Optimising Health with Nutrition and Lifestyle


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Optimising Health with Nutrition and Lifestyle

  1. 1. Rhona Creegan MSc Clinical Biochemistry, Dip ACN Master of Nutrition Medicine PhD (cand), ECU Associate of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (ACNEM) “Optimising Health with Nutrition and Lifestyle” rhona@omeganutrition.com.au www.omeganutrition.com.au
  2. 2. Neurodegeneration: unravelling the puzzle A Nutrition Medicine Perspective
  3. 3. Beta amyloid NFT Nutrients Ω3 Oxidation Inflammation APOE cholesterol Hormones NTs Toxins The Alzheimer’s Puzzle Insulin Resistance
  4. 4. What is insulin resistance? • Elevated cholