Building a semantic website


Published on

A simple tutorial introducing methods and technologies used to build semantic websites, and why you should want to.

Published in: Education
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Building a semantic website

  1. 1. Build a semantic web website
  2. 2. What is the semantic web? <ul><li>It is a very powerful way to access information on the web. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a “web of data” where everything is linked in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It allows applications to “talk to each other”, reusing and sharing this data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data is shared via a common web architecture (e.g.URI's) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships in the data are created by tools and some are also created manually. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus machines can interact with data and humans can access far more accurate and useful data. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How is it useful in practise? <ul><li>You could not only access your photos, calendar, diary and so on, but also have relevant photos appear when you look at a specific event in your calendar </li></ul><ul><li>You could be writing a document and you could ask for other documents that you want to reference without having to look for them. </li></ul><ul><li>You can do a search and share that data with a friend or colleague, and relevant additional information that is relevant would be available to you both. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why does this matter to my site? <ul><li>Without semantic mark-up, databases, ontologies and so on, your site cannot be picked up by engines like Google and others able to use semantic elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Your site would then not get the visibility it deserves and could have. </li></ul><ul><li>Your competitors may have prepped their site already and although you show #1 in the rankings, they are have more pulling power than you do. </li></ul><ul><li>Mozilla are deploying a whole host of RDF tools </li></ul>
  5. 5. How does it work? <ul><li>Instead of using hyperlinks to link documents, the SW can be linked to any 2 resources (not just one document). This is achieved using RDF, OWL, SKOS. </li></ul><ul><li>These allow you to describe documents, resources, people, categories, anything you like, in a machine readable way. </li></ul><ul><li>RDF also provides an XML based syntax. </li></ul><ul><li>These are linked by URI's </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example RDF <ul><li>It's about Bob Dylan (from W3C schools) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example OWL <ul><li>This the famous “Koala Bear” example - “ Wine ” is </li></ul><ul><li>very thorough and a good tutorial though. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example SKOS <ul><li>“ Single knowledge organisation system reference” </li></ul><ul><li>From </li></ul>
  9. 9. GRDDL <ul><li>It stands for “Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Language”. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows RDF triples to be extracted from XML documents like XHTML which is often used as an example. </li></ul><ul><li>GRDDL transformations can be attached to XML documents. </li></ul><ul><li>The output of that is an RDF representation of the data and it can be queried using SPARQL (don't worry, it's covered a few slides on) </li></ul><ul><li>There is a full example of GRDDL at W3C . </li></ul>
  10. 10. RDFa <ul><li>It stands for “Resource Description Framework- in-attributes” and it extends XHTML. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses attributes from XHTML to allow you to tag everything up for semantic stuff. </li></ul><ul><li>It extracts RDF triples using a mapping method. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows for the data to be easily visible to humans and to machines, as the HTML and RDF are self-contained (separate). </li></ul><ul><li>Data is reusable. Non-duplicated, and each site can have its own standards. </li></ul><ul><li>See W3C for a good primer and examples. </li></ul>
  11. 11. URI's <ul><li>URIs are the Nouns (Uniform Resource Identifier) </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP is the Verbs (GET, PUT, POST) </li></ul><ul><li>The URI as you may know is used for “mailto:”, “http:” and so on (used to be called URL). </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to access representations of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>URIs give RDF identifiers so statements can be made about statements. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Example URI <ul><li>In N-Triple format (Plain text MIME format – represents the “correct” answers for parsing RDF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li><Bananas><are><yellow> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In URI format (the RDF is appended): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rdfuri:%3cBananas%3e%20%3are%3e%20%3cyellow%3e%20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a full list of official URI schemes to use here . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SPARQL <ul><li>It stands for “SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language” pronounced “Sparkle”. </li></ul><ul><li>It's like an SQL language especially made for the SW. </li></ul><ul><li>It's based on the RDF framework and uses WSDL (Web Services Description Language) </li></ul><ul><li>It has a query language, access protocol and the RDF data model. </li></ul><ul><li>It's basically a search engine for the SW. </li></ul>
  14. 14. so... <ul><li>You can retrieve data, as you would in a normal or even massive database using a relatively small application from the entire web. </li></ul><ul><li>You can query all comments, RSS feeds, images, FOAF, everything you might want want to all at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>It's easy to code and very short too, even though it is very powerful </li></ul>
  15. 15. SPARQL example <ul><li>This is from Wiki Musicontology – see there for more examples. </li></ul>
  16. 16. FOAF <ul><li>This stands for “Friend Of A Friend”. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows you to create a file that sites with your website. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a machine readable social network where each profile has an individual URI. </li></ul><ul><li>In the FOAF file you state who you are connected to, which projects, any publications you've written, anything at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Their official site is here . </li></ul><ul><li>Also see Libby's blog here . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Example FOAF <ul><li>The vocab specification is here , example from </li></ul>
  18. 18. There are tools to help you <ul><li>Converter Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- TopBraid (available as Eclipse Plugin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Put your Palm OS data into RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- MindSwap CSV to RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- FlickCurl – Flicker to RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- XML to RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Manchester Uni Owl syntax converter </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. And more... <ul><li>Development environments: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Protege opensource java tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Jena Java Famework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The RDFeditor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Altova from Semanticworks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- RDFe in Python </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Simplistic RDF editor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. And more... <ul><li>RDF Generators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- KWARC RDF extractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- OpenCalais – superb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Triplify plugin for applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Zemanta – I love it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- FOAF-Visualizer – to work with FOAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Foaf-o-matic to generate FOAF files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Ruby RDF generator – for Ruby fans </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. And more... <ul><li>Extras: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- MOAT – meaning of a tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Amalgram – good for linguists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Allegrograph RDF store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- BrownSauce RDF browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Conceptool - check your ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Fact++ is an OWL reasoner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Add semantics to Excel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- IBM semantic Layered Resource Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And there are many many more... </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Tips <ul><li>To put RDF into (X)HTML use RDFa which has an XHTML 1.1 module. </li></ul><ul><li>Use an RDF data browser to see RDF on the web such as Disco or OpenLink RDF – or a Firefox extension . </li></ul><ul><li>PingtheSemanticWeb is a good source of RDF all ready made and so is SchemaWeb </li></ul><ul><li>Oh and Dapper will semantify your site :) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Links <ul><li>Book: “The explorer's guide to the semantic web” </li></ul><ul><li>Book: A Semantic web guide </li></ul><ul><li>Book: “ Semantic web for the working ontologist ” </li></ul><ul><li>Book: “ The explorers guide to the semantic web </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee – Why RDF is different to XML </li></ul><ul><li>RDF core working group </li></ul><ul><li>IBM: Planning a semantic website </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford: Semantic website clustering </li></ul>