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Fall of the berlin wall

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Yr 1 University lecture about the fall of the Berlin Wall

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Fall of the berlin wall

  1. 1. The Fall of the Wall Richard M McKenzie MA – Reading University © University of Reading 2006 www.reading.ac.uk 1
  2. 2. Die Mauer • 155km long • 302 Observation Towers • 3.6m High 2
  3. 3. Germany Divided • Europe Divided • More than 2 million soldiers based in Central Europe • “Iron Curtain” Solid • No change for 30 years • “I like Germany so much that I am glad there are 2 of them…” 3
  4. 4. Cold War Cools Down • • 1979 NATO-Doppelbeschluss 1980 Poland in revolt – Solidarity – 1981 Marshal Law • • 1982 Brezhnev dies 1985 Gorbachev – Perestroika – Glasnost • 1985-88 Reagan/Gorbachev summits: – Geneva, Switzerland, Reykjavik, Moscow • • • 1986 Chernobyl 1989 Opening of Hungarian Borders 1989 Tiananmen Square 4
  5. 5. Mikhail S Gorbachev • “…our common European Home…” • “…the Sinatra doctrine…” • “…Those who arrive too late are punished by like itself……” 5
  6. 6. DDR Reaction “…if your neighbours was redecorating, did that mean you have to as well?...” 6
  7. 7. Growth Of Opposition • Protestant Church – Space for thought • Peace Movement – Youth – Fear of Nuclear destruction – Opposition to militarisation of East Germany • Bausoldaten • Women’s Groups • Artists 7
  8. 8. The Protestant Revolution • Breath-taking Change – – – – – – – – – 1988 Soviet Magazine Sputnik banned Jan 1989 Arrests at Rosa Luxemburg demonstration May SED falsified local Election results May Opening of Hungarian Border • 6,000 people fled to Hungary June Tiananmen Square Massacre Summer GDR citizens occupy West German embassies in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Berlin • 15,000 people escape August Hungary recognises escaping GDR citizens as refugees Summer Honecker on leave due to bladder cancer September “sealed trains” of refugees from Czechoslovakia 8
  9. 9. The Protestant Revolution • Breath-taking Change – Oct 1989 40 years of GDR celebrated – Oct 1989 “Gorby Save us” – Oct growth of new opposition groups • New Forum, Democratic Awakening… – Monday demonstrations in Leipzig 25,000 people – Military forces despatched to Leipzig while Monday demos spread – Oct 18th Honecker ousted by Egon Krenz – “Wir blieben hier….” – West Germany refuses to extend credits…. – Nov 7th Politburo reorganised and more freedoms discussed – Nov 9th Wall opens – 4,000 people leaving GDR a week – December Politburo Resigns – December 1989 SED changes name to SED-PDS 9
  10. 10. 2 States? • Helmut Kohl – Grabs initiative – 28th Nov 10 Point Plan – Calmed European, US and USSR fears – Negotiated the bankers – Unity Chancellor 10
  11. 11. DDR 1949-1990 • Socialist alternative to capitalist W Germany • Anti Fascist • SED leading role • Never really independent • Possible to live an ordinary life 11
  12. 12. www.germanwarfilm.co.uk 12

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