A Geographic Knowledge Base for Semantic Web Applications Marcirio Silveira Chaves Mário J. Silva Bruno Martins 20º  Brazi...
Motivation/Context <ul><li>GKB - Geographic Knowledge Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net...
Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Ge...
Information Sources used by GKB <ul><li>Geo-Administrative and Geo-Physical Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </...
Architecture of GKB
Feature concept in GKB <ul><li>A meaningful object in the selected domain of discourse [ISO19109]. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E...
Conceptual Design of GKB <ul><li>GKB meta-model </li></ul>
Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Ge...
Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: </li></...
Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul>H1 Norte Grande  Porto Tâm...
Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul>H1 Norte Grande  Porto Tâm...
Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul>H1 Norte Grande  Porto Tâm...
Knowledge Integration in GKB Merged Hierarchy Norte Grande  Porto Porto Tâmega Penafiel Matosinhos Vila  Nova  de Gaia
Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Ge...
Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB <ul><li>Geographic scopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.cm-lisboa.pt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>ABox in DLs for the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>municipality of  Santiago do Cacém </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geoFe...
<ul><li>Terminology Description (TBox in DLs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hasScope(idN...
<ul><li>Ex.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hasScope(idN,idG)     </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> netSiteDomainToken (idN,X)   </li>...
<ul><li>Rule-based  assigned scopes by GKB to  sites of Portugal </li></ul>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB <ul><li>Scope...
Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Ge...
GKB as an Ontology <ul><li><gn:Geo_Feature rdf:ID=&quot; GEO_238 &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:geo_id> 238 </gn:geo_id> </...
Statistics of the Ontologies Created 12,291 (99,99%) 417,739 (99.92%)  # of features without adjacent 11,819 (96,14%) 417,...
Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Ge...
Applications using GKB <ul><li>NERC tool for recognizing  geographical   references  in text </li></ul><ul><li>Classificat...
Applications using GKB
Final Remarks <ul><li>A  domain-independent model  for storing geographic and network knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing ...
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Simpósio Brasileiro de Banco de Dados 2005

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Simpósio Brasileiro de Banco de Dados 2005

