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Chapter 09


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Chapter 09

  1. 1. start
  2. 2. <ul><li>Describe what tool is best to use for each job. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how to safely use hand tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between the brand name (trade name) and the proper name for tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to maintain hand tools. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES: After studying Chapter 9, the reader should be able to:
  3. 3. <ul><li>adjustable wrench • aviation tin snips • beam-type torque wrench • box-end wrench • breaker bar (flex handle) </li></ul><ul><li>cheater bar • chisel • clicker-type torque wrench • cold chisel • close end • combination wrench • crowfoot socket </li></ul><ul><li>dead-blow hammer • diagonal (side-cut or dike) pliers • double-cut file • drive size • easy out • extension files • fitting wrench • flare-nut wrench • flat-tip (straight blade) screwdriver • hacksaw • locking pliers </li></ul>KEY TERMS: Continued
  4. 4. <ul><li>multi-groove adjustable pliers • needle-nose pliers • nut splitter offset left aviation snip • offset right aviation snip • open-end wrench • punch • ratchet • removers screwdriver • seal driver • seal puller • single-cut file • slip-joint pliers • snap-ring pliers • socket • socket adapter • straight cut aviation snip • stud removal tool • stud remover tin snips • torque wrench • tube-nut wrench • universal joint • utility knife • VISE GRIPS • water pump pliers • wrench </li></ul>KEY TERMS: ( cont. ) ®
  5. 5. WRENCHES <ul><li>Wrenches are the most used hand tool by service techs. Most are constructed of forged alloy, usually chrome-vanadium steel. The wrench is formed, hardened, tempered to reduce brittleness, and then chrome plated. There are several types of wrenches. </li></ul>Figure 9–1 A forged wrench after it has been forged but before the flashing, extra material around the wrench has been removed.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Open-End Wrench An open-end wrench is used for bolts or nuts that do not require a lot of torque. It can be easily placed on a bolt or nut with an angle of 15 degrees. The disadvantage of an open-end wrench is lack of torque that can be applied, as the open jaws of the wrench only contact two flat surfaces of the fastener. An open-end wrench has two different sizes; one at each end. </li></ul>Figure 9–2 A typical open-end wrench. The size is different on each end and notice that the head is angled 15 degrees at each end.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Box-End Wrench A box-end wrench , is also called a close-end wrench, has two different sizes; one at each end. It is placed over the top of, and grips the points of the fastener. </li></ul>Figure 9–3 A typical box-end wrench is able to grip the bolt or nut at points completely around the fastener. Each end is a different size. A box-end wrench should be used to loosen or to tighten fasteners. Figure 9–4 The end of a box-end wrench is angled 15 degrees to allow clearance for nearby objects or other fasteners. Continued
  8. 8. <ul><li>Most service technicians purchase combination wrenches , which are open at one end and have the same size box on the other end. </li></ul>Figure 9–5 A combination wrench has an open end at one end and a box end at the other. A combination wrench allows the tech to loosen or tighten a fastener using the box end of the wrench, and turn it around to use the open end to increase the speed of rotating the fastener. Continued
  9. 9. <ul><li>Adjustable Wrench An adjustable wrench is often used where the exact size wrench is not available or when a large nut, such as a wheel spindle nut, needs to be rotated but not tightened. </li></ul>Figure 9–6 An adjustable wrench. Adjustable wrenches are sized by the overall length of the wrench and not how far the jaws open. Common sizes include 8, 10, and 12 inch. An adjustable wrench should not be used to loosen or tighten fasteners because the moveable jaws can loosen their grip on the fastener, causing it to become rounded. Continued
  10. 10. <ul><li>Line Wrenches Called flare-nut wrenches , fitting wrenches , or tube-nut wrenches . Designed to grip almost all the way around a nut used to retain a fuel or refrigerant line, and yet able to be installed over the line. </li></ul>Figure 9–7 The end of a typical line wrench, which shows that it is capable of grasping most of the head of the fitting.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Safe Use of Wrenches Wrenches should be inspected before use to be sure they are not cracked, bent, or damaged. They should be cleaned after use. Always use the correct size of wrench for the fastener being loosened or tightened to prevent the rounding of the fastener. When attempting to loosen a fastener, pull—do not push— a wrench. If a wrench is pushed, your knuckles can be hurt when forced into another object if the fastener breaks loose. </li></ul>
  12. 12. RATCHETS, SOCKETS AND EXTENSIONS <ul><li>A socket fits over the fastener and grips the points and/or flats. It is rotated (driven) using either a long bar called a breaker bar ( flex handle ) or a ratchet . </li></ul>Figure 9–8 A typical ratchet used to rotate a socket. A ratchet makes a ratcheting noise when it is being rotated in the opposite direction from loosening or tightening. A knob or lever on the ratchet allows the user to switch directions.
