Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Session 12
The US Department of Defense and its
Photographic Strategy in Flickr
“The U.S. is engaged in an international s...
AAFFTTEERR AABBUU GGHHRRAAIIBB AANNDD ““CCOOLLLLAATTEERRAALL MMUURRDDEERR””
NNaattiioonnaall SSttrraatteeggyy ffoorr PPuub...
Strategic Audiences:
1) “key influencers”;
2) “vulnerable” groups; and,
3) “mass audiences” (DoS, 2007, pp. 4–5)
(A) “dive...
TTHHEE SSTTUUDDYY OOFF TTHHEE PPEENNTTAAGGOONN’’SS FFLLIICCKKRR CCOOLLLLEECCTTIIOONN
 9,963 images, spanning 2009 to 2014...
DDEEFFIINNIITTIIOONNSS:: PPUUBBLLIICC AAFFFFAAIIRRSS OOPPEERRAATTIIOONNSS,, PPUUBBLLIICC DDIIPPLLOOMMAACCYY,,
SSTTRRAATTEE...
Strategic Communication (SC): “focused USG efforts to understand and engage
key audiences to create, strengthen, or preser...
PPRROODDUUCCIINNGG TTHHEE RRIIGGHHTT PPIICCTTUURREESS
“compelling stories (including pictures and videotape if possible) o...
 Before any event, think through a desired picture that would best capture and tell the story of
the event.
 Where shoul...
US Army: “a picture really is worth a thousand words” (US Army, 2010b,
p. 21)
“Visual Information Operations” (US Army, 20...
CCOONNCCLLUUSSIIOONNSS??
The US Military:
 World’s biggest charitable association, a NGO
 Big Chief
 Foster parent to t...
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr

376 views

Published on

“The U.S. is engaged in an international struggle of ideas and ideologies, which requires a more extensive, sophisticated use of communications and public diplomacy programs to gain support for U.S. policies abroad. To effectively wage this struggle, public diplomacy must be treated—along with defense, homeland security and intelligence—as a national security priority in terms of resources”.— US Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs (US Department of State, 2007, p. 11)

“The battle of the narrative is a full-blown battle in the cognitive dimension of the information environment, just as traditional warfare is fought in the physical domains (air, land, sea, space, and cyberspace)….a key component of the ‘Battle of the Narrative’ is to succeed in establishing the reasons for and potential outcomes of the conflict, on terms favorable to your efforts. Upon our winning the battle of the narrative, the enemy narrative doesn’t just diminish in appeal or followership, it becomes irrelevant. The entire struggle is completely redefined in a different setting and purpose”.—US Joint Forces Command (2010, pp. xiii–xiv)

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Pentagon's Photographic Strategy in Flickr

