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Chapter 26


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Chapter 26

  1. 1. start
  2. 2. <ul><li>Prepare for ASE Engine Repair (A1) certification test content area “B” (Cylinder Head and Valve Train Diagnosis and Repair). </li></ul><ul><li>Identify combustion chamber types. </li></ul><ul><li>List the steps necessary to recondition a cylinder head. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how to inspect and measure valve guides. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES: After studying Chapter 26, the reader should be able to: Continued
  3. 3. <ul><li>Discuss valve-guide repair options. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss various engine-valve types and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how to test valve springs. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose, function, and operation of valve rotators. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES: After studying Chapter 26, the reader should be able to: Continued
  4. 4. <ul><li>List the steps necessary to reface a valve. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how to grind valve seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how to measure and correct installed height and valve-stem height. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES: After studying Chapter 26, the reader should be able to:
  5. 5. <ul><li>aluminum • arithmetic average roughness height (RA) beehive spring • bend • bronze • bronze guide liners cast iron • collet • concentric • cross-flow deflector valve stem seal • displaces • distortion fire deck • free rotators • hemiwedge • integral • interference angle </li></ul><ul><li>kidney-shaped • microinch (in.) • nickel cobalt • O-ring valve stem seal • oversize (OS) </li></ul>KEY TERMS: Continued
  6. 6. <ul><li>pentroof • polyspherical • poppet valve • port • porting • positive rotators • positive valve stem seal • powdered metal (PM) quench area • relieving </li></ul><ul><li>stainless steel • stellite • squish truing the valve tip • twist • umbrella valve stem seal valve face • valve guide inserts • valve rotators • valve seat • valve spring inserts (VSI) • valve spring lock (keeper) • valve spring retainer • warpage </li></ul>KEY TERMS:
  7. 7. Cylinder heads are the most frequently serviced engine components. The highest temperatures and pressures in the entire engine are located in the combustion chamber. The valves in the cylinder head(s) must open and close thousands of times each time the engine is operated. Combustion chambers of modern automotive overhead-valve engines are of two basic types: the nonturbulent hemispherical chamber and the turbulent wedge chamber.
  8. 8. THE HEMISPHERICAL COMBUSTION CHAMBER <ul><li>In nonturbulent hemispherical combustion chambers, the charge is inducted through widely slanted valves. The charge is compressed and then ignited from a centrally located spark plug. </li></ul>The spark plug is close to all edges of the combustion chamber. Hemispherical combustion chambers are usually fully machined to form the shape, an expensive operation. Figure 26–1 Hemispherical combustion chamber with a two-valve head. Combustion radiates from it, completely burning the fuel in the shortest possible time.
  9. 9. THE WEDGE COMBUSTION CHAMBER <ul><li>The wedge-shaped combustion chamber is designed to produce smooth, uniform burning by controlling the rate of combustion. </li></ul>Figure 26–2 Cutaway of a Chevrolet V-8 cylinder head showing a wedge-shaped combustion chamber. In wedge-shaped chambers, the charge is inducted through valves that are side by side. As the piston nears the top of the compression stroke, it moves close to a low or flat portion of the head. Continued The gases are squeezed between the piston and this head surface area, called a squish or quench area .
  10. 10. <ul><li>The gases squeezed from the squish area produce turbulence within the charge. The turbulence thoroughly mixes the air and fuel in the charge . The spark plug is positioned so as to be in the highly turbulent part of the charge. Ignition is followed by smooth and rapid burning of the turbulent charge. The combustion flame front radiates out from the spark plug. </li></ul>Continued
  11. 11. Figure 26–3 A General Motors Quad-4 engine with a combustion chamber shape called a modified pentroof. Note the central location of the plug. <ul><li>New designs use cast combustion chambers rather than expensive machined chambers. These chambers are called by such names as polyspherical , hemiwedge , kidney-shaped , and pentroof . All cylinder head designs try to place the spark plug in an ideal location for best combustion, as shown here. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MULTIPLE VALVE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS <ul><li>The power any engine produces is directly related to the amount of air–fuel mixture ignited in the cylinder. Increasing displacement is a common method of increasing engine power. Turbo charging and supercharging also increase engine power, but these increase engine cost as well. </li></ul>Continued Adding more than two valves per cylinder permits more gas to flow into and out with greater velocity without excessive valve duration. The maximum amount of gas moving through the opening area of a valve depends on the distance around the valve and the degree to which it lifts open.