  13. 13. Figure 9–9 A typical flex handle used to rotate a socket, also called a breaker bar because it usually has a longer handle than a ratchet and therefore, can be used to apply more torque to a fastener than a ratchet. A ratchet turns the socket in only one direction and allows the rotating of the ratchet handle back and forth in a narrow space. Extensions and universal joints are used with sockets to allow access to fasteners in restricted locations. Sockets are available in various drive sizes , including 1/4-inch, 3/8-inch, and 1/2-inch. Continued
  14. 14. Figure 9–10 The most commonly used socket drive sizes include 1 /4 -inch, 3 /8 -inch, and 1 /2 -inch drive. Many heavy-duty truck and/or industrial applications use 3/4 and 1-inch sizes. The drive size is the distance of each side of the square drive. Sockets and ratchets of the same size are designed to work together. Continued
  15. 15. Figure 9–11 A six-point socket fits the head of the bolt or nut on all sides. A twelve-point socket can round off the head of a bolt or nut if a lot of force is applied. It is sometimes confusing which way to rotate a wrench or screwdriver, especially when the head of the fastener is pointing away from you. To help visualize while looking at the fastener, say “righty-tighty, lefty-loosey .” Right to Tighten
  16. 16. <ul><li>Crowfoot Sockets A crowfoot socket is a socket that is an open-end or line wrench to allow access to fasteners that cannot be reached using a conventional wrench. Crowfoot sockets are available in the following categories: </li></ul>Figure 9–12 A crowfoot socket is designed to reach fasteners using a ratchet or breaker bar with an extension. <ul><li>Fractional inch open-end </li></ul><ul><li>Metric open-end </li></ul><ul><li>Fractional line </li></ul><ul><li>Metric line </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Torque Wrenches Socket turning handles designed to apply a known force to the fastener are called Torque wrenches . A clicker-type torque wrench is set to the specified torque and “clicks” when the value has been reached. </li></ul>Figure 9–13 Using a torque wench to tighten connecting rod nuts on an engine. When force is removed from the handle, another click is heard. The wrench should be set back to zero after use and check for calibration regularly. Continued
  18. 18. Figure 9–14 A beam-type torque wrench that displays the torque reading on the face of the dial. The beam display is read as the beam defects, which is in proportion to the amount of torque applied to the fastener. A beam-type torque wrench is used to measure torque. Instead of presetting the value, the actual torque is displayed on the dial as the fastener is tightened. Beam-type wrenches are available in 1/4, 3/8, and 1/2 inch drives, in English and metric units. Continued
  19. 19. Figure 9–15 Torque wrench calibration checker. Torque wrenches should be checked regularly. For example, Honda has a torque wrench calibration setup at each of their training centers. It is expected that a torque wrench be checked for accuracy before every use. Most experts recommend that torque wrenches be checked and adjusted as needed at least every year and more often if possible. Check Torque Wrench Calibration Regularly Continued
  20. 20. The unit for torque is expressed as a force times the distance (leverage) from the object. Therefore, the official unit for torque is lb-ft (pound-feet) or Newton-meters (a force times a distance). It is commonly expressed in ft-lbs and even some torque wrenches are labeled with this unit. Is it Lb-Ft or Ft-Lb or Torque? Misreading torque specs is easy to do but can have serious damaging results. Specs for fasteners are commonly expressed lb-ft. Many smaller fasteners are tightened to specifications expressed in lb-in . 1 lb-ft = 12 lb-in. If a fastener were accidentally tightened to 24 lb-ft instead of 24 lb-in., the actual torque applied will be 288 lb-in. instead of the specified 24 lb-in. The extra torque will likely break the fastener, but it could also warp or distort the part being tightened. Always double-check the torque specs. Double-Check the Specifications
  21. 21. <ul><li>Safe Use of Sockets and Ratchets Always use the proper size socket that correctly fits the bolt or nut. All sockets and ratchets should be cleaned after use before being placed back into the toolbox. Sockets are available in short and deep well designs. </li></ul>Figure 9–16 Deep sockets allow access to the nut that has a stud plus other locations needing great depth, such as spark plugs. Select the appropriate drive size. For small work, such as on the dash, select a 1/4-inch drive. For most general work, use a 3/8. For suspension, steering and other large fasteners, use a 1/2-inch drive. When loosening, pull toward yourself.
