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  1. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>After studying Chapter 1, the reader should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for ASE knowledge content for vehicle identification and the proper use of tools and shop equipment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieve vehicle service information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the strength ratings of threaded fasteners. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how to safely hoist a vehicle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss how to safely use hand tools. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List the personal protective equipment ( PPE ) that all service technicians should wear. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. V EHICLE IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>All service work requires that the vehicle, including the engine and accessories, be properly identified. The most common identification is knowing the make, model, and year of the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make: e.g., Chevrolet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model: e.g., Trailblazer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year: e.g., 2006 </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  3. 4. <ul><li>The vehicle identification number, usually abbreviated VIN. </li></ul><ul><li>Although every vehicle manufacturer assigns various letters or numbers within these 17 characters, there are some constants, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first number or letter designates the country of origin. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  4. 5. <ul><ul><li>The model of the vehicle is commonly the fourth or fifth character and sometimes both. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  5. 6. (Continued) Z = Italy U = Romania K = Korea 5 = United States Y = Sweden T = Czechoslovakia J = Japan 4 = United States X = Russia S = England 9 = Brazil 3 = Mexico W = Germany R = Taiwan 8 = Argentina 2 = Canada V = France L = China 6 = Australia 1 = United States
  6. 7. <ul><ul><li>The eighth character is often the engine code. (Some engines cannot be determined by the VIN number.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenth character represents the year on all vehicles. See the following chart. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VIN Year Chart (The pattern repeats every 30 years.) </li></ul>(Continued)
  7. 8. (Continued) 6 = 2006/2036 W = 1998/2028 L = 1990/2020 C = 1982/2012 7 = 2007/2037 X = 1999/2029 M = 1991/2021 D = 1983/2013 8 = 2008/2038 Y = 2000/2030 N = 1992/2022 E = 1984/2014 9 = 2009/2039 1 = 2001/2031 P = 1993/2023 F = 1985/2015 2 = 2002/2032 R = 1994/2024 G = 1986/2016 3 = 2003/2033 S = 1995/2025 H = 1987/2017 5 = 2005/2035 V = 1997/2027 K = 1989/2019 B = 1981/2011 4 = 2004/2034 T = 1996/2026 J = 1988/2018 A = 1980/2010
  8. 9. Figure 1-1 Typical vehicle identification number (VIN) as viewed through the windshield.
  9. 10. VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL <ul><li>This label indicates the month and year of manufacture (not model year) as well as the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), the gross axle weight rating (GAWR), and the vehicle identification number (VIN). </li></ul>
  10. 11. VECI LABEL <ul><li>The vehicle emissions control information (VECI) label under the hood of the vehicle shows informative settings and emission hose routing information. </li></ul>(Continued)
  11. 12. <ul><li>The VECI label usually includes the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions standard that the vehicle meets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum hose routing diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base ignition timing (if adjustable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spark plug type and gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valve lash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission calibration code </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  12. 13. Figure 1-2 The vehicle emission control information (VECI) stick is placed under the hood.
  13. 14. CALIBRATION CODES <ul><li>Calibration codes are usually located on power train control modules (PCMs) or other controllers. Some calibration codes are only accessible using a scan tool. </li></ul>(Continued)
  14. 15. Figure 1-3 A typical calibration code sticker on the case of a controller. The information on this sticker is often needed when ordering parts or a replacement controller.
  15. 16. CASTING NUMBERS <ul><li>Whenever an engine part, such as a block, is cast, a number is put into the mold to identify the casting. </li></ul>(Continued)
  16. 17. Figure 1-4 Engine block identification can be either cast or stamped or both.
  17. 18. SERVICE INFORMATION <ul><li>Service Manuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While factory service manuals cover just 1 year and one or more models of the same vehicle, most aftermarket service manufacturers cover multiple years and/or models in one manual. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  18. 19. <ul><li>Electronic Service Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic service information is available mostly by subscription or purchase and provides access to an Internet site where service manual-type information is available. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  19. 20. <ul><li>Technical Service Bulletins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical service bulletins, often abbreviated TSBs, are issued by the vehicle manufacturer to notify service technicians of a problem and include the necessary corrective action. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  20. 21. <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet has opened the field for information exchange and access to technical advice. One of the most useful websites is the International Automotive Technician ’s network at . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recalls and Campaigns </li></ul>(Continued)
  21. 22. Figure 1-5 A factory service manual contains all specifications and procedures for a particular vehicle or model in one or more volumes.