  13. 13. <ul><li>More total area under is possible when two smaller valves, rather than one larger valve, are used at the same valve lift. Smaller valves allow smooth low-speed operation. </li></ul>Figure 26–5 Audi five-valve cylinder head. This design uses three intake valves (top) and two exhaust valves (bottom). Figure 26–4 Comparing the valve opening areas between two- and three-valve combustion chambers when the valves are open.
  14. 14. INTAKE AND EXHAUST PORTS <ul><li>The part of the intake or exhaust system passage cast in the head is called a port . Ports lead from manifolds to valves. Engines that have the intake port on one side of the head and the exhaust port on the opposite side are a cross-flow head design. </li></ul>Figure 26–6 A typical two-valve cross- flow cylinder head. The intake is on the top and the exhaust is on the bottom. The cross-flow head shown here allows the valve to be located and angled to permit efficient engine breathing. It allows the spark plug to be near the center of the combustion chamber. All V-type engines have cross-flow head design.
  15. 15. <ul><li>At times, a restricting hump within a port may actually increase the airflow capacity of the port. It does this by redirecting flow to an area of the port that large enough to handle the flow. Modifications in the field, such as porting or relieving , would result in restricting the flow of such a carefully designed port. </li></ul>Figure 26–7 The top cylinder head is stock and the bottom cylinder head has been ported. Continued
  16. 16. <ul><li>The intake port in the head is relatively long, whereas the exhaust port is short. The long intake port wall is heated by coolant flowing through the head. The heat aids in vaporizing the fuel in the intake charge. The exhaust port is short so that the least amount of exhaust heat is transferred to the coolant. </li></ul>Figure 26–8 The intake manifold design and combustion chamber design both work together to cause the air–fuel mixture to swirl as it enters the combustion chamber.
  17. 17. CYLINDER HEAD RECONDITIONING SEQUENCE <ul><li>Cylinder heads should be reconditioned using the following sequence: </li></ul>Continued <ul><li>Disassemble and thoroughly clean the heads. (See Chapter 25.) </li></ul><ul><li>Check for cracks and repair as necessary. (See Chapter 25.) </li></ul><ul><li>Check the surface that contacts the engine block and machine if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Check valve guides and replace or service as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Grind valves and reinstall the valves in the cylinder head with new valve-stem seals. </li></ul><ul><li>Check valve spring force and installed height. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Disassembling the Cylinder Head The engine should be cool (room temperature) before the cylinder heads are removed. As mentioned in Chapter 6, the head bolts should be loosened in the reverse of the order used for tightening to avoid the possibility of warping. In other words, the head bolts should be loosened from the outside and you should work your way toward the center of the head. Remove the valves from the cylinder head as illustrated in Figure 26–10. </li></ul>Continued
  19. 19. Figure 26–10 A valve spring compressor is used to compress the valve spring before removing the keepers (locks). When disassembling or reassembling a cylinder head, always wear safety glasses. Valve springs, when compressed, represent stored energy. Valve keepers can be sent flying through the air by the force of an expanding valve spring, which could put out an eye or cause other physical harm. Boing! Continued
  20. 20. CAUTION: All valve train components that are to be reused must be kept together. As wear occurs, parts become worn together. Pushrods can be labeled and kept in order if they are stuck through a cardboard box, as shown here. Be sure to keep the top part of the pushrod at the top. Intake and exhaust valve springs are different and must be kept with the correct valve. Figure 26–11 Sticking pushrods through a cardboard box is a method used to keep the valve train parts in proper order.
  21. 21. <ul><li>The surface of the head must be thoroughly cleaned and inspected as follows: </li></ul>Figure 26–12 A precision ground straight- edge and a feeler gauge are used to check the cylinder head for flatness. Continued <ul><li>The surface is first scraped and then draw-filed to remove any small burrs. </li></ul><ul><li>The head should be checked in five planes as shown in Figures 26–12 and 26–13 for warpage , distortion , bend , and twist . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 26–13 Cylinder heads should be checked in five planes for warpage, distortion, bend, or twist. <ul><li>The head should not vary by over 0.002 inches (0.05 millimeters) in any 6-inch (15-centimeter) length, or by more than 0.004 inches. Always check the manufacturer’s recommended specs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The head should not vary by over 0.002 inches (0.05 millimeters) in any 6-inch (15-centimeter) length, or by more than 0.004 inches overall. Always check the manufacturer’s recommended specs </li></ul>NOTE: The cylinder head surface that mates with the top deck of the block is often called the fire deck . Cylinder Head Resurfacing The head should be resurfaced if there is any roughness caused by corrosion of the head gasket. This can be felt on the head surface when you rub your fingernail across it. In precision engine rebuilding, both the head and the block deck are resurfaced as a standard practice. The head will usually have some warpage when the engine is disassembled.