  22. 22. <ul><li>1 /4 -inch drive — 3 /8 -inch sockets </li></ul><ul><li>3 /8 -inch drive — 1 /4 -inch sockets </li></ul><ul><li>3 /8 -inch drive — 1 /2 -inch sockets </li></ul><ul><li>1 /2 -inch drive — 3 /8 -inch sockets </li></ul>Socket adapters are available and can be used for different drive size sockets on a ratchet. Combinations include: Using a larger drive ratchet or breaker bar on a smaller size socket can cause the application of too much force to the socket, which could crack or shatter. Using a smaller size drive tool on a larger socket will usually not cause any harm, but would greatly reduce the amount of torque that can be applied to the bolt or nut. Use Socket Adapters with Caution
  23. 23. Whenever a fastener is difficult to remove, some technicians will insert the handle of a ratchet or a breaker bar into a length of steel pipe. The extra length of the pipe allows the technician to exert more torque than can be applied using the drive handle alone. However, the extra torque can easily overload the socket and ratchet, causing them to break or shatter, which could cause personal injury. Avoid Using “Cheater Bars”
  24. 24. SCREWDRIVERS <ul><li>Many smaller fasteners are removed and installed by using a screw-driver , available in many sizes and tip shapes. </li></ul>The most commonly used is called a flat tip or straight blade . Flat-tip screwdrivers are sized by the width of the blade. This width should match the width of the slot in the screw. Figure 9–17 A flat-tip (straight blade) screwdriver. The width of the blade should match the width of the slot in the fastener. Continued
  25. 25. <ul><li>Another type of commonly used screwdriver is named for Henry F. Phillips, who invented the crosshead screw in 1934. Due to the shape of the screw and screwdriver, a Phillips screw can be driven with more torque than a slotted screw. A Phillips head screwdriver is specified by the length of the handle and size of the point at the tip. A #1 tip has a sharp point, a #2 the most commonly used. A #3 tip is blunt and used for larger sizes of Phillips head fasteners. Both straight and Phillips screwdrivers are available with a short blade and handle for access to fasteners with limited room. </li></ul>CAUTION: Do not use a screwdriver as a pry tool or as a chisel. Always use the proper tool for each application.
  26. 26. Figure 9–18 Two stubby screwdrivers that are used to access screws that have limited space above. A straight blade is on top and a #2 Phillips screwdriver is on the bottom. Both straight and Phillips screwdrivers are available with a short blade and handle for access to fasteners with limited room.
