LightSHIP<br />Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in<br />East Africa<br />G. J. G. Gluth, W. Z. Taf...
Urban population<br />*projection<br />Urban population in Africa<br />World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision; Un...
Need for affordable building materials<br />Large increase in urban population<br />e.g., population of Addis Ababa has do...
The LightSHIP project<br />Partners:<br /><ul><li>EiABC / Addis Ababa University
KIST Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing
German-African Business Association
Consido AG</li></ul>Addis Ababa<br />African partners<br />Kigali<br />Johannesburg<br />European partners<br />www.google...
<ul><li>Generation of a continuing scientific partnership in the sector of building materials research
Analysis of problems and possibilities of the participating African countries related to the design, application and testi...
Evaluation of possible approaches to overcome these problems and ultimately to develop new building materials for East Africa
Preparatory tests on available building materials
Development and preparation of follow-up cooperation</li></ul>Project objectives<br />
Specifications for building materials<br /><ul><li>Pre-fabricated elements are to be prefered.
optimised fabrication process and minimization of risk of failures
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africa re:load 14 Gluth - Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in East Africa

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africa re:load 14 Gluth - Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in East Africa

  1. 1. LightSHIP<br />Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in<br />East Africa<br />G. J. G. Gluth, W. Z. Taffese, G. S. Kumaran, H. C. Uzoegbo, H.-C. Kühne<br />
  2. 2. Urban population<br />*projection<br />Urban population in Africa<br />World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision; United Nations: New York, 2008.<br />
  3. 3. Need for affordable building materials<br />Large increase in urban population<br />e.g., population of Addis Ababa has doubled nearly every decade<br /><ul><li>Associated problem of enormous pressure on social and physical infrastructures (slums)</li></ul>Alemayehu, E. Y. PhD Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2008.<br /><ul><li>Large need for affordable buidling materials to construct housings, public buildings etc.</li></li></ul><li>Magnesia boards<br />Approach in Addis Ababa: production of partition boards from magnesium oxychloride cement<br />
  4. 4. The LightSHIP project<br />Partners:<br /><ul><li>EiABC / Addis Ababa University
  5. 5. KIST Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
  6. 6. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
  7. 7. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing
  8. 8. German-African Business Association
  9. 9. Consido AG</li></ul>Addis Ababa<br />African partners<br />Kigali<br />Johannesburg<br />European partners<br />www.google.de/maps<br />
  10. 10. <ul><li>Generation of a continuing scientific partnership in the sector of building materials research
  11. 11. Analysis of problems and possibilities of the participating African countries related to the design, application and testing of building materials
  12. 12. Evaluation of possible approaches to overcome these problems and ultimately to develop new building materials for East Africa
  13. 13. Preparatory tests on available building materials
  14. 14. Development and preparation of follow-up cooperation</li></ul>Project objectives<br />
  15. 15. Specifications for building materials<br /><ul><li>Pre-fabricated elements are to be prefered.
  16. 16. optimised fabrication process and minimization of risk of failures
  17. 17. Elements should be easily transportable and easy to assemble.
  18. 18. The materials should be produced with the highest possible fraction of local resources.
  19. 19. Existing know-how in the participating countries should be used.
  20. 20. Artificial stones and partition boards</li></li></ul><li>Lightweight concrete: mix design<br />Superplasticizer:<br />PCE1.38 kg/m³<br />(0.44% of cement mass)<br />* Blend of CEM I 32.5 R and CEM I 52.5 R (50% each)<br />** Water which is absorbed by the lightweight aggregates in the first 10 minutes.<br />
  21. 21. Lightweight concrete: results<br /><ul><li>Bulk density: 1.19 g/cm³
  22. 22. Compressive strength (28 d): 18.8 MPa
  23. 23. Flexural strength (28 d): 1.3 MPa
  24. 24. Drawback: relies on Portland cement</li></li></ul><li>Magnesium oxychloride cement<br /><ul><li>Compressive strength (28 d): 7.4 MPa</li></ul>with fibres (28 d): 8.7 MPa<br /><ul><li>Flexural strength (28 d): 2.3 MPa with fibres (28 d): 6.1 MPa
  25. 25. Water absorption: 9.4%
  26. 26. Drawback: poor water resistance</li></li></ul><li>Lightweight partition boards<br /><ul><li>4 point bending test (DIN 53293:1982)
  27. 27. Total thickness of board: 101 mm
  28. 28. Thickness of panels: 3 mm
  29. 29. Max. bending moment: 1.5 kNm/m
  30. 30. Flexural strength of panel: 5.4 MPa</li></li></ul><li>Binder systems<br /><ul><li>Portland cement
  31. 31. too expensive; mostly imported; high energy consumption and CO2 emission
  32. 32. Magnesium oxychloride cement
  33. 33. poor water resistance</li></ul>Alternative: natural pozzolans (volcanic rock)<br /><ul><li>Abundant in East Africa because of the Great Rift Valley ( flood basalts)</li></ul>Addis Ababa<br /><ul><li>Easily available (open-pit mining)</li></ul>Kigali<br /><ul><li>Already used: pumice as filler or aggregate for concrete and mortar</li></ul>Dar es Salaam<br />Linlongwe<br />Wood, J.; Guth, A. (Michigan Technological University) http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml <br />
  34. 34. Lime-pozzolan binders<br /><ul><li>Starting materials: lime + pozzolan
  35. 35. Dissolution of silicate in alkaline solution
  36. 36. Precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (and other hydrates)</li></ul> SiO2 + xCa(OH)2 + yH2O -> xCaO∙SiO2∙(x+y)H2O [“C-S-H“]<br />Ortega E. A. et al. Cem. Concr. Res. 2000,30, 1641-1646.<br /><ul><li>Compressive strength: up to ~20 MPa
  37. 37. compacted: up to ~40 MPa
  38. 38. Flexural strength: ~3 MPa
  39. 39. need for fibre reinforcement (?)</li></li></ul><li>Geopolymers<br /><ul><li>Starting material: aluminosilicate + alkaline activator
  40. 40. Dissolution of silicate and aluminate species in alkaline solution
  41. 41. Condensation and gelation of alkaline aluminosilicate gel
  42. 42. Reorganisation and crystallization (zeolites)</li></ul>Lloyd, R. R. et al. J. Mater. Sci. 2009,44, 608-619.<br /><ul><li>Compressive strength: up to ~80 MPa
  43. 43. Flexural strength: up to ~8 MPa
  44. 44. Short setting and hardening times</li></li></ul><li>Summary<br /><ul><li>Partition boards and artificial stones are appropriate construction elements for East African countries.
  45. 45. Conventional binders based on Portland cement are too expensive.
  46. 46. Alternative binder systems could be lime-pozzolan binders or geopolymers based on natural pozzolans.
  47. 47. Abundant in East Africa
  48. 48. Cheap
  49. 49. Already in use
  50. 50. Contribution to less energy consumption and CO2 release
  51. 51. Lime-pozzolan binders can be strong enough to produce artificial stones.
  52. 52. The production of partition boards from lime-pozzolan binders may require the use of fibre reinforcement.  Use of geopolymers?</li></li></ul><li>Thank-you‘s<br />Thank you<br />for your kind attention!<br />Funding:<br />

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