Ch07 Basic Theoriesand Math Rev


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  • Ch07 Basic Theoriesand Math Rev

    1. 1. Chapter Seven Basic Theories and Math
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe how all matter exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what energy is and how energy is converted. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the volume of a cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the forces that influence the design and operation of an automobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and apply Newton’s Laws of Motion to an automobile. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives (Cont’d) <ul><li>Define friction and describe how it can be minimized. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various types of simple machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between torque and horsepower. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between a vibration and a sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Pascal’s Law and give examples of where it is applied to an automobile. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Objectives (Cont’d) <ul><li>Explain the behavior of gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how heat affects matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by the chemical properties of a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between oxidation and reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the origin and practical applications of electromagnetism. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Matter <ul><li>All matter consists of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are positively charged particles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are negatively charged particles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have no electrical charge. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. States of Matter <ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles are held together in a rigid structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles break away from structure and form a solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms or molecules break free from the body of the liquid. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Forms of Energy <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul>
    8. 8. Common Automotive Energy Conversions <ul><li>Chemical to thermal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel burning in the cylinder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical to electrical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrical to mechanical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starter motor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermal to mechanical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical to electrical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrical to radiant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light bulbs </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Mass and Weight <ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the amount of matter in an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size is related to mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a force measured in pounds or grams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is caused by gravitational pull. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Formulas <ul><li>Circumference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter times Pi (3.14) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length times width times height </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Area of a circle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pi (3.14) times the radius squared </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Calculating Engine Displacement <ul><li>CID = Pi x R (squared) x L x N </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pi = 3.14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R = the radius of the cylinder opening (or the bore divided by 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L = the length of the stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N = the number of cylinders </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Bore and Stroke
    13. 13. Compression Ratio <ul><li>Compression ratio is the ratio of the volume in the cylinder above the piston when at BDC to the volume in the cylinder above the piston when at TDC. </li></ul><ul><li>CR = volume of cylinder at BDC divided by the volume of cylinder at TDC. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Compression Ratio (Cont’d)
    15. 15. Force <ul><li>Force can be applied to objects by direct contact or from a distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces can be applied from any direction and with any intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>When two or more forces are applied to an object, the combined force is called the resultant. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Time <ul><li>Time is defined as a measurement of the duration of an event. </li></ul><ul><li>Time is measured in seconds, minutes, and hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed is the distance an object travels in a given amount of time. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Newton’s Laws of Motion <ul><li>An object at rest tends to remain at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion. </li></ul><ul><li>When a force acts upon an object, the motion of the object will change. </li></ul><ul><li>For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Work <ul><li>Work is done when a force moves a certain mass a specific distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Work is equal to the applied force multiplied by the distance the object moved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force x Distance = Work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work is measured in foot-pounds, watts, Newton-meters, or joules. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Work Being Performed
    20. 20. Torque <ul><li>Torque is a force that does work that tends to rotate or turn things. </li></ul><ul><li>Torque is force times leverage. </li></ul><ul><li>To have torque, it is not necessary to have movement. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Torque Multiplication
    22. 22. Horsepower <ul><li>Horsepower is the rate at which torque is produced. </li></ul><ul><li>One horsepower is equal to 33,000 foot-pounds of work in one minute. </li></ul><ul><li>One horsepower is equal to 746 watts, 545 Btu, 1055 joules, or 252 gram-calories. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Horsepower (Cont’d)
    24. 24. Vibrations <ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of times a vibration occurs in one second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Hertz (cycles per second) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amplitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strength or intensity of a vibration </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Sound <ul><li>Pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decibel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The relative loudness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by two vibrations with nearly the same frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overtone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A higher tone heard with the waves of the original tone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmonics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result from two or more tones at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of energy </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Laws of Hydraulics <ul><li>Hydraulics is the study of liquids in motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids are non-compressible. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure is transmitted equally in all directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulics can provide a mechanical advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures and mechanical advantage are mathematically computed. </li></ul>
    27. 27. A Sample Hydraulic System
    28. 28. Behavior of Gasses <ul><li>Volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional. </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure of a gas at constant volume will increase as its temperature increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the temperature of a gas, the higher the volume. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Heat <ul><li>Temperature is an indication of an object’s kinetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is measured in Btu, calories, or joules. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that gives off heat is a source of heat. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Methods of Heat Transfer <ul><li>Convection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of heat by movement of a heated substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The movement of heat through a material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The transfer of heat by infrared waves </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Electrical Terms <ul><li>Voltage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strength of an electrical force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amperes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The flow of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The opposition to electron flow </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Matter is anything that occupies space, and it exists as a gas, liquid, or solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is the ability to do work. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is the amount of matter in an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume is the amount of space occupied by an object in length, width, and height. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Summary (Cont’d) <ul><li>The forces required to maintain circular motion are called centripetal and centrifugal force. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure is a force applied against an opposing object. </li></ul><ul><li>Momentum is when a force overcomes static inertia. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Summary (Cont’d) <ul><li>Speed is the distance an object travels in a set amount of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Friction is a force that slows or prevents motion of two objects that touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Torque is a force that tends to rotate things. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is a measurement for the rate at which work is done. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Summary (Cont’d) <ul><li>Hydraulics is the study of liquids in motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure law states that the pressure exerted by a gas at constant volume increases as the temperature is increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is a form of energy caused by the movement of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common way to produce electricity is to use a coil of wire and magnet. </li></ul>