  27. 27. <ul><li>Offset Screwdrivers Are used in places where a conventional screwdriver cannot fit. An offset is bent at the ends and is used similar to a wrench. Most have a straight blade at one end and a Phillips end the other. </li></ul>Figure 9–19 An offset screwdriver is used to install or remove fasteners that do not have enough space above to use a conventional screwdriver.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Impact Screwdriver Is is used to break loose or tighten a screw. A hammer is used to strike the end after the screwdriver holder is placed in the head of the screw and rotated the desired direction. </li></ul>Figure 9–20 An impact screwdriver used to remove slotted or Phillips head fasteners that cannot be broken loose using a standard screwdriver. The force from the blow does two things: It applies a force downward holding screwdriver tip in the slot and also applies a twisting force to loosen (or tighten) the screw. Continued
  29. 29. <ul><li>Orange (#00) — Number 1 and 2 screws </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow (#0) — Number 3 and 4 screws </li></ul><ul><li>Green (#1) — Number 5, 6, and 7 screws </li></ul><ul><li>Red (#2) — Number 8, 9, and 10 screws </li></ul><ul><li>Black (#3) — Number 12 and larger screws </li></ul>A Canadian named P. L. Robertson invented the Robertson screw and screwdriver in 1908, which uses a square-shaped tip with a slight taper. The Robertson screw-driver uses color-coded handles because different size screws required different tip sizes. The color and sizes include: The Robertson screws are rarely found in the United States but are common in Canada. What is a Robertson Screwdriver? Continued
  30. 30. <ul><li>Safe Use of Screwdrivers Always use the proper type and size screwdriver that matches the fastener. Try to avoid pressing down on a screwdriver because if it slips, the screwdriver tip could go into your hand, causing serious personal injury. All screwdrivers should be cleaned after use. Do not use a screwdriver as a pry bar; always use the correct tool for the job. </li></ul>
  31. 31. HAMMERS AND MALLETS <ul><li>Hammers And mallets are used to force objects together or apart. The shape of the back part of the hammer head (called the peen ) usually determines the name. For example, a ball-peen hammer has a rounded end like a ball and it is used to straighten oil pans and valve covers, using the hammer head, and for shaping metal, using the ball peen. </li></ul>Figure 9–21 A typical ball-peen hammer. Continued
  32. 32. <ul><li>Mallets Are a type of hammer with a large striking surface, which allows the tech to exert force over a larger area. This helps avoid damage to parts or components. Mallets are made from a variety of materials including rubber, plastic, or wood. </li></ul>Figure 9–22 A rubber mallet used to deliver a force to an object without harming the surface.
  33. 33. <ul><li>A shot-filled plastic hammer is called a dead-blow hammer . The small lead balls (shot) inside a plastic head prevent bouncing of the hammer off of the object when struck. </li></ul>Figure 9–23 A dead-blow hammer that was left outside in freezing weather. The plastic covering was damaged, which destroyed this hammer. The lead shot is encased in the metal housing and then covered. A hammer is usually sized by the weight of the head of the hammer and the length of the handle. For example, a commonly used ball-peen hammer has an 8-ounce head with an 11-inch handle.
  34. 34. NOTE: A claw hammer has a claw used to remove nails and is not used for automotive service. Safe Use of Hammers and Mallets All mallets and hammers should be cleaned after use and not exposed to extreme temperatures. Never use a hammer or mallet that is damaged in any way. Always use caution to avoid doing damage to components and surrounding areas.
  35. 35. PLIERS <ul><li>Slip-Joint Pliers Pliers are capable of holding, twisting, bending, and cutting. They are an extremely useful classification of tools. Common household pliers are called slip-joint pliers . </li></ul>Figure 9–24 Typical slip-joint pliers, which are also common household pliers. The slip joint allows the jaws to be opened to two different settings. There are two different positions where the junction of the handles meet to achieve a range of sizes of objects that can be gripped.
  36. 36. <ul><li>MultiGroove Adjustable Pliers For gripping larger objects, using a set of multigroove adjustable pliers is common. Originally designed to remove various size nuts holding rope seals used in water pumps, the name water pump pliers is also used. </li></ul>Figure 9–25 Multigroove adjustable pliers are known by many names, including the trade name “Channel Locks.”
  37. 37. Figure 9–26 A linesman’s pliers are very useful because they can help perform many automotive service jobs. <ul><li>Linesman’s Pliers Are specifically designed for cutting, bending, and twisting wire. While commonly used by construction workers and electricians, they are very useful tools for the service tech who deals with wiring. </li></ul>The center parts of the jaws are designed to grasp round objects such as pipe or tubing without slipping.
  38. 38. <ul><li>Diagonal Pliers Are designed for cutting only. The jaws are set at an angle to make it easier to cut wires. Diagonal pliers are also called side cut or dike . </li></ul>Figure 9–27 Diagonal-cut pliers are another common tool that has many names.
  39. 39. <ul><li>Needle-Nose Pliers Designed to grip small objects or those in tight locations, needle-nose pliers have long, pointed jaws. </li></ul>Figure 9–28 Needle- nose pliers are used where there is limited access to a wire or pin that needs installed or removed. Most have a wire cutter located at the base near the pivot. There are several variations. including right angle or slightly angled jaws to allow access to cramped areas. Continued
  40. 40. <ul><li>Locking Pliers Are adjustable pliers that can be locked to hold objects from moving. Most have wire cutters near the pivot point. </li></ul><ul><li>The size is the length of the pliers, not how far the jaws open. </li></ul>Figure 9–29 Locking pliers are best known by their trade name VISE GRIPS . ® Safe Use of Pliers Pliers should not be used to remove any bolt or other fastener. They should only be used when specified by the vehicle manufacturer. Continued
  41. 41. <ul><li>Brand Name </li></ul>Technicians often use slang or brand names of tools rather than the proper term. This results in some confusion for new technicians. Some examples are given in the following table. Brand Name versus Proper Name Crescent wrench Vise Grips Channel Locks Adjustable wrench Locking pliers Water pump pliers or multigroove adjustable pliers Diagonal cutting pliers Monkey wrench Pump pliers Dikes or side cuts Proper Term Slang Name ®
  42. 42. Figure 9–30 Snap-ring pliers are also called lock-ring pliers and are designed to remove internal and external snap rings (lock rings). <ul><li>Snap-Ring Pliers Are used to remove and install snap rings. Many are designed to remove and install inward, as well as outward, expanding snap rings. Snap-ring pliers can feature serrated-tipped jaws for grasping the opening in the snap ring. Others are equipped with points, which are inserted into the holes in the snap ring. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Figure 9–31 Files come in many different shapes and sizes. Never use a file without a handle. <ul><li>Files Used to smooth metal, files are constructed of hardened steel with diagonal rows of teeth. Files with a single row of teeth are called a single-cut file . A file with two rows cut at an opposite angle is called a double-cut file . Files are available in a variety of shapes and sizes from small flat files, half-round and triangular files. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Safe Use of Files Always use a file with a handle. Because files only cut when moved forward, a handle must be attached to pre-vent possible personal injury. After making a forward strike, lift the file and return the file to the starting position; avoid dragging the file backward. </li></ul>Often soft metal particles can become stuck in a file, especially when using it to file aluminum or other soft metals. Rub some chalk into the file before using it to prevent this from happening. Use Chalk
  45. 45. CUTTERS <ul><li>Snips Service techs are often asked to fabricate sheet metal brackets or heat shields and need to use one or more types of cutters available. The simplest is called tin snips, which are designed to make straight cuts in materials such as sheet steel, aluminum, or even fabric. A variation is called aviation tin snips . There are three designs, one to cut straight ( straight cut aviation snip ), one to cut left ( offset left aviation snip ), and one to cut right ( offset right aviation snip ). </li></ul>Continued
  46. 46. Figure 9–32 Tin snips are used to cut thin sheets of metal or carpet. Continued
  47. 47. <ul><li>Utility Knife Using a replaceable blade a utility knife cuts a variety of materials such as carpet, plastic, wood, and paper products. </li></ul>Figure 9–33 A utility knife uses replaceable blades and is used to cut carpet and other materials. Safe Use of Cutters When using cutters, wear eye protection or a face shield to guard against metal pieces ejected during the cut. Always follow recommended procedures.
  48. 48. PUNCHES AND CHISELS <ul><li>Punches A punch is a small diameter steel rod with a smaller diameter ground at one end. It is used to drive a pin out that is used to retain two components. </li></ul>Punches are measured across the diameter of the machined end. Sizes include 1/16 inch, 1/8 inch, 3/16 inch, and 1/4 inch. Figure 9–34 A punch used to drive pins from assembled components. This type of punch is also called a pin punch. Continued
  49. 49. <ul><li>Chisels A chisel has a straight, sharp cutting end used for cutting off rivets or to separate two pieces of an assembly. The most common design for automotive service work is a cold chise l. </li></ul>Figure 9–35 Warning stamped in the side of a punch warning that goggles should be worn when using this tool. Always follow safety warnings. Safe Use of Punches and Chisels Always wear eye protection when using a punch or a chisel. Hardened steel is brittle and parts of the punch could fly off and cause serious personal injury. Continued
  50. 50. Figure 9–36 Use a grinder or a file to remove the mushroom material on the end of a punch or chisel. Punches and chisels can also have the top rounded off, which is called “mushroomed.” This material must be ground off to help avoid the possibility that the overhanging material is loosened and becomes airborne during use.