  24. 24. Figure 26–14 A cylinder head being resurfaced. <ul><li>Always check the cylinder head thickness and specifications to </li></ul>NOTE: be sure material can be safely removed from the surface. Some manufacturers do not recommend machining, but require cylinder head replacement if cylinder head surface flatness is not within specifications. Aluminum cylinder heads are usually straightened before resurfacing.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Surface Finish As important as size of the part. Surface finish is measured in units called microinches (abbreviated µ in .). The symbol in front of the inch abbreviation is the Greek letter mu . One microinch equals 0.000001 inches (0.025 micrometers [µm]). The usual method of expressing surface finish is by the arithmetic average roughness height , abbreviated RA , which is the average of the distances of all peaks and valleys from the mean (average) line. </li></ul>Figure 26–15 A graph showing a typical rough surface as would be viewed through a magnifying glass. RA is an abbreviation indicating the average height of all peaks and valleys. Continued
  26. 26. <ul><li>Surface finish roughness recommendations for cast-iron and aluminum cylinder heads and blocks include: </li></ul><ul><li>Cast Iron Recommended range: 60 to 100 RA </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum Recommended range: 50 to 60 RA </li></ul>The rougher the surface is, the higher the microinch finish measurement will be .
  27. 27. VALVE GUIDES <ul><li>The valve guide supports the valve stem so that the valve face will remain perfectly centered or concentric with the valve seat. The valve guide is generally integral with the head casting for better heat transfer and for lower manufacturing costs. </li></ul>Continued Figure 26–16 An integral valve guide is simply a guide that has been drilled into the cast-iron cylinder head.
  28. 28. Figure 26–17 All aluminum cylinder heads use valve guide inserts. <ul><li>Valve guide inserts are always used where the valve stem and head materials are not compatible. </li></ul>A valve guide must be reconditioned to match the valve that is to be used with it. Engine manufacturers usually recommend the following valve stem-to-valve guide clearances. Intake valve: 0.001 to 0.003 inches (0.025 to 0.075 millimeters) Exhaust valve: 0.002 to 00.004 inches (0.05 to 0.10 millimeters )
  29. 29. <ul><li>Measuring Valve Guides for Wear Valves should be measured for stem wear before valve guides are measured. The valve guide is measured in the middle with a small hole gauge. The gauge size is then checked with a micrometer. The dimension of the valve stem diameter is subtracted from the dimension of the valve guide diameter. If the clearance between the stem and the guide exceeds the specified clearance, the valve guide will have to be reconditioned. See Figures 26–18 and 26–19. </li></ul><ul><li>Valve stem-to-valve guide clearance can also be checked using a dial indicator (gauge) to measure how much the valve moves when it is lifted off the valve seat. See Figure 26–20. </li></ul>Continued
  30. 30. Figure 26–18 A small hole gauge and a micrometer are being used to measure the valve guide. The guide should be measured in three places: at the top, middle, and bottom. Continued
  31. 31. Figure 26–19 The diameter of the valve stem is being measured using a micrometer. The difference between the inside diameter of the valve guide and the diameter of the valve stem is the valve guide-to-valve stem clearance. Continued
  32. 32. Figure 26–20 Measuring valve guide-to-stem clearance with a dial indicator while rocking the stem in the direction of normal thrust. The reading on the dial indicator should be compared to spec because it does not give the guide-to-stem clearance directly. The valve is usually limited to its maximum operating lift. Continued
  33. 33. <ul><li>Oversize Stem Valves Most domestic automobile manufacturers recommend reaming worn valve guides and installing new valves with oversize stems in engines that have integral valve guides. When a valve guide is worn, the valve stem is also likely to be worn. In this case, new valves are required. New valves can just as well have oversize stems as standard stems. Typically, available sizes include 0.003, 0.005, 0.008, 0.015, and 0.030 inches oversize (often abbreviated OS ). The valve guide is reamed or honed to the correct size to fit the oversize stem of the new valve. </li></ul>Continued HINT: A human hair is about 0.002 inches (0.05 millimeters) in diameter. Therefore, the typical clearance between a valve stem and the valve guide is only the thickness of a human hair.
