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  1. 1. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Strategic Questioning
  2. 2. Questioning and assessment for learning <ul><li>Effective questioning enables: </li></ul><ul><li>identification of student knowledge and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>selection of the most effective teaching strategies </li></ul><ul><li>correction of misunderstandings, identification of gaps and opportunities for extension </li></ul>
  3. 3. How does strategic questioning benefit students? <ul><li>Questioning impacts upon students’ </li></ul><ul><li>thinking </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>values. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Impact on thinking <ul><li>Strategic questioning gives students the opportunity to: </li></ul><ul><li>recall knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>deepen their understanding </li></ul><ul><li>develop new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>reflect upon their learning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Impact of questioning on behaviour <ul><li>Questioning encourages students to: </li></ul><ul><li>listen actively </li></ul><ul><li>speak </li></ul><ul><li>take turns </li></ul><ul><li>be actively involved with learning. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Impact of questioning on values <ul><li>Questioning promotes: </li></ul><ul><li>sharing </li></ul><ul><li>respect for the views of others </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>learning as an active communal process. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Strategic questioning (1) <ul><li>Has a clear purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Considers the cognitive development of the individual to whom the question is addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Phrases questions clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for a genuine response </li></ul>
  8. 8. Strategic questioning (2) <ul><li>Distribution of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Allowance for thinking time </li></ul><ul><li>Posing one question at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Using prompt questions </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer and better questions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Strategic questioning (3) <ul><li>Respond positively </li></ul><ul><li>Use students’ responses, even wrong ones to: - re-phrase your question - request clarification - request specific examples - request rephrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to ask questions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples of questioning tools <ul><li>Bloom’s taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bloom’s as a questioning tool <ul><li>The framing of questions that pose different cognitive demands: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and Comprehension are assessed using closed questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Application, Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation are assessed using open questions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Knowledge questions <ul><li>Who…? </li></ul><ul><li>What …? </li></ul><ul><li>When …? </li></ul><ul><li>Name … </li></ul>
  13. 13. Comprehension questions <ul><li>Why …? </li></ul><ul><li>What …? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain … </li></ul>
  14. 14. Application questions <ul><li>Where will most of the world’s megacities be located in 2030? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you improve the safety of Glen Park Primary playground? </li></ul><ul><li>Using six matches, construct four equilateral triangles. All triangles must have side lengths of one match. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Analysis questions <ul><li>What factors contributed to European exploration in the 15th century? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Macbeth order the murders of Banquo and Fleance? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we conclude about the way sharks behave when threatened? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Synthesis questions <ul><li>What improvements would you make to this experiment in order to obtain more accurate results? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you promote recycling at school? </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the idea that we should pay for the use of beaches. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Evaluation questions <ul><li>Can this document be considered a reliable historical resource? </li></ul><ul><li>Are computer games dangerous for children? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think this was an effective speech? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other questioning tools <ul><li>De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats </li></ul><ul><li>Wiederhold’s Question Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Thinker’s Keys </li></ul>