  51. 51. <ul><li>Removers are tools used to remove damaged fasteners. They are not normally needed during routine service unless the fastener is corroded, broken or damaged. Rusted and corroded fasteners should be sprayed with penetrating oil, a low viscosity oil designed to flow between the threads of a fastener or other small separations between parts. Common penetrating oil products include WD-40 , Kroil, and CRC 5-56. </li></ul>REMOVERS ® CAUTION: Do not use penetrating oil as lubricating oil. It is volatile and will evaporate after usage, leaving little lubricant protection behind. ®
  52. 52. <ul><li>Over time, rust and corrosion can cause the threads of the fastener to be attached to the nut or casting making it difficult to remove. Several special tools can be used to remove damaged fasteners, depending on the type of damage. Damaged Heads If the bolt head or a nut becomes damaged or rounded, two special tools can be used. </li></ul>Figure 9–37 A stud remover uses an offset serrated wheel to grasp the stud so it will be rotated when a ratchet or breaker bar is used to rotate the assembly. Stud remover Grips the part above the surface and uses a cam or wedge to grip the stud as it is rotated by a ratchet or breaker bar. Continued
  53. 53. Figure 9–38 A nut splitter is used to split a nut that cannot be removed. After the nut has been split, a chisel is used to remove the nut. Nut splitter A nut splitter works by splitting the nut from the bolt. Insert the cutter against a flat of the nut and tighten the threaded bolt. The nut will split away, and can be removed. CAUTION: Do not rotate the entire nut splitter or damage to the cutting wedge will occur.
  54. 54. <ul><li>Broken Bolts, Studs, or Screws Can occur even with, or below the surface, making stud removal tools impossible to use. Bolt extractors are commonly called “ easy outs .” Constructed of hardened steel with flutes or edges ground in the opposite direction of most threads. </li></ul>Figure 9–39 Set of bolt extractors, commonly called easy outs. A hole is drilled in a broken bolt. The extractor is inserted and rotated counter-clockwise with a wrench. As the extractor rotates, the grooves grip tighter into the wall of the hole drilled in the broken bolt. As a result, extractors are capable of removing most broken bolts.
  55. 55. An extractor (easy out) is hardened steel and removing this and the broken bolt is now a job for a professional machine shop. The part, which could be as large as an engine block, needs to be removed from the vehicle and taken to a machine shop that is equipped to handle this type of job. One method involves using an electrical discharge machine (EDM). An EDM uses a high amperage electrical current to produce thousands of arcs between the electrode and the broken tool. The part is submerged in a nonconducting liquid and each tiny spark vaporizes a small piece of the broken tool. I Broke Off an Easy Out —Now What? NOTE: Always select the largest extractor that can be used to help avoid the possibility of breaking the extractor while trying to remove the bolt. Continued
  56. 56. Figure 9–40 Removing plugs or bolts is easier if the plug is first heated to cherry red color, using a torch, and then applying wax. During cooling, the wax flows in between the threads, making it easier to remove. Many times rusted fasteners can be removed by using heat to expand the metal and break the rust bond between the fastener and the nut or casting. Many technicians heat the fastener using a torch and then apply paraffin wax or a candle to the heated fastener. See Figure 9–40. The wax will melt and as the part cools, will draw the liquid wax down between the threads. After allowing the part to cool, attempt to remove the fastener. It will often be removed without any trouble. The Wax Trick
  57. 57. Apply a small amount of valve grinding compound to a Phillips or Torx screw or bolt head. The gritty valve grinding compound “grips” the screwdriver or tool bit and prevents the tool from slipping up and out of the screw head. Valve grinding compound is available in a tube from most automotive parts stores. The Valve Grinding Compound Trick
  58. 58. Whenever removing any automotive component, it is wise to screw the bolts back into the holes a couple of threads by hand. This ensures that the right bolt will be used in its original location when the component or part is put back on the vehicle. Often, the same diameter of fastener is used on a component, but the length of the bolt may vary. Spending just a couple of seconds to put the bolts and nuts back where they belong when the part is removed can save a lot of time when the part is being reinstalled. Besides making certain that the right fastener is being installed in the right place, this method helps prevent bolts and nuts from getting lost or kicked away. How much time have you wasted looking for that lost bolt or nut? It Just Takes a Second