  34. 34. <ul><li>Valve Guide Knurling In the process known as valve guide knurling, a tool is rotated as it is driven into the guide. The tool displaces the metal to reduce the hole diameter of the guide. Knurling is ideally suited to engines with integral valve guides (guides that are part of the cylinder head and are nonremovable). It is recommended that knurling not be used to correct exceeding 0.006 inches (0.15 millimeters). </li></ul>NOTE: Many remanufacturers of cylinder heads use oversize valve stems to simplify production. Continued
  35. 35. Figure 26–21 Sectional view of a knurled valve guide. <ul><li>In the displacing process, the knurling tool pushes a small tapered wheel or dull threading tool into the wall of the guide hole. This makes a groove in the wall of the guide without removing any metal. </li></ul>
  36. 36. VALVE GUIDE REPLACEMENT <ul><li>When an engine is designed with replaceable valve guides, their replacement is always recommended when the valve assembly is being reconditioned. The original valve guide height should be measured before the guide is removed so that the new guide can be properly positioned. </li></ul>Continued <ul><li>5/16 or 0.313 inches </li></ul><ul><li>11/32 or 0.343 inches </li></ul><ul><li>3/8 or 0.375 inches </li></ul>Replacement valve guides can also be installed to repair worn integral guides. Both cast-iron and bronze guides are available. Three common valve guide sizes are:
  37. 37. Figure 26–22 This cylinder head has been restored to service by replacing the original valve guides with bronze valve guides.
  38. 38. <ul><li>Valve Guide Inserts A badly worn integral valve guide can be reconditioned using an insert. This repair method is usually preferred in heavy-duty and high-speed engines. Two types of guide inserts are commonly used for guide repair: a thin-walled bronze alloy sleeve bushing and a spiral bronze alloy bushing. The thin-walled bronze sleeve bushings are also called bronze guide liners . </li></ul>Continued Continued
  39. 39. <ul><li>The valve guide rebuilding kit used to install each of these bushings includes all of the reamers, installing sleeves, broaches, burnishing tools, and cutoff tools that are needed to install and properly size the bushings. </li></ul>Figure 26–23 A typical assortment of valve guide reamers as found in an engine rebuilding shop.
  40. 40. INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVES <ul><li>Valves need to be reconditioned more often than any other engine part. Automotive engine valves are of a poppet valve design. The valve is opened by means of a valve train that is operated by a cam. The cam is timed to the piston position and crankshaft cycle. The valve is closed by one or more springs. The valve guide is centered over the valve seat so that the valve face and seat make a gas-tight fit. The face and seat will have an angle of 30° or 45°. Actual service angles might be a degree or two different from these. Most engines use a nominal 45° valve and seat angle. A typical valve assembly is shown in Figure 26–24. </li></ul>Continued
  41. 41. Figure 26–24 Identification and relationship of valve components. Note the different valve locks (keepers) used on the exhaust valve as compared to the intake valve. The oil seals shown are also called umbrella-type valve stem seals. Continued
  42. 42. Serious valve damage can occur if cold air reaches hot exhaust valves soon after the engine is turned off. An engine equipped with exhaust headers and/or straight-through mufflers can allow cold air a direct path to the hot exhaust valve. The exhaust valve can warp and/or crack as a result of rapid cooling. This can easily occur during cold, windy weather when the wind can blow cold out-side air directly up the exhaust system. Using reverse-flow mufflers with tailpipes and a catalytic converter reduces the possibility of this occurring. Hot Engine + Cold Weather = Trouble
  43. 43. <ul><li>Valve Materials Alloys used in exhaust valve materials are largely of chromium for oxidation resistance, with small amounts of nickel, manganese, and nitrogen added. Chrome provides a hard, smooth surface, to prevent valve scuffing and galling, especially when the engine is first started. In severe applications, facing alloys such as stellite , are used. Some heavy-duty applications use hollow stem exhaust valves that are partially filled with metallic sodium. An unfilled hollow valve stem is shown in Figure 26–25. </li></ul>Continued
  44. 44. Figure 26–25 Hollow valve stem. <ul><li>The sodium in the valve becomes a liquid at operating temperatures. As it splashes back and forth in the valve stem, the sodium transfers heat from the valve head to the valve stem. </li></ul>Continued
  45. 45. <ul><li>Valve Springs A valve spring holds the valve tightly against the seat when the valve is closed. One end of the valve spring is seated against the head. The other end of the spring is attached under compression to the valve stem through a valve spring retainer and a valve spring lock ( keeper ), as shown here. </li></ul>Continued Figure 26–26 A valve assembly after being removed from the cylinder head. Note how the tech tried to keep the valve spring, retainer, and locks (keepers) together as a set. The typical valve spring is commonly called a beehive spring.
