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Glue for Piano Technicians

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Slides from presentation at Piano Technicians Guild 2018 Technical Institute, Lancaster PA

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Glue for Piano Technicians

  1. 1. GLUE Making the Best of A STICKY Situation Duane McGuire – PTG Technical Institute 2018 – Lancaster PA
  2. 2. WE GATHER TO TALK ABOUT GLUE!
  3. 3. PRESENTATION OUTLINE ● Glue Properties ● Glue Chemistry ● Classes of Glues ● Destructive Testing ● Details by Class ● An Epic Glue Up
  4. 4. GLUE PROPERTIES Strength Clamp Time Workability Tackiness Cure Time Gap filling capability Shelf Life Creep Toxicity Pot Life Reversibility Water content Open Time Stain-ability Heat resistance Longevity Handling Cleanup Cost Health & Safety
  5. 5. WHY DOES GLUE STICK? • Dude, it's chemistry. •
  6. 6. PRESENTER’S QUALIFICATIONS
  7. 7. WHY DOES GLUE STICK? • Tiny molecules band together to form big stringy molecules called polymers. Polymers stick stuff via: ● Mechanical Adhesion ● Chemical Adhesion ● Electrostatic Adhesion ● (It's a miracle)
  8. 8. CLASSES OF GLUES • Natural ● Hot Hide ● Cold Hide ● Fish ● Casein • Synthetic ● PVA ● PVC-e ● Urea Resin ● Epoxy ● Polyurethane ● Contact Cement ● Cyanoacrylate
  9. 9. DESTRUCTIVE TESTING AKA EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS (Boys and girls know how to have fun)
  10. 10. CYANOACRYLATE (CA)
  11. 11. CYANOACRYLATE (CA) ●Zero water content ●Sets in 30 seconds to 5 minutes ●May be accelerated ●Cures by exothermic reaction (it gets hot!) ●Brittle ●Bonds skin (Acetone is a de-bonder) ●Fumes are noxious ●Glue squirted in eyes causes permanent vision damage!
  12. 12. NATURAL GLUES
  13. 13. HOT HIDE GLUE ●Easier to use than you think ●Difficult to use for field work ●Cures by phase shift (think solder) ●Completely reversible forever ●May be repaired by re-constituting ●Liquifies at 140 degrees Farenheit ●Viscosity may be adjusted by user ●Strength is reduced each time the phase is changed ●Quick set time – seconds to minutes ●Set time may be increased by warming the room and/or material ●Non-toxic
  14. 14. GLUE POT FOR SMALL BATCHES
  15. 15. GLUE POT OPTIONS
  16. 16. COLD HIDE AND FISH GLUES ●Properties similar to hot hide glue ●Lower strength ●Shelf life of 1 year +/- ●Fish glue has higher initial tack than cold hide glue
  17. 17. PVC-E ●Polyvinyl Cloride Emulsion ●Available from Pianotek and Schaff ●Formulated for gluing new keytops ●Works well with cloth ●Cleans up with water ●Dries in 10-30 minutes ●Residue rubs off nicely for many hours
  18. 18. PVA GLUES • Polyvinyl Acetate
  19. 19. MORE PVA ● Bolduc Acoustic Wood Glue ● Mentioned in literature: ● Franklin Titebond 50 ● Franklin Assembly 65 ● (But apparently only ● available in large ● quantities)
  20. 20. PVA CHARACTERISTICS ● Relatively safe ● Relatively inexpensive ● Generally flexible (has some creep) ● Long shelf life – except the expensive stuff ● First choice for permanent wood joints that are not reversible ● Poor heat resistance. Gums up when sanding. ● Polymerizes as water content evaporates
  21. 21. MORE PVA CHARACTERISTICS ● Open assembly time 5-30 minutes ● Clamp time 20 – 90 minutes ● Water cleanup ● Reversible with heat for several days ● Reversible with water for 2 to 6 weeks
  22. 22. PVA BOLDUC ● High solids content ● Low creep ● Sands well ● Recommended and tested by Bolduc for soundboard, rib, and pinblock applications
  23. 23. TITEBOND THICK & QUICK ●No run. No drip. ●Hammer hanging ●Bridle straps ●Hammer spring loops
  24. 24. EPOXY •Fussy to mix •Long set time •Good gap filler •Resistant to water •Low heat resistance •West System epoxy builds in success •Toxic •Long shelf life
  25. 25. UREA RESIN •Rigid, creep resistant •Two Part System (liquid resin, powdered catalyst) •Short shelf life •Cures hard •Dulls tools quickly •Sands well •Good heat resistance •Toxic!
  26. 26. POLYURETHANE •Open time 10 to 40 minutes •Clamp time 45 minutes to 10 hours •Cured glue pares, scrapes or machines well •Clean up with alcohol or acetone •Fills gaps, but does it weakly •Contains di-isocyanate compounds which may acutely irritate skin and respiratory tract.
  27. 27. FASTCAP ULTRA BOND TAPE • This is not you grandma’s double stick tape. • Great for quick jig construction • Gets stronger over a period of days • Nice for applying ecsaine to music desks From the vendor: •Ultra bond transfer adhesive that is like contact cement on a roll •High quality adhesive in a peel and stick roll •Great for applying to veneers and laminates
  28. 28. AN EPIC GLUE UP
  29. 29. GENERAL RESOURCES ● Fine Woodworking - A working Guide to Glues ● Chemistry Explained – Adhesives ● Wikipedia: List of Glues ● “Hide Glue”, the book by Stephen A Shepherd
  30. 30. WEB RESOURCES FOR MODERN GLUES ● Lee Valley Polyurethane Adhesive Guide ● Popular Woodworking - The Truth about Polyurethane Glue ● Wikipedia: Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) ● Wikipedia: Cyanoacrylate (CA) ● Hot Stuff CA glue guide
  31. 31. WEB RESOURCES FOR HIDE GLUE ● Vince Mrykalo - Hot Hide Glue ● Facts About Hot Hide Glue from a player piano guy ● Lee Valley - Using Hide Glue ● Lee Valley - Hide Glue Technical
  32. 32. Duane McGuire tuner@mcguirepiano.com https://www.mcguirepiano.com 801-896-4123 Clinton, UT Salt Lake City Chapter, PTG THIS PRESENTATION: https://www.mcguirepiano.com/glue Contact
  33. 33. That's what I've got to say about glue. Hope it sticks!

Slides from presentation at Piano Technicians Guild 2018 Technical Institute, Lancaster PA

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