  22. 23. Figure 1-6 Electronic service information is available from aftermarket sources such as All-Data and Mitchell-On-Demand as well as on websites hosted by the vehicle manufacturer.
  23. 24. Figure 1-7 Technical service bulletins are issued by vehicle manufacturers when a fault occurs that affects many vehicles with the same problem.
  24. 25. THREADED FASTENERS <ul><li>Most of the threaded fasteners used on vehicles are cap screws. </li></ul><ul><li>The fastener threads must match the threads in the casting or nut. The threads may be measured either in fractions of an inch (called fractional) or in metric units. The size is measured across the outside of the threads, called the crest of the thread. </li></ul>(Continued)
  25. 26. <ul><li>Standard combinations of sizes and number of threads per inch (called pitch) are used. Pitch can be measured with a thread pitch gauge as shown in Figure 1-9. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolts and screws have many different-shaped heads. </li></ul>(Continued)
  26. 27. <ul><li>Fractional thread sizes are specified by the diameter in fractions of an inch and the number of threads per inch. Typical UNC thread sizes would be 5/16-18 and 1/2-13. Similar UNF thread sizes would be 5/16-24 and 1/2-20. </li></ul>(Continued)
  27. 28. Figure 1-8 The dimensions of a typical bolt showing where sizes are measured. The crest is the same as the major diameter.
  28. 29. Figure 1-9 Thread pitch gauge used to measure the pitch of the thread. This bolt is 1/2-in. diameter with 13 threads to the inch (1/2-13).
  29. 30. Figure 1-10 Bolts and screws have many different heads which determine what tool must be used.
  30. 31. Figure 1-11 The American National System is one method of sizing fasteners.
  31. 32. METRIC BOLTS <ul><li>The size of a metric b olt is specified by the letter M followed by the diameter in millimeters (mm) across the outside (crest) of the threads. Typical metric sizes would be M8 and M12. Fine metric threads are specified by the thread diameter followed by  and the distance between the threads measured in millimeters (M8  1.5). </li></ul>(Continued)
  32. 33. Figure 1-12 The metric system specifies fasteners by diameter, length, and pitch.
  33. 34. GRADES OF BOLTS <ul><li>The strength or classification of a bolt is called the grade. The bolt heads are marked to indicate their grade strength. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual grade of bolts is two more than the number of lines on the bolt head. Metric bolts have a decimal number to indicate the grade. More lines or a higher grade number indicate a stronger bolt. </li></ul>(Continued)
  34. 35. Figure 1-13 Stronger threads are created by cold-rolling a heat-treated bolt blank instead of cutting the threads using a die.
  35. 36. TENSILE STRENGTH <ul><li>Graded fasteners have a higher tensile strength than nongraded fasteners. Tensile strength is the maximum stress used under tension (lengthwise force) without causing failure of the fastener. </li></ul>(Continued)
  36. 37. <ul><li>Metric bolt tensile strength property class is shown on the head of the bolt as a number, such as 4.6, 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9; the higher the number, the stronger the bolt. </li></ul>(Continued)
  37. 38. Figure 1-14 Metrick bolt (cap screw) grade markings and approximate tensile strength.
  38. 39. NUTS <ul><li>Most nuts used on cap screws have the same hex size as the cap screw head. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts can also be kept from loosening with a nylon washer fastened in the nut or with a nylon patch or strip on the threads. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Most of these &quot;locking nuts&quot; are grouped together and are commonly referred to as prevailing torque nuts. </li></ul>(Continued)
  39. 40. Figure 1-15 Types of lock nuts. On the left, a nylon ring; in the center, a distorted shape; and on the right, a castle for use with a cotter key.
  40. 41. Figure 1-16 Various types of nuts (top) and washers (bottom) serve different purposes and all are used to secure bolts or cap screws.
  41. 42. WASHERS <ul><li>Washers are often used under cap screw heads and under nuts. </li></ul>
  42. 43. ELECTRICAL TOOLS <ul><li>Electrical-related tools include various types of soldering guns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric soldering gun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric soldering pencil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butane-powered soldering iron. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  43. 44. Figure 1-17 A typical 110-volt electric soldering gun.
  44. 45. Figure 1-18 A typical 110-volt electric soldering pencil.