  46. 46. <ul><li>Variable-rate springs add spring force when the valve is in its open position by using closely spaced coils on the cylinder head end of the spring. The closely spaced coils also tend to dampen vibrations that may be created by an equally wound coil spring. The damper helps to reduce valve seat wear. Some valve springs use a flat coiled damper inside the spring. This eliminates spring surge and adds some valve spring tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple valve springs are used where large lifts are required and a single spring does not have enough strength to control the valve. Multiple springs generally have coils wound in opposite directions. </li></ul>Continued
  47. 47. Figure 26–27 All valve springs should be checked for squareness by using a square on a flat surface. The spring should be replaced if more than 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) is measured between the top of the spring and the square. <ul><li>Valve Spring Inspection Valve springs close the valves after they have been opened by the cam. Valve springs must close the valve squarely to form a tight seal and to prevent valve stem and guide wear. </li></ul>The valve springs are checked for squareness by rotating on a flat surface with a square held against the side. They should be within 1/16 inch or 1.6 millimeter of square. Continued
  48. 48. <ul><li>A valve spring scale is used to measure the valve spring force. One popular type of scale, shown here, measures the spring force directly. Valve springs are checked for: </li></ul>Figure 26–28 One popular type of valve spring tester used to measure the compressed force of valve springs. Specifications usually include (1) free height (height without being compressed), (2) pressure at installed height with the valve closed, and (3) pressure with the valve open to the height specified. <ul><li>Free height (without being compressed) should be within1/16 (0.060) inch </li></ul><ul><li>Force with valve closed and height as per specifications (with damper spring removed) </li></ul><ul><li>Force with valve open and height as per specifications (with damper spring removed) </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Valve Rotators Some retainers have built-in devices called valve rotators . They cause the valve to rotate in a controlled manner as it is opened. The purposes and functions of valve rotators include the following: </li></ul>Continued <ul><li>Preventing carbon buildup from forming </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing hot spots on the valves by constantly turning them </li></ul><ul><li>Evening out the wear on the valve face and seat </li></ul><ul><li>Improving valve guide lubrication </li></ul>There are two types of valve rotators: free and positive. Free rotators The free rotators simply take the pressure off the valve to allow engine vibration to rotate the valve. Positive rotators The opening of the valve forces the valve to rotate.
  50. 50. Figure 26–29 Type of valve rotator operation. Ball-type operation is on the left and spring-type operation is on the right.
  51. 51. Figure 26–30 Resurfacing the face of a valve. Both the valve and the grinder stone or disc are turned to ensure a smooth surface finish on the face of the valve. <ul><li>The tip of the valve stem is lightly ground and chamfered. This step helps to ensure the valve will rest in the collet (holder of the valve stem during valve grinding) of the valve grinder correctly. </li></ul>VALVE RECONDITIONING PROCEDURE Valve reconditioning sequence: <ul><li>The face of the valve is ground using a valve grinder. </li></ul>This process is often called truing the valve tip .
  52. 52. <ul><li>The valve seat is ground in the head (the seat must be matched to the valve that will be used in that position). See Figures 26–31 through 26–34. </li></ul>Figure 26–31 Grinding a 45° angle establishes the valve seat in the combustion chamber. Continued Figure 26–32 Grinding a 30° angle removes metal from the top to lower and narrow the seat.
  53. 53. Figure 26–33 Grinding a 60° angle removes metal from the bottom to raise and narrow the seat. Figure 26–34 The seat must contact evenly around the valve face. For good service life, both margin and overhang should be at least 1/32 inch (0.8 mm).