  59. 59. Figure 9–48 A binder clip being used to keep a fender cover from falling. A binder clip (size 1-1/4 inches wide) is used by wise technicians to help keep fender covers in place. Binder clips are found at office supply stores. Use a Binder Clip
  60. 60. HACKSAWS <ul><li>A hacksaw is used to cut metals, such as steel, aluminum, brass, or copper. The cutting blade of a hacksaw is replaceable and the sharpness and number of teeth can be varied to meet the needs of the job. Use 14 or 18 teeth per inch (tpi) for cutting plaster or soft metals, such as aluminum and copper. 24 or 32 teeth per inch for steel or pipe. A hacksaw cuts while the blade is pushed in the forward direction, pressure should be released as the blade is pulled rearward before repeating the cutting operation. </li></ul>Continued
  61. 61. <ul><li>Safe Use of Hacksaws Check that the hacksaw is equipped with the correct blade for the job and the teeth are pointed away from the handle. move the hacksaw slowly away from you, lift slightly and return for another cut. </li></ul>Figure 9–41 A typical hacksaw that is used to cut metal. If cutting sheet metal or thin objects, a blade with more teeth should be used.
  62. 62. Figure 9–45 A seal driver or installer is usually plastic and is designed to seat the seal. Seal Drivers A seal driver can be plastic or metal, usually aluminum. It is used to seat the outer lip of a grease seal in the grease seal pocket. A seal is usually driven into position using a plastic mallet and seal driver that is the same size as the outside diameter of the grease seal retainer.
  63. 63. SEAL DRIVERS AND PULLERS <ul><li>Seal Pullers Grease seals are located on many components, including brake rotors, transmission housings, and differentials. A seal puller is used to properly remove grease seals. </li></ul>Continued Figure 9–44 A seal puller being used to remove a seal from a rear axle.
  64. 64. ELECTRICAL HAND TOOLS <ul><li>Test Lights Are used to test for electricity. A typical test light consists of a clear plastic screwdriver-like handle that contains a light bulb. </li></ul>A wire is attached to a terminal of the bulb, which is connected to a clean metal part of the vehicle. The other end attaches to a point that can be used to test for electricity at a connector or wire. When there is power and a good connection, the light bulb lights. Figure 9–46 A typical 12-volt test light.
  65. 65. <ul><li>Soldering Guns </li></ul>Figure 9–47 An electric soldering gun used to make electrical repairs. Soldering guns are sold by the wattage rating. The higher the wattage, the greater amount of heat treated. Most solder guns used for automotive electrical work usually fall within the 60- to 160-watt range. <ul><li>Electric soldering gun This type of soldering gun is usually powered by 110-volt AC and often has two power settings expressed in watts. </li></ul>Continued
  66. 66. <ul><li>Most service techs who do electrical-related work should have: </li></ul><ul><li>Electric soldering pencil This type is less expensive and creates less heat than an electric soldering gun. A typical electric soldering pencil (iron) creates 30 to 60 watts of heat, suitable for soldering smaller wires and connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Butane-powered soldering iron Is portable and very useful for automotive service work because an electrical cord is not needed. Butane powered irons produce about 60 watts of heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Wire cutters </li></ul><ul><li>Wire crimpers </li></ul>A digital multimeter, abbreviated DMM, is necessary for electrical diagnosis and trouble-shooting. It is usually capable of measuring the following units of electricity: <ul><li>Wire strippers </li></ul><ul><li>Heat gun </li></ul><ul><li>DC Volts </li></ul><ul><li>AC Volts </li></ul><ul><li>Ohms </li></ul><ul><li>Amperes </li></ul>
  67. 67. TOOL SETS AND ACCESSORIES <ul><li>A beginning service tech may wish to start with a small set of tools before spending money on an expensive, extensive tool box. </li></ul>Figure 9–43 A typical large tool box, showing just one of many drawers. Figure 9–42 A typical beginning technician tool set that includes the basic tools to get started. Continued
  68. 68. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST Continued
  69. 69. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST Continued ( cont. )
  70. 70. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST Continued ( cont. )
  71. 71. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST Continued ( cont. )