  45. 46. BASIC HAND TOOL LIST <ul><li>Hand tools are used to turn fasteners (bolts, nuts, and screws). The following is a list of hand tools every automotive technician should possess. Specialty tools are not included. </li></ul>(Continued)
  46. 47. Figure 1-19 Many different types of screw heads have been used over the years in a variety of applications.
  47. 48. Figure 1-20 Combination wrench. The openings are the same size at both ends. Notice the angle of the open end to permit use in close spaces.
  48. 49. Figure 1-21 Three different qualities of open-end wrenches. The cheap wrench on the left is made from weaker steel and is thicker and less accurate machined than the standard in the center. The wrench on the right is of professional quality (and price).
  49. 50. Figure 1-22 Flare-nut wrench; also known as a line wrench, fitting wrench, or tube-nut wrench. This style of wrench is designed to grasp most of the flats of a six-sided (hex) tubing fitting to provide the most grip without damage to the fitting.
  50. 51. Figure 1-23 Box-end wrench;recommended to loosen or tighten a bolt or nut where a socket will not fit. A box-end wrench has a different size at each end and is better to use than an open-end wrench because it touches the bolt or nut around the entire head instead of at just two places.
  51. 52. Figure 1-24 Open-end wrench. Each end has a different-sized opening and is recommended for general usage. Do not attempt to loosen or tighten bolts or nuts from or to full torque with an open-end wrench because it could round the flats of the fastener.
  52. 53. Figure 1-25 Adjustable wrench. The size (12 inches) is the length of the wrench, not how far the jaws open!
  53. 54. Figure 1-26 A flat-blade (or straight-blade) screwdriver (on the left) is specified by the length of the screwdriver and width of the blade. The width of the blade should match the width of the screw slot of the fastener. A Phillips-head screw-driver (on the right) is specified by the length of the handle and the size of the point at the tip. A #1 is a sharp point, a #2 is most common (as shown), and a #3 Phillips is blunt and is only used for larger sizes of Phillips-head fasteners.
  54. 55. Figure 1-27 Assortment of pliers. Slip-joint pliers (far left) are often confused with water pump pliers (second from left).
  55. 56. Figure 1-28 A ball-peen hammer (top) is purchased according to weight (usually in ounces) of the head of the hammer. At bottom is a soft-faced (plastic) hammer. Always use a hammer that is softer than the material being driven. Use a block of wood or similar material between a steel hammer and steel or iron engine parts to prevent damage to the engine parts.
  56. 57. Figure 1-29 Typical drive handles for sockets.
  57. 58. Figure 1-30 Various socket extensions. The universal joint (U-joint) in the center (bottom) is useful for gaining access in tight areas.
  58. 59. Figure 1-31 Socket drive adapters. These adapters permit the use of a 3/8-inch ratchet with 1/2-inch drive sockets, or other combinations as the various adapters permit. Adapters should not be used where a larger tool used with excessive force could break or damage a smaller-sized socket.
  59. 60. Figure 1-32 A 6-point socket fits the head of the bolt or nut on all sides. A 12-point socket can round off the head of a bolt or nut if a lot of force is applied.
  60. 61. Figure 1-33 Standard 12-point short socket (left), universal joint socket (center), and deep-well socket (right). Both the universal and deep well are 6-point sockets.
  61. 62. Figure 1-34 Various punches on the left and a chisel on the right.
  62. 63. Figure 1-35 Using a die to cut threads on a rod.
  63. 64. Figure 1-36 Dies are used to make threads on the outside of round stock. Taps are used to make threads inside holes. A thread chaser is used to clean threads without removing metal.
  64. 65. Figure 1-37 Starting a tap in a drilled hole. The hole diameter should be matched exactly to the tap size for proper thread clearance. The proper drill size to use is called the tap drill size.