  54. 54. <ul><li>Many manufacturers recommend that the angle ground on the valve seat and valve face be 1° different to provide a wedging force that results in a better initial seal. This 1° difference is called the interference angle. </li></ul><ul><li>Installed height and valve stem height are checked and corrected as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>After a thorough cleaning, the cylinder head is assembled with new valve stem seals installed. </li></ul>Continued
  55. 55. NOTE: Some experts recommend using lapping compound on the valve seat and valve face and rotating the valve to improve the valve seating. Figure 26–35 After the valve face and the valve seat are ground (reconditioned), lapping compound is used to smooth the contact area between the two mating surfaces. Notice the contact is toward the top of the face. For maximum life, the contact should be in the middle of the face.
  56. 56. A normal “valve job” includes grinding the face of the valve to clean up any pits and grinding the valve stems to restore the proper stem height. However, a little more airflow in and out of the cylinder head can be accomplished by performing two more simple grinding operations. <ul><li>Use the valve grinder and adjust to 30° (for a 45° valve) and grind a transition between the valve face and the valve stem area of the valve. While this step may reduce some desirable swirling of the air–fuel mixture at lower engine speeds, it also helps increase cylinder filling, especially at times when the valve is not fully open. </li></ul><ul><li>Chamfer or round the head of the valve between the top of the valve and the margin on the side. By rounding this surface, additional airflow into the cylinder is achieved. </li></ul>Grinding the Valves for More Power
  57. 57. Figure 26–36 After grinding the 45° face angle, additional airflow into the engine can be accomplished by grinding a transition between the face angle and the stem, and by angling or rounding the transition between the margin and the top of the valve. <ul><li>Valve seats need to be replaced if cracked or burned or eroded too much to be resurfaced. </li></ul>VALVE SEAT REPLACEMENT Damaged integral valve seats must be counterbored for the new insert seat. Continued
  58. 58. <ul><li>Manufacturers of replacement valve seats supply tables that specify the proper seat insert to be used. Insert exhaust valve seats operate at temperatures that are 100° to 150°F (56° to 83°C) hotter than those of integral seats. Removable valve seats are available in cast iron, stainless steel , nickel cobalt , or powdered metal ( PM ). </li></ul>Figure 26–37 All aluminum cylinder heads use valve seat inserts. If an integral valve seat (cast-iron head) is worn, it can be replaced with a replacement valve seat by machining a pocket (counterbore) to make a place for the new insert seat. Continued
  59. 59. VALVE STEM HEIGHT <ul><li>Valve stem height is different from installed height. Valve stem height is important to maintain for all engines, but especially for overhead camshaft engines. </li></ul>Continued When the valve seat and valve face are ground, the valve stem extends deeper in the combustion chamber and extends higher or further into the cylinder head. Figure 26–38 Valve stem height is measured from the spring seat to the tip of the valve after the valve seat and valve face have been refinished. If the valve stem height is too high, up to 0.020 inch can be ground from the tips of most valves.
  60. 60. <ul><li>The valve is put in the head, and the length of the valve tip is measured. The tip is ground to shorten the valve stem length to compensate for the valve face and seat grinding. The valve will not close if the valve tip extends too far from the valve guide in engines that have hydraulic lifters and nonadjustable rocker arms. The tip may be ground by as much as 0.020 inch (0.50 millimeter) to reduce its length. </li></ul>Continued
  61. 61. <ul><li>Checking Installed Height When the valves and/or valve seats have been machined, the valve projects farther than before on the rocker arm side of the head. (The valve face is slightly recessed into the combustion chamber side of the head.) The valve spring tension is reduced because the spring is not as compressed as originally. To restore valve spring tension, special valve spring spacers or inserts are installed under the valve springs. These shims are usually called valve spring inserts (VSI) . </li></ul>Continued
  62. 62. <ul><li>Valve spring inserts are generally available in three different thicknesses: </li></ul>Continued <ul><li>0.015 inch (0.38 millimeter) for balancing valve spring pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>0.030 inch (0.75 millimeter) generally, for new springs on cylinder heads that have had the valve seats ground and valves refaced </li></ul><ul><li>0.060 inch (1.5 millimeter) necessary to bring assembled height to specifications, especially if the seats have been resurfaced more than one time </li></ul>
  63. 63. Figure 26–39 Installed height is determined by measuring the distance from the spring seat to the bottom of the valve spring retainer. <ul><li>To determine the exact thickness of the insert to install, measure the valve spring height (as installed in the head). </li></ul>
  64. 64. Figure 26–40 Valve spring inserts are used to restore proper installed height. <ul><li>If the installed height is greater than specifications, select the insert (shim) that brings the installed height to within specs. </li></ul>
  65. 65. VALVE STEM SEALS <ul><li>Leakage past valve guides is a major oil consumption problem in any overhead valve (or overhead cam) engine. A high vacuum exists in the intake port. Most engine manufacturers use valve stem seals on both the intake and the exhaust valve. </li></ul>Continued The umbrella valve stem seal holds tightly to the valve stem and moves up and down with the valve. Any oil that spills off the rocker arms is deflected out over the valve guide. As a result, umbrella valve stem seals are often called deflector valve stem seals . The Chevrolet O-ring type of valve stem seal keeps oil from leaking between the valve stem and valve spring retainer. The oil is deflected over the retainer and shield. The assembly controls oil like an umbrella-type oil seal.