  72. 72. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST Continued ( cont. )
  73. 73. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST ( cont. )
  74. 74. An apprentice technician started working for a dealership and put his top tool box on a workbench. Another technician observed that, along with a complete set of good-quality tools, the box contained several adjustable wrenches. The more experienced technician said, “Hide those from the boss.” If any adjustable wrench is used on a bolt or nut, the movable jaw often moves or loosens and starts to round the head of the fastener. If the head of the bolt or nut becomes rounded, it becomes that much more difficult to remove. Most service technicians agree that it is okay for a beginning technician to borrow a tool occasionally. However, if a tool has to be borrowed more than twice, then be sure to purchase it as soon as possible. Also, whenever a tool is borrowed, be sure that you clean the tool and let the technician you borrowed the tool from know that you are returning the tool. These actions will help in any future dealings with other technicians. “ Hide Those from the Boss” Need to Borrow a Tool More Than Twice? Buy It!
  75. 75. SAFETY TIPS FOR USING HAND TOOLS The following safety tips should be kept in mind whenever you are working with hand tools: <ul><li>Always pull a wrench toward you for best control and safety. Never push a wrench. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep wrenches and all hand tools clean to help prevent rust and to allow for a better, firmer grip. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a 6-point socket or a box-end wrench to break loose a tight bolt or nut. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a box-end wrench for torque and an open-end wrench for speed. </li></ul>Continued
  76. 76. <ul><li>Never use a pipe extension or other type of “ cheater bar ” on a wrench or ratchet handle. If more force is required, use a larger tool or use penetrating oil and/or heat on the fastener. (If heat is used to remove a fastener, always replace it with a new part.) </li></ul><ul><li>Always use the proper tool for the job. If a specialized tool is required, use the proper tool and do not try to use another tool improperly. </li></ul><ul><li>Never expose any tool to excessive heat. High temperatures can reduce the strength (“draw the temper”) of metal tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Never use a hammer on any wrench or socket handle unless you are using a special “staking face” wrench designed to be used with a hammer. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace any tools that are damaged or worn. </li></ul>
  77. 77. HAND TOOL MAINTENANCE <ul><li>Most hand tools are constructed of rust-resistant metals but they can still rust or corrode if not properly maintained. For best results and long tool life, the following steps should be taken: </li></ul><ul><li>Clean each tool before placing it back into the tool box. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep tools separated. Moisture on metal tools will start to rust more readily if the tools are in contact with another metal tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Line the drawers of the tool box with a material that will prevent the tools from moving as the drawers are opened and closed. This helps to quickly locate the proper tool and size. </li></ul><ul><li>Release the tension on all “clicker-type” torque wrenches. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the tool box secure. </li></ul>
  78. 78. SUMMARY <ul><li>Wrenches are available in open end, box end, and combination open and box end. </li></ul><ul><li>An adjustable wrench should only be used where the proper size is not available. </li></ul><ul><li>Line wrenches are also called flare-nut wrenches, fitting wrenches, or tube-nut wrenches and are used to remove fuel or refrigerant lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Sockets are rotated by a ratchet or breaker bar, also called a flex handle. </li></ul>Continued
  79. 79. SUMMARY <ul><li>Torque wrenches measure the amount of torque applied to a fastener. </li></ul><ul><li>Screwdriver types include straight blade (flat tip) and Phillips. </li></ul><ul><li>Hammers and mallets come in a variety of sizes and weights. </li></ul><ul><li>Pliers are a useful tool and are available in many different types, including slip-joint, multigroove, linesman’s, diagonal, needle nose, and locking pliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Other common hand tools include snap-ring pliers, files, cutters, punches, chisels, and hacksaws. </li></ul>( cont. )
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