  65. 66. TOOL SETS AND ACCESSORIES <ul><li>A beginning service technician may wish to start with a small set of tools before spending a lot of money on an expensive, extensive tool box. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic wintergreen oil, available at drugstores everywhere, makes an excellent penetrating oil. </li></ul>(Continued)
  66. 67. <ul><li>Impact Wrench </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An impact wrench, either air (pneumatic) or electrically powered, is a tool that is used to remove and install fasteners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The direction of rotation is controlled by a switch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrically powered impact wrenches commonly include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battery-powered units. See Figure 1-44. </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  67. 68. <ul><ul><ul><li>110-volt, AC-powered units. This type of impact is very useful, especially if compressed air is not readily available. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact sockets are thicker walled and constructed with premium alloy steel. They are hardened with a black oxide finish to help prevent corrosion and to distinguish them from regular sockets. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  68. 69. <ul><li>Air Ratchet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An air ratchet is used to remove and install fasteners that would normally be removed or installed using a ratchet and a socket. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Die Grinder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A die grinder is a commonly used air-powered tool which can also be used to sand or remove gaskets and rust. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  69. 70. <ul><li>Bench- or Pedestal-Mounted Grinder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wire brush wheel is used to clean threads of bolts as well as to remove gaskets from sheet metal engine parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A stone wheel is used to grind metal or to remove the mushroom from the top of punches or chisels. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  70. 71. <ul><li>Gloves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of gloves and their characteristics include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latex surgical gloves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinyl gloves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyurethane gloves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrile gloves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanic ’s gloves. </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  71. 72. Figure 1-38 (a) A beginning technician can start with some simple basic hand tools. (b) An experienced, serious technician often spends several thousand dollars a year for tools such as those found in this large (and expensive) tool box. A
  72. 73. Figure 1-38 (a) A beginning technician can start with some simple basic hand tools. (b) An experienced, serious technician often spends several thousand dollars a year for tools such as those found in this large (and expensive) tool box. B
  73. 74. Figure 1-39 An inexpensive muffin tin can be used to keep small parts separated.
  74. 75. Figure 1-40 A good fluorescent trouble light is essential. A fluorescent light operates cooler than an incandescent light and does not pose a fire hazard as when gasoline is accidentally dropped on an unprotected incandescent bulb used in some trouble lights.
  75. 76. Figure 1-41 Synthetic wintergreen oil can be used as a penetrating oil to loosen rusted bolts or nuts.
  76. 77. Figure 1-42 A typical 1/2-inch drive air impact wrench.
  77. 78. Figure 1-43 This air impact wrench features a variable torque setting using a rotary knob; the direction of rotation can be changed by pressing the buttons at the bottom.
  78. 79. Figure 1-44 A typical battery-powered 3/8-inch drive impact wrench.
  79. 80. Figure 1-45 A black impact socket. Always use impact-type sockets whenever using an impact wrench to avoid the possibility of shattering the socket, which can cause personal injury.
  80. 81. Figure 1-46 An air ratchet is a very useful tool that allows fast removal and installation of fasteners, especially in areas that are difficult to reach or do not have room enough to move a hand ratchet wrench.
  81. 82. Figure 1-47 This typical die grinder surface preparation kit includes the air-operated die grinder as well as a variety of sanding disks for smoothing surfaces or removing rust.
  82. 83. Figure 1-48 A typical pedestal grinder with a wire wheel on the left side and a stone wheel on the right side. Even though this machine is equipped with guards, safety glasses or a face shield should always be worn whenever working using a grinder or wire wheel.
  83. 84. Figure 1-49 Protective gloves such as these vinyl gloves are available in several sizes. Select the size that allows the gloves to fit snugly. Vinyl gloves last a long time and often can be worn all day to help protect your hands from dirt and possible hazardous materials.
  84. 85. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>The wise service technician should wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and adhere to all of the following safety tips. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety glasses that meet standard ANSI Z87.1 should be worn at all times while servicing any vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch your toes - always keep your toes protected with steel-toed safety shoes. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  85. 86. <ul><ul><li>Wear gloves to protect your hands from rough or sharp surfaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service technicians working under a vehicle should wear a bump cap to protect the head against under-vehicle objects and the pads of the lift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove jewelry that may get caught on something or might act as a conductor to an exposed electrical circuit. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  86. 87. <ul><ul><li>Take care of your hands. Keep your hands clean by washing with soap and hot water that is at least 110 degrees F (43 degrees C). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid loose or dangling clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear protection should be worn if the sound around you requires that you raise your voice (sound level higher than 90 dB). (A typical lawnmower produces noise at a level of about 110 dB. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  87. 88. <ul><ul><li>When lifting any object, get a secure grip with solid footing. Keep the load close to your body to minimize the strain. Lift with your legs and arms, not your back. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not twist your body when carrying a load. Instead, pivot your feet to help prevent strain on the spine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for help when moving or lifting heavy objects. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  88. 89. <ul><ul><li>Push a heavy object rather than pull it. (This is opposite to the way you should work with tools - never push a wrench! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always connect an exhaust hose to the tailpipe of any running vehicle to help prevent the buildup of carbon monoxide inside a closed garage space. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  89. 90. <ul><ul><li>When standing, keep objects, parts, and tools with which you are working between chest height and waist height. If seated, work at tasks that are at elbow height. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always be sure the hood is securely held open. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shop Cloth Disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always dispose of oily shop cloths in an enclosed container to prevent a fire. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  90. 91. Figure 1-50 Safety glasses should be worn at all times when working on or around any vehicle or servicing any component.
  91. 92. Figure 1-51 Steel-toed shoes are a worthwhile investment to help prevent foot injury due to falling objects. Even these well-worn shoes can protect the feet of this service technician.
  92. 93. Figure 1-52 One version of a bump cap is this padded plastic insert that is worn inside a regular cloth cap.
  93. 94. Figure 1-53 Remove all jewelry before performing service work on any vehicle.
  94. 95. Figure 1-54 Always connect an exhaust hose to the tailpipe of the engine of a vehicle to be run inside a building.
  95. 96. Figure 1-55 (continued) (a) A crude but effective method is to use locking pliers on the chrome-plated shaft of a hood strut. Locking pliers should only be used on defective struts because the jaws of the pliers can damage the strut shaft. (b) A commercially available hood clamp. This tool uses a bright orange tag to help remind the technician to remove the clamp before attempting to close the hood. The hood could be bent if force is used to close the hood with the clamp in place. A
  96. 97. Figure 1-56 All oily shop cloths should be stored in a metal container equipped with a lid to help prevent spontaneous combustion.
  97. 98. SAFETY IN LIFTING (HOISTING) A VEHICLE <ul><li>All automobile and light-truck service manuals include recommended locations to be used when hoisting (lifting) a vehicle. Newer vehicles have a triangle decal on the driver's door indicating the recommended lift points. The recommended standards for the lift points and lifting procedures are found in SAE Standard JRP-2184. </li></ul>(Continued)
  98. 99. <ul><li>These recommendations typically include the following points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vehicle should be centered on the lift or hoist so as not to overload one side or put too much force either forward or rearward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pads of the lift should be spread as far apart as possible to provide a stable platform. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  99. 100. <ul><ul><li>Each pad should be placed under a portion of the vehicle that is strong and capable of supporting the weight of the vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect placement of the vehicle on the lift could cause the vehicle to be imbalanced, and the vehicle could fall. This is what happened to the vehicle in Figure 1-59. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On full-frame vehicles, place the pads under the frame rails. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  100. 101. <ul><ul><li>Boxed areas of the body are the best places to position the pads on a vehicle without a frame. Be careful to note whether the arms of the lift might come into contact with other parts of the vehicle before the pad touches the intended location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly damaged areas include the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rocker panel moldings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust system including </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  101. 102. <ul><ul><li>The vehicle should be raised about a foot (30 centimeters [cm]) off the floor, then stopped and shaken to check for stability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before lowering the hoist, the safety latch(es) must be released and the direction of the controls reversed. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  102. 103. Figure 1-57 Most newer vehicles have a triangle symbol indicating the recommended hoisting lift points.
  103. 104. Figure 1-58 (a) Tall safety stands can be used to provide additional support for a vehicle while on a hoist. (b) A block of wood should be used to avoid the possibility of doing damage to components supported by the stand. A
  104. 105. Figure 1-58 (continued) (a) Tall safety stands can be used to provide additional support for a vehicle while on a hoist. (b) A block of wood should be used to avoid the possibility of doing damage to components supported by the stand. B
  105. 106. Figure 1-59 This vehicle fell from the hoist because the pads were not set correctly. No one was hurt, but the vehicle was a total loss.
  106. 107. Figure 1-60 (a) An assortment of hoist pad adapters that are often necessary to safely hoist many pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. (b) A view from underneath a Chevrolet pickup truck showing how the pad extensions are used to attach the hoist lifting pad to contact the frame. A
  107. 108. Figure 1-60 (continued) (a) An assortment of hoist pad adapters that are often necessary to safely hoist many pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. (b) A view from underneath a Chevrolet pickup truck showing how the pad extensions are used to attach the hoist lifting pad to contact the frame.
