>Students are researching and come up with the following site while searching the web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of Dihydrogen Monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What sites link to this site in Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>link: </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    38. 38. Content and Accuracy <ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are there links to other credible sites with additional information? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the site provide a link for emailing the author or webmaster? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did you reach this site through a reputable link? </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    39. 39. Authority - Links <ul><ul><li>What sites link to the site you are investigating? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the link command in Google: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    40. 40. Currency <ul><ul><li>Does the site clearly state a date of creation or a date for the most recent update? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the information cover recent changes or advances in the field or topic you are researching? </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    41. 41. Online Databases/Encyclopedias <ul><li>Encyclopedias/databases have many advantages over the “free” internet… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized and authoritative information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No pop-up commercial advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for educational research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age appropriate articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer searching </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    42. 42. <ul><ul><li>eLibrary - contains aggregates full-text periodicals, international newswires, classic books, hundreds of maps, thousands of photographs, as well as major works of literature, art and reference.  Students can tap into over 2,000 full-text and multimedia sources, plus access History Study Center and ProQuest Learning: Literature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No username/password necessary from school at home username: durham password: research12 </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    43. 43. <ul><li>SIRS Researcher - a highly-acclaimed general reference database containing thousands of full-text articles exploring social, scientific, health, historic, business, economic, political and global issues. Articles and graphics are carefully selected from 1,500 domestic and international publications according to strict criteria with regard to content and age appropriateness. Database features include World Almanac excerpts, Maps and a Directory of Publications. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask your teacher-librarian for password information </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    44. 44. Thomson Gale <ul><ul><li>A number of resources you may consider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct access from school - only a password is necessary from home: research12 </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    45. 45. Processing Information Analyse/Evaluate, Test, Sort, Synthesize Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    46. 46. Making Jot notes <ul><ul><li>Marzano says that notes provide students with a clear picture of what the teacher considers important. Notes provide student with a model of how notes might be taken. All sort of ways but want to avoid plagiarism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes/summarizing are two of the most powerful skills students can master. They provide students with tools for identifying and understanding the most important aspect of why they are learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Information Literacy Skills Continuum has several examples of jot notes templates </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    47. 47. Smart Ideas <ul><ul><li>Ministry Licensed software </li></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn
    48. 48. Presentation created by G. Scotchburn Fish Bone Good Grades Cause 2 Cause 4 Cause 1 Cause 3 Good Study Habits Sufficient Sleep Healthy Diet In-class Work
    49. 49. Presentation created by G. Scotchburn Pro/Con or Agree/Disagree Chart Topic: Hockey Violence
    50. 50. Transferring Learning <ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Tools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photostory, WordPerfect, MS Publisher, MovieMaker, Audacity, Dreamweaver, PowerPoint, Corel Presentations, Smart Ideas, PhotoShop </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation created by G. Scotchburn