  66. 66. <ul><li>Positive valve stem seals hold tightly around the valve guide, and the valve stem moves through the seal. The seal wipes the excess oil from the valve stem (Figures 26–41 through 26–43). </li></ul>Figure 26–41 Positive valve stem seals are the most effective type because they remain stationary on the valve guide and wipe the oil from the stem as the valve moves up and down. Continued
  67. 67. Figure 26–42 An assortment of shapes, colors, and materials of positive valve stem seals. Figure 26–43 The positive valve stem seal is installed on the valve.
  68. 68. INSTALLING THE VALVES <ul><li>The cylinder head can be assembled after cleaning with soap and water to wash away remaining grit and metal shavings from the valve grinding operation. </li></ul>Continued Valves are assembled in the head one at a time. Give the valve guide and stem a liberal coating of engine oil, and install the valve in its guide. Install umbrella or positive valve stem seals. Push umbrella seals down until they touch the valve guide. Use a plastic sleeve over the tip of the valve when installing positive seals. Make sure that the positive seal is fully seated on the valve guide and that it is square. Hold the valve against the seat as the valve spring seat or insert, valve spring, valve seals, and retainer are placed over the valve stem.
  69. 69. Figure 26–44 A metal valve spring seat must be used between the valve spring and the aluminum cylinder head. Many DaimlerChrysler aluminum cylinder heads use a combination valve spring seat and valve stem seal. <ul><li>Install the valve spring seat if assembling an aluminum head. </li></ul>Continued
  70. 70. <ul><li>One end of the valve spring compressor pushes on the retainer to compress the spring. The O-ring type of valve stem seal is installed in the lower groove. </li></ul>Figure 26–45 Assembling a race engine using a heavy-duty valve spring compressor. To test the seal, attach the hose from a vacuum pump to the top of the assembled valve. A vacuum will hold if the O-ring type of valve stem seal is correctly installed . The valve locks are installed while the valve spring is compressed.
  71. 71. New, assembled cylinder heads, whether aluminum or cast iron, are a popular engine build-up option. However, experience has shown that metal shavings and casting sand are often found inside the passages. Before bolting on these “ready-to-install” heads, disassemble them and clean all passages. Often machine shavings are found under the valves. If this debris were to get into the engine, the result would be extreme wear or damage to the pistons, rings, block, and bearings. This cleaning may take several hours, but how much is your engine worth? Do Not Simply Bolt On New Cylinder Heads
  72. 72. SUMMARY <ul><li>The most commonly used combustion chamber types include hemi-spherical, wedge, and pentroof. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder head reconditioning should start with cleaning and repairing, if needed, followed by resurfacing of valves and, finally, grinding of valves and seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Valve guides should be checked for wear using a ball gauge or a dial indicator. Typical valve stem-to-guide clearance is 0.001 to 0.003 inches for intake valves and 0.002 to 0.004 inches for exhaust valves. </li></ul>Continued
  73. 73. SUMMARY <ul><li>Valve guide repair options include using oversize stem valves, replacement valve guides, valve guide inserts, and knurling of the original valve guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Valve springs should be kept with the valve at the time of disassembly and tested for squareness and proper spring force. </li></ul><ul><li>Free and positive are two types of valve rotators. </li></ul>Continued ( cont. )
  74. 74. SUMMARY <ul><li>Valve grinding should start with truing the valve tip; then the face should be refinished. A pilot is placed into the valve guide to position the stone or cutter correctly for resurfacing the valve seat. </li></ul><ul><li>The installed height should be checked and corrected with valve spring inserts if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Valve stem height should be checked and the tip of the valve ground if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>After a thorough cleaning, the cylinder head should be assembled using new valve stem seals. </li></ul>( cont. )
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