  1. 1. Session 12 The US Department of Defense and its Photographic Strategy in Flickr “The U.S. is engaged in an international struggle of ideas and ideologies, which requires a more extensive, sophisticated use of communications and public diplomacy programs to gain support for U.S. policies abroad. To effectively wage this struggle, public diplomacy must be treated—along with defense, homeland security and intelligence—as a national security priority in terms of resources”.— US Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs (US Department of State, 2007, p. 11) “The battle of the narrative is a full-blown battle in the cognitive dimension of the information environment, just as traditional warfare is fought in the physical domains (air, land, sea, space, and cyberspace)….a key component of the ‘Battle of the Narrative’ is to succeed in establishing the reasons for and potential outcomes of the conflict, on terms favorable to your efforts. Upon our winning the battle of the narrative, the enemy narrative doesn’t just diminish in appeal or followership, it becomes irrelevant. The entire struggle is completely redefined in a different setting and purpose”.—US Joint Forces Command (2010, pp. xiii–xiv)
  2. 2. AAFFTTEERR AABBUU GGHHRRAAIIBB AANNDD ““CCOOLLLLAATTEERRAALL MMUURRDDEERR”” NNaattiioonnaall SSttrraatteeggyy ffoorr PPuubblliicc DDiipplloommaaccyy && SSttrraatteeggiicc CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn 2007, State Department: U.S. National Strategy for Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication 2006, Department of Defense: Execution Roadmap for Strategic Communication Obama, “engagement”: “mutual interest”; the US “plays a constructive role in global affairs”; the US as a “respectful partner” Strategic Objectives: 1) projecting “American values” by offering a “positive vision of hope and opportunity”; 2) marginalizing “violent extremists” in order to defend the values cherished by the “civilized”; and, 3) working to “nurture common interests and values” between Americans and peoples around the globe (DoS, 2007, p. 3)
  3. 3. Strategic Audiences: 1) “key influencers”; 2) “vulnerable” groups; and, 3) “mass audiences” (DoS, 2007, pp. 4–5) (A) “diverse populations” of the world share “our common interests and values” (DoS, 2007, p. 12 also p. 3) (B) Need audience analysis, “so we can better understand how citizens of other countries view us and what values and interests we have in common”(DoS, 2007, p. 10). “reminding”: “all individuals, men and women, are equal and entitled to basic human rights, including freedom of speech, worship and political participation….all people deserve to live in just societies that protect individual and common rights, fight corruption and are governed by the rule of law” (DoS, 2007, pp. 2, 12)
  4. 4. TTHHEE SSTTUUDDYY OOFF TTHHEE PPEENNTTAAGGOONN’’SS FFLLIICCKKRR CCOOLLLLEECCTTIIOONN  9,963 images, spanning 2009 to 2014  40+ documents  Why the DoD?  No assumptions about the nature of the “audiences”  Photograph: “a document which often reveals as much (if not more) about the individuals and society which produced the image than it does about its subject(s)” (Wright, 1999, p. 4)  Cultural conventions  Staging
  5. 5. DDEEFFIINNIITTIIOONNSS:: PPUUBBLLIICC AAFFFFAAIIRRSS OOPPEERRAATTIIOONNSS,, PPUUBBLLIICC DDIIPPLLOOMMAACCYY,, SSTTRRAATTEEGGIICC CCOOMMMMUUNNIICCAATTIIOONN Public Affairs (PA) Operations: “communicating information about military activities to domestic, international, and internal audiences,” “community engagement activities” (DoD, 2008, pp. 1, 9); designed “to assure the trust and confidence of U.S. population, friends and allies, deter and dissuade adversaries, and counter misinformation and disinformation ensuring effective, culturally appropriate information delivery in regional languages” (DoD, 2008, p. 2) Public Diplomacy: “those overt international public information activities of the United States Government designed to promote United States foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by broadening the dialogue between American citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad”; “civilian agency efforts to promote an understanding of the reconstruction efforts, rule of law, and civic responsibility through public affairs and international public diplomacy operations” (DoD, 2010a, pp. 214–215; DoD, 2012, p. xvi)
  6. 6. Strategic Communication (SC): “focused USG efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of USG interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with and leveraging the actions of all instruments of national power. SC combines actions, words, and images to influence key audiences”. (DoD, 2011, p. II-9).  Improve U.S. credibility and legitimacy;  Weaken an adversary’s credibility and legitimacy;  Convince selected audiences to take specific actions that support U.S. or international objectives;  Cause a competitor or adversary to take (or refrain from taking) specific actions. (DoD, 2009, p. 2) The Internet; “shape emotions, motives, reasoning, and behaviors of selected foreign entities” (DoD, 2007b, p. 1)—“psychological operations” (DoD, 2006a, p. 10).
  7. 7. PPRROODDUUCCIINNGG TTHHEE RRIIGGHHTT PPIICCTTUURREESS “compelling stories (including pictures and videotape if possible) of how American programs are impacting people’s lives” “Use good pictures and images”: “Well-choreographed pictures and images [that] convey emotion and/or action as well as a convincing story” (DoS, 2007, p. 26)
  8. 8.  Before any event, think through a desired picture that would best capture and tell the story of the event.  Where should the photo be taken—what is the background? The background should help convey where you are—the country, the city, the building, the environment. Should there be a flag in the background? Is there a banner behind or in front of the podium? Is a recognizable part of the building visible? What part of the building is recognizable?  Who should be in the picture? The principal along with those who are the focus of the event should be in the picture to help convey the story. Musicians? Youth? Government officials? E.g., if the Ambassador and State Minister for Education are speaking at a Fulbright event, make sure to get shots not just of the officials speaking but with Fulbright grantees in the photo.  What is the action or the emotion? Are they dancing? Talking? Listening? Learning? Enthusiastic? Include props if that helps convey the story. E.g., if the Ambassador is meeting with 4th graders to give out books, the photo should include students holding the books, youth reading, pointing to a picture in the book, etc.  The photographer should think through the location for the photo with all of the technical considerations in mind—not shooting into the sun, not in front of reflective glass or a mirror, not in shade or shadows, etc. The key people who need to be included in the shot should be identified.  Look for the action or emotion. For action shots, get a tight shot rather than wide. A tight shot will convey more emotion in addition to the story. E.g., for a U.S. military big band in town with swing dancers, rather than capturing the whole crowd, pick out one couple in full enthusiastic swing dancing in front of a large U.S. flag and banner of the event so the country and occasion are conveyed”. (DoS, 2007, p. 26)
  9. 9. US Army: “a picture really is worth a thousand words” (US Army, 2010b, p. 21) “Visual Information Operations” (US Army, 2009a): a) Readiness Posture Imagery b) Significant Operations Imagery c) Significant Programs and Projects Imagery d) Civil Military Involvement Imagery e) Construction Imagery f) Significant Military Events Imagery g) Military Life Imagery
  10. 10. CCOONNCCLLUUSSIIOONNSS?? The US Military:  World’s biggest charitable association, a NGO  Big Chief  Foster parent to the world’s orphans  World’s doctor, nurse, babysitter  Bringer of gifts  Healthy & happy  Everywhere, always  Technology is the solution  regular patterns: intentional & conventional  Deterrence and “counter-terrorism” with a smile  Gift giving  “American values” misread as “universal values”; learned emotions  A drone’s world-view: speed and ubiquity

×