  1. 1. A Geographic Knowledge Base for Semantic Web Applications Marcirio Silveira Chaves Mário J. Silva Bruno Martins 20º Brazilian Symposium on Databases - SBBD 2005 Uberlândia - MG Linguateca www.linguateca.pt
  2. 2. Motivation/Context <ul><li>GKB - Geographic Knowledge Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information exported as ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic-aware Semantic Web applications </li></ul><ul><li>GREASE – Geographic Reasoning for Search Engines </li></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB </li></ul><ul><li>GKB as an Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics of the Ontologies Created </li></ul><ul><li>Applications using GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Final Remarks </li></ul>
  4. 4. Information Sources used by GKB <ul><li>Geo-Administrative and Geo-Physical Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gazetteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FCCN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web domains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Architecture of GKB
  6. 6. Feature concept in GKB <ul><li>A meaningful object in the selected domain of discourse [ISO19109]. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>countries, cities and localities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Conceptual Design of GKB <ul><li>GKB meta-model </li></ul>
  8. 8. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB </li></ul><ul><li>GKB as an Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics of the Ontologies Created </li></ul><ul><li>Applications using GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Final Remarks </li></ul>
  9. 9. Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It searches the lowest common features types in both hierarchies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it holds, it identifies the common instances between the hierarchies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the common instances are identified, it goes up the hierarchy and searches for the lowest common ancestor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It verifies the distance (in number of relationships partOf) between the common instances of the features types and its ancestors. The ancestor, which has the small distance up to the common instances is merged through a relationship partOf with the ancestor in the another hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The existing relationships in both hierarchies are maintained. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul>H1 Norte Grande Porto Tâmega Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia Penafiel NUT2 NUT3 MUNICIPALITY MUNICIPALITY H2 Porto Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia Penafiel DISTRITO
  11. 11. Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul>H1 Norte Grande Porto Tâmega Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia Penafiel NUT2 NUT3 MUNICIPALITY MUNICIPALITY H2 Porto Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia Penafiel DISTRITO
  12. 12. Knowledge Integration in GKB <ul><li>GKB hierarchy from different information sources </li></ul>H1 Norte Grande Porto Tâmega Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia Penafiel NUT2 NUT3 MUNICIPALITY MUNICIPALITY H2 Porto Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia Penafiel DISTRITO
  13. 13. Knowledge Integration in GKB Merged Hierarchy Norte Grande Porto Porto Tâmega Penafiel Matosinhos Vila Nova de Gaia
  14. 14. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB </li></ul><ul><li>GKB as an Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics of the Ontologies Created </li></ul><ul><li>Applications using GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Final Remarks </li></ul>
  15. 15. Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB <ul><li>Geographic scopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.cm-lisboa.pt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lisboa (municipality) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>New relationships and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Description Logics (DLs) </li></ul><ul><li>Geo domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names composed of multiple words are represented in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of URLs are decomposed by the correspondent domain division </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>ABox in DLs for the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>municipality of Santiago do Cacém </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureName (270,“santiago do cacem”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureName (270,“santiag oc acem”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureName (270,“santiago -do- cacem”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureName (270,“santiag o-c acem”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureType (270,“CON”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web site: www.cm- santiago-do-cacem.pt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>netSiteSubDomain (33684,“www”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>netSitePrefix (33684,“cm”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>netSiteDomainToken (33684,“santiago-do-cacem”). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>netSiteTLD (33684,“pt”). </li></ul></ul></ul>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB
  17. 17. <ul><li>Terminology Description (TBox in DLs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hasScope(idN,idG)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> netSiteDomainToken (idN,X)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>((  netSitePrefix (idN,“cm”)   netSitePrefix (idN,“mun”))  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> geoFeatureType (idG,“CON”)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> geoFeatureName (idG,X). </li></ul></ul>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB
  18. 18. <ul><li>Ex.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hasScope(idN,idG)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> netSiteDomainToken (idN,X)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(  netSitePrefix (idN,“cm”)   netSitePrefix (idN,“mun”))  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> geoFeatureType (idG,“CON”)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> geoFeatureName (idG,X). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>netSiteDomainToken (33684, “santiago-do-cacem”). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>netSitePrefix (33684, “cm”). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureType (270, “CON”). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geoFeatureName (270, “santiago -do- cacem”). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New knowledge: hasScope( 33684 , 270 ). </li></ul></ul>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB
  19. 19. <ul><li>Rule-based assigned scopes by GKB to sites of Portugal </li></ul>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB <ul><li>Scopes extended to the web pages under each one of the sites of matching subdomains </li></ul>105 (26%) 402 high schools 55 (36%) 152 training centers 124 (6%) 1955 basic schools 124 (41%) 300 freguesias 261 (90%) 288 municipalities 17 (52%) 33 distritos # of matches # of sites Site Type
  20. 20. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB </li></ul><ul><li>GKB as an Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics of the Ontologies Created </li></ul><ul><li>Applications using GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Final Remarks </li></ul>
  21. 21. GKB as an Ontology <ul><li><gn:Geo_Feature rdf:ID=&quot; GEO_238 &quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:geo_id> 238 </gn:geo_id> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:geo_name xml:lang=&quot;pt&quot;> Porto </gn:geo_name> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:geo_type_id rdf:resource=&quot; #CON &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:info_source_id rdf:resource=&quot; #INE &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:related_to> </li></ul><ul><li><rdf:Bag> </li></ul><ul><li><rdf:li> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:Geo_Relationship> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:rel_type_id rdf:resource=&quot; #PRT &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><gn:geo_id><rdf:Bag> </li></ul><ul><li><rdf:li rdf:resource=&quot; #GEO_130 &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><rdf:li rdf:resource=&quot; #GEO_3967 &quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li></rdf:Bag></gn:geo_id> </li></ul><ul><li></gn:Geo_Relationship> </li></ul><ul><li></rdf:li> </li></ul><rdf:li> <gn:Geo_Relationship> <gn:rel_type_id rdf:resource=&quot; #ADJ &quot;/> <gn:geo_id> <rdf:Bag> <rdf:li rdf:resource=&quot; #GEO_127 &quot;/> <rdf:li rdf:resource=&quot; #GEO_156 &quot;/> <rdf:li rdf:resource=&quot; #GEO_162 &quot;/> <rdf:li rdf:resource=&quot; #GEO_331 &quot;/> </rdf:Bag> </gn:geo_id> </gn:Geo_Relationship> </rdf:li> </rdf:Bag> </gn:related_to> <gn:population> 263131 </gn:population> </gn:Geo_Feature> <ul><li>Geo-Net-PT01 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Statistics of the Ontologies Created 12,291 (99,99%) 417,739 (99.92%) # of features without adjacent 11,819 (96,14%) 417,867 (99.95%) # of features without equivalent 12,045 (97,98%) 374,349 (89.54%) # of features without descendants 1(0.00%) 3 (0.00%) # of features without ancestors 6.5 3.54 Avg. adjacent features per feature with adjacent 3.82 1.99 Avg. equivalent features per feature with equivalent 475.44 10.56 Avg. narrower features per feature 1.07 1.0016 Avg. broader features per feature 13 (0.10%) 1,132 (0.27%) # of adjacency relationships 2,501(20,40%) 395 (0.09%) # of equivalence relationships 12,245 (99,89%) 418,340 (99.83%) # of part-of relationships 12,258 419,867 # of relationships 12,293 418,065 # of features World Portugal Statistic
  23. 23. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Conceptual Design of GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Geographic Knowledge in GKB </li></ul><ul><li>GKB as an Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics of the Ontologies Created </li></ul><ul><li>Applications using GKB </li></ul><ul><li>Final Remarks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Applications using GKB <ul><li>NERC tool for recognizing geographical references in text </li></ul><ul><li>Classification tool for assigning documents to a corresponding geographical scope </li></ul><ul><li>Information retrieval interface for geographical queries </li></ul>
  25. 25. Applications using GKB
  26. 26. Final Remarks <ul><li>A domain-independent model for storing geographic and network knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of the collected knowledge as formal ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-Net-PT01 : The first public geographic ontology of Portugal - http://xldb.fc.ul.pt/geonetpt </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmenting the knowledge in GKB with geographic entities extracted from the texts of the Portuguese Web </li></ul></ul>

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