  108. 109. Figure 1-61 (a) In this photo the pad arm is just contacting the rocker panel of the vehicle. (b) This photo shows what can occur if the technician places the pad too far inward underneath the vehicle. The arm of the hoist has dented in the rocker panel. A
  109. 110. Figure 1-61 (continued) (a) In this photo the pad arm is just contacting the rocker panel of the vehicle. (b) This photo shows what can occur if the technician places the pad too far inward underneath the vehicle. The arm of the hoist has dented in the rocker panel.
  110. 111. JACKS AND SAFETY STANDS <ul><li>Floor jacks properly rated for the weight of the vehicle being raised are a common vehicle lifting tool. </li></ul><ul><li>The weight of the vehicle should never be kept on the hydraulic floor jack, because a failure of the jack could cause the vehicle to fall. </li></ul>(Continued)
  111. 112. Figure 1-62 (a) A typical 3-ton (6000-pound) capacity hydraulic floor jack. (b) Whenever a vehicle is raised off of the ground, a safety stand should be placed under the frame, axle, or body to support the weight of the vehicle. A
  112. 113. Figure 1-62 (continued) (a) A typical 3-ton (6000-pound) capacity hydraulic floor jack. (b) Whenever a vehicle is raised off of the ground, a safety stand should be placed under the frame, axle, or body to support the weight of the vehicle. B
  113. 114. DRIVE-ON RAMPS <ul><li>Ramps are an inexpensive way to raise the front or rear of a vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUTION: Professional repair shops do not use ramps because they are dangerous to use. Use only with extreme care. </li></ul>(Continued)
  114. 115. Figure 1-63 Drive-on type ramps. The wheel on the ground level must be chocked (blocked) to prevent accidental movement down the ramp.
  115. 116. ELECTRICAL CORD SAFETY <ul><li>Use correctly grounded three-prong sockets and extension cords to operate power tools. </li></ul><ul><li>When not in use, keep electrical cords off the floor to prevent tripping over them. </li></ul>
  116. 117. JUMP STARTING AND BATTERY SAFETY <ul><li>To jump start another vehicle with a dead battery, connect good quality copper jumper cables. </li></ul>(Continued)
  117. 118. <ul><li>The last connection made should always be on the engine block or an engine bracket as far from the battery as possible. It is normal for a spark to be created when the jumper cables finally complete the jumping circuit, and this spark could cause an explosion of the gases around the battery. </li></ul>(Continued)
  118. 119. Figure 1-64 Jumping cable usage guide.
  119. 120. Air Hose Safety <ul><li>Improper use of an air nozzle can cause blindness or deafness. Compressed air must be reduced to less than 30 psi (206 kPa). </li></ul>(Continued)
  120. 121. Figure 1-65 The air pressure going to the nozzle should be reduced to 30 psi or less.
  121. 122. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS <ul><li>There are four classes of fire extinguishers. Each class should be used on specific fires only: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A is designed for use on general combustibles, such as cloth, paper, and wood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class B is designed for use on flammable liquids and greases, including gasoline, oil, thinners, and solvents. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  122. 123. <ul><ul><li>Class C is used only on electrical fires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class D is effective only on combustible metals such as powdered aluminum, sodium, or magnesium. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The class rating is clearly marked on the side of every fire extinguisher. Many extinguishers, such as ABC units, are good for multiple types of fires. </li></ul>(Continued)
  123. 124. <ul><li>When using a fire extinguisher, remember the word “PA SS. ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P = Pull the safety pin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A = Aim the nozzle of the extinguisher at the base of the fire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S = Squeeze the lever to actuate the extinguisher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S = Sweep the nozzle from side-to-side. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  124. 125. <ul><li>Types of Fire Extinguishers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of fire extinguishers include the following. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO2). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry chemical (yellow). </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  125. 126. Figure 1-66 A typical fire extinguisher designed to be used on type A, B, or C fires.
  126. 127. Figure 1-67 A CO 2 fire extinguisher being used on a fire set in an open steel drum during a demonstration at a fire department training center.
  127. 128. FIRE BLANKETS <ul><li>Fire blankets are required to be available in the shop areas. If a person is on fire, a fire blanket should be removed from its storage bag and thrown over and around the victim to smother the fire. </li></ul>(Continued)
  128. 129. Figure 1-68 A treated wool blanket is kept in this easy-to-open wall-mounted holder and should be placed in a centralized location in the shop.
