School & Society PowerPoint - Oct 3

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University of Minnesota
Fall 2006

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School & Society PowerPoint - Oct 3

  1. 1. Philosophical Perspectives of the Aims of Education Thomas J. Delaney, Ed.S., M.A. School and Society October 3, 2006
  2. 2. Philosophical Questions <ul><li>Why do we teach and educate people? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Potential, Social Justice, Self-Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the aims and values of education, the role of the teacher, etc.? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Flourishing, Moral Society, Economic Utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentor, Curriculum Technician, Social Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How ought we to teach and educate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Society, the Child, Global Competition </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Philosophical Questions <ul><li>Why do you think it is important to teach and educate people? What is the most importantreason? What experiences, thinking, and values are you drawing upon for your answer? </li></ul><ul><li>Based on why you think it is important to teach and educate people, what do you think are the aims or goals of education? Are they person-centered, or social? </li></ul><ul><li>Given what you think are the aims or goals of education, what is it most important to teach, and how should it be taught? </li></ul><ul><li>Given what you think are the aims or goals of education, and what should be taught, what is the role of the teacher, and how does a teacher accomplish progress? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Philosophical Questions Role of the Teacher Critical Curriculum Aims of Education Importance of Education
  5. 5. Exploring Education <ul><li>Sadovnik, Cookson, and Semel (2006), Chapter 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Present six philosophies of education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existentialism & Phenomenology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-Marxism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postmodernist & Critical Theory </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Missing: Ethic of Care <ul><li>Nel Noddings </li></ul><ul><li>Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>The Challenge to Care in Schools (1992) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ethic of Care <ul><li>Being cared for is fundamental for moral development. </li></ul><ul><li>To “care” for someone means to receive their situation as if it is our own, and have that person receive our care. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving and receiving care affirms self-identity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ethic of Care <ul><li>Four moral educational modes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ethic of Care <ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We do not merely tell [our students] to care and give them texts to read on the subject; we demonstrate our caring in our relations with them.” (Noddings, 1995, p. 190, in Bergman 2004, p. 154). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Professors of education and school administrators cannot be sarcastic and dictatorial with teachers in the hope that coercion will make them care for students’ Such inauthenticity is also morally significant: ‘the likely outcome is that teachers will then turn attention protectively to themselves rather than lovingly to their students” (Noddings, 1992, p. 22, in Bergaman, 2004, p. 154). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ethic of Care <ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Care theorists agree with Socrates that an education worthy of the name must help students to examine their own lives and explore the great questions human beings have always asked” (Noddings, 1995, p. 191, in Bergman, 2004, p. 155). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dialogue, in other words, is the way to model the caring ideal in communication. As a stimulus to reflection, it is an especially powerful tool for promoting the building of students’ ethical ideals” (Berman, 2004, p.155; Noddings, 2002, p. 107). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ethic of Care <ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Children need to participate in caring with adult models who show them how to care, talk with them about the difficulties and rewards of such work, and demonstrate in their own work that caring is important” (Noddings, 1995, p. 191, in Bergman, 2004, p. 155). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settings include not just school, but the community as well. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ethic of Care <ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When we confirm someone, we identify a better self and encourage its development’ but ‘we do not posit a single ideal for everyone and then announce “high expectations for all’” … Rather we recognise something admirable, or at least acceptable, struggling to emerge in each person we encounter” (Noddings 1995, p. 192, in Bergman, 2004, p. 155). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation of individuals, and cultures. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Where do you live? <ul><li>Take a look at your personal philosophical views of education and the handout on Sadovnik et al. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a particular philosophical orientation that your views fit into more than others? What is it? Why doesn’t your personal view fit perfectly into that category? </li></ul><ul><li>If you are an “eclectic” type, do you see any potential conflicts between the different philosophical perspectives? How would you resolve them? </li></ul>
  14. 14. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>Can we take a particular philosophical question, and link it to educational systems and teaching? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try the question: </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is a good education?” </li></ul>
  15. 15. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>“ What is good for human beings?” </li></ul><ul><li>Martha Nussbaum (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shape of the Human Form of Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The human body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity for pleasure and pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive capability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early infant development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation with other human beings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relatedness to other species and to nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humor and play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separateness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>Martha Nussbaum (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Human Functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to live to the end of a complete human life, as far as is possible; not dying prematurely, or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to have good health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction; being able to move from place to place. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>Martha Nussbaum (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Human Functionalities (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to avoid unnecessary and nonbeneficial pain and to have pleasurable experiences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to use the five senses; being able to imagine, to think, and to reason. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to have attachments to things and persons outside ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence, in general, to love, grieve, to feel longing and gratitude. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>Martha Nussbaum (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Human Functionalities (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s own life. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to live for and with others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of familial and social interaction. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>Martha Nussbaum (1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Human Functionalities (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to live one’s own life and nobody else’s; being able to live one’s own life in one’s very own surroundings and context. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. From Philosophy to Practice <ul><li>Eight Core “Quality of Life” Components (Schalock) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional well-being; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal relationships; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>material well-being; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal development; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical well-being; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-determination; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social inclusion; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rights. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Improving Secondary Education and Transition Using Research-Based Standards and Indicators An initiative of the National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition Supported by the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition
  22. 22. National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition (NASET) <ul><li>Purposes : </li></ul><ul><li>- To bring together a national, voluntary coalition to create a shared agenda on the improvement of secondary education and transition policies and programs for all youth. </li></ul><ul><li>- To begin to prioritize and address significant issues of national scale that have a positive impact on secondary education and transition services and policies for all youth </li></ul>
  23. 23. NASET Framework <ul><li>Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Career Preparatory Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Youth Development and Youth Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Family Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting Activities </li></ul>
  24. 24. Youth Development and Youth Leadership <ul><li>Families promote healthy youth development when they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide support; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have positive family communication; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are involved in their adolescent’s school; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have clear rules and consequences and monitor their adolescent’s whereabouts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide positive, responsible role models for other adults, adolescents, and siblings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expect their adolescent to do well; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spend time together. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Youth Development and Youth Leadership <ul><li>Schools promote healthy youth development when they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expect commitment from youth; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a caring school climate; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have clear rules and consequences; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide positive, responsible adult role models; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expect youth to do well. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Youth Development and Youth Leadership <ul><li>Communities promote healthy youth development when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adults advocate for youth; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neighbors monitor youths’ behavior; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adults model positive, responsible, and healthy behavior; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>youth model positive, responsible, and healthy behavior; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>youth programs are available (Konopka Institute, 2000, pp. 3-4). </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Youth Development and Youth Leadership <ul><li>3.1 Youth acquire the skills, behaviors, and attitudes that enable them to learn and grow in self-knowledge, social interaction, and physical and emotional health. </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Youth understand the relationship between their individual strengths and desires and their future goals and have the skills to act on that understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 Youth have the knowledge and skills to demonstrate leadership and participate in community life. </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 Youth demonstrate the ability to make informed decisions for themselves. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Youth Development and Youth Leadership <ul><li>What links do you see between Martha Nussbaum and the NASET standard? </li></ul><ul><li>Pick one NASET standard, and: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the curriculum and the role of the teacher at the secondary and elementary level in preparing students to meet that standard? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering your discipline of teaching (math, social studies, etc.), what will be your particular role in preparing students to meet that standard? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Bergman, R. (2004). Caring for the ethical ideal: Nel Noddings on moral education. Journal of Moral Education , 33 (2), 149-162. </li></ul><ul><li>National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition (2005). National standards and quality indicators: Transition toolkit for systems improvement. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. </li></ul><ul><li>Noddings, N. (1984/2003). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education . University of California Press. </li></ul><ul><li>---. (1992/2005). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education . Teachers College Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nussbaum, M. (1992). Human Functioning and social justice: In defense of Aristotelian essentialism,” Political Theory , 20:2, 202-246. </li></ul><ul><li>Sadovnik, A. R., Cookson, P. W., & Semel, S. F. (2006). Exploring education . Boston: Pearson. </li></ul><ul><li>Wehmeyer, M., & Schalock, R. (2001). Self-Determination and quality of life: Implications for special education services and supports.” Focus on Exceptional Children, 33, 1-17. </li></ul>

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