Surface Changes

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A brief lesson over naturally occuring surface changes.

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Surface Changes

  1. 1. Surface Changes<br />Howard Ignatius, “Delicate Arch, Arches National Park” May 1, 2009 via Flickr, Creative Commons attribution<br />
  2. 2. Two Types of Changes<br />Slow<br /><ul><li>Weathering
  3. 3. Erosion</li></ul>Fast<br /><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions
  4. 4. Earthquakes
  5. 5. Landslides
  6. 6. Tsunamis</li></li></ul><li>Weathering<br />Physical or mechanical weathering<br /><ul><li>Frost Wedging</li></ul>Water expands when it freezes<br /><ul><li>Thermal expansion</li></ul>Rocks break due to temperature changes<br /><ul><li>Exfoliation or unloading</li></ul> Rocks break into sheets form expansion of rock<br />Glenn Scofield Williams, “The Art of Exfoliation” July 7, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Samantha McGregor, “Weathering” October 5, 2009<br />Samantha McGregor, “weathered roads” October 5, 2009<br />
  7. 7. Chemical Weathering<br />Solution<br />Minerals dissolved into water<br />Karst Topography<br />Groundwater dissolving sedimentary rock (sinkholes, caves, springs)<br />Steve Barringer, “ Child Angel III-niño angel” March 24, 2009 via Flickr, Creative Commons NoDervs License<br />Andrew Stawerz, “Cheddar Caves-Mirror Pool” June 11, 2006 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />
  8. 8. Oxidation<br />oxygen combined with iron-bearing minerals “rusting”<br />Andrea Schaffer, “Rust” March 10, 2007 via Flickr, creative commons Attribution<br />
  9. 9. Biological Weathering<br /><ul><li>Roots of trees and other plants
  10. 10. Lichens, fungi, and other micro-organisms
  11. 11. Animals (including humans)</li></ul>Waka Jawaka, ”Roots&quot; August 23,2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Mike McCaffrey, “DSC N9622 Photographic Fungus” August 15, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />
  12. 12. Erosion<br />Water Erosion<br /><ul><li>Rain and streams</li></ul>Wind Erosion<br /><ul><li>Sand dunes and deserts</li></ul>Smabs Sputzer, “Weir at Marple Dale” August 11, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution.<br />Vyanchslav Argenberg,“Siq, Petra (2007-06-072)”September 6, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution.<br />
  13. 13. Erosion Continued…<br />Ice Erosion<br /><ul><li>Glaciers ( Great Lakes)</li></ul>Wave Erosion<br /><ul><li>Coasts</li></ul>Ricardo Martins, “Perito Moreno Glacier” April 30, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Kyknoord, “Line in the Sand” October 6, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />
  14. 14. Volcanic Eruptions <br />Blasts<br /><ul><li> Mixture of ash, gas, and rocks</li></ul>Hot lava<br /><ul><li> Covers ground, killing everything</li></ul>India Amos, “Eruption of Mount Vesuvius” April 17, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />
  15. 15. Volcanoes: Domino Effect<br />Can lead to<br />Earthquakes<br /><ul><li>Can lead to landslides</li></ul>Landslides<br /><ul><li>Mixing debris with water</li></ul>Tsunamis<br /><ul><li>Dirt overflows streams</li></ul>Clipart from PowerPoint<br />
  16. 16. Earthquakes<br /><ul><li>When two plates (parts) of the Earth Slide against each other
  17. 17. Causes the Earth to shake</li></ul>Clipart from PowerPoint<br />
  18. 18. Landslides<br />Downward movement of materials (rock and soil)<br />Topple: Large parts of rock break off<br />Slide: large connected mass “slides” down a slope<br />Barry Maynard,”Topple” December 2, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Barry Maynard, “Slide” November 26, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />
  19. 19. Landslides Continued<br />Debris avalanche<br /><ul><li> Rapid debris flow</li></ul>Mudflow<br /><ul><li> Wet material flowing rapidly in a downward motion</li></ul>Creep<br /><ul><li>Slow, steady downward movement of rock and soil</li></ul>Barry Maynard, “Debris Avalanche” December 2, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Barry Maynard, “Creep” December 2, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />
  20. 20. Tsunamis<br /><ul><li>Large waves from the ocean spread over the coast and on to land
  21. 21. Can be caused by:
  22. 22. Earthquakes
  23. 23. Volcanoes</li></ul>Clipart from PowerPoint<br />
  24. 24. Write<br />Most interesting fact.<br /> Something you’re curious about.<br /> Favorite form of surface change.<br />
  25. 25. Think About It…<br /><ul><li>The land changes constantly.
  26. 26. Many forms of natural changes.
  27. 27. Humans contribute too!</li></ul> -How do you think we’re involved?<br />Clipart from PowerPoint<br />
  28. 28. Citation<br />Gore, Pamela J.W. &quot;Weathering.&quot; Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter      College, 5 Feb. 2002. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. &lt;http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/      geology/geo101/weather.htm&gt;.<br />Impacts and Effects of Volcanoes. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.      &lt;http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volcanoes/effects.php&gt;.<br />&quot;Landslide Hazard Information-Causes, Pictures, Definition.&quot; Geology.com. N.p.,      n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. &lt;http://geology.com/usgs/landslides/#&gt;.<br />&quot;Tsunamis and Earthquakes Life of a Tsunami.&quot; USGS Science for a changing world.      USGS, 22 Oct. 2008. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. &lt;http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/      basics.html&gt;.<br />Wald, Lisa. &quot;The Science of Earthquakes.&quot; USGS. N.p., 25 June 2009. Web. 5 Oct.      2009. &lt;http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/eqscience.php&gt;.<br />

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