  129. 130. FIRST AID AND EYE WASH STATIONS <ul><li>All shop areas must be equipped with a first-aid kit and an eye wash station centrally located and kept stocked with emergency supplies. </li></ul>(Continued)
  130. 131. <ul><li>First-Aid Kit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A first aid kit should include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandages (variety) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gauze pads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roll gauze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine swab sticks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotic ointment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocortisone cream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burn gel packets </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  131. 132. <ul><ul><ul><li>Eye wash solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scissors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tweezers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gloves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First-aid guide </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  132. 133. <ul><li>Eye Wash Station </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An eye wash station should be centrally located and used whenever any liquid or chemical gets into the eyes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mark Off the Service Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some shops rope off the service bay area to help keep traffic and distractions to a minimum, which could prevent personal injury. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  133. 134. <ul><li>Infection Control Precautions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working on a vehicle can result in personal injury, including the possibility of being cut or hurt enough to cause bleeding. Some infections such as Hepatitis B, HIV (which can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS), Hepatitis C virus, and others are transmitted in the blood. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  134. 135. <ul><ul><li>These infections are commonly called blood-borne pathogens. Report to your supervisor any injury that involves blood and take the necessary precautions to avoid coming in contact with blood from another person. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  135. 136. Figure 1-69 A first-aid box should be centrally located in the shop and kept stocked with the recommended supplies.
  136. 137. Figure 1-70 A typical eye wash station. Often a thorough flushing of the eyes with water is the best treatment in the event of eye contamination.
  137. 138. Figure 1-71 An area that has been blocked off to help keep visitors from the dangerous work area.
  138. 139. HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE SAFETY ISSUES <ul><li>Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) use a high-voltage battery pack and an electric motor(s) to help propel the vehicle. </li></ul>(Continued)
  139. 140. <ul><li>To safely work around a hybrid electric vehicle, the high-voltage (HV) battery and circuits should be shut off following these steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Turn off the ignition key (if equipped) and remove the key from the ignition switch. (This will shut off all high-voltage circuits if the relay(s) is working correctly.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Disconnect the high-voltage circuits. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  140. 141. <ul><li>CAUTION: Some vehicle manufacturers specify that rubber insulated lineman ’s gloves be used whenever working around the high-voltage circuits to prevent the danger of electrical shock. </li></ul>(Continued)
  141. 142. <ul><li>Toyota Prius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cutoff switch is located in the trunk. To gain access, remove three clips holding the upper left portion of the trunk side cover. To disconnect the high-voltage system, pull the orange handled plug while wearing insulated rubber lineman ’s gloves. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  142. 143. <ul><li>Ford Escape/Mercury Mariner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford and Mercury specify that the following steps should be included when working with the high-voltage (HV) systems of a hybrid vehicle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four orange cones are to be placed at the four corners of the vehicle to create a buffer zone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-voltage insulated gloves are to be worn with an outer leather glove to protect the inner rubber glove from possible damage. </li></ul></ul></ul>(Continued)
  143. 144. <ul><ul><ul><li>The service technician should also wear a face shield and a fiberglass hook should be in the area and used to move a technician in the event of electrocution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The high-voltage shut-off switch is located in the rear of the vehicle under the right side carpet. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  144. 145. <ul><li>Honda Civic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To totally disable the high-voltage system on a Honda Civic, remove the main fuse (labeled number 1) from the driver ’s side underhood fuse panel. This should be all that is necessary to shut off the high-voltage circuit. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  145. 146. <ul><ul><li>If this is not possible, then remove the rear seat cushion and seat back. Remove the metal switch cover labeled “up” and remove the red locking cover. Move the “ba ttery module switch ” down to disable the high-voltage system. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  146. 147. <ul><li>Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sirra Pickup Truck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The high-voltage shut-off switch is located under the rear passenger seat. Remove the cover marked “en ergy storage box ” and turn the green service disconnect switch to the horizontal position to turn off the high-voltage circuits. </li></ul></ul>(Continued)
  147. 148. Figure 1-72 A warning label on a Honda hybrid warns that a person can be killed due to the high-voltage circuits under the cover.
  148. 149. Figure 1-73 The high-voltage shut off switch on a Ford Escape hybrid. The switch is located under the carpet at the rear of the vehicle.
  149. 150. Figure 1-74 The shut-off switch on a GM parallel hybrid truck is green because this system uses 42 volts instead of higher, and possible fatal, voltages used in other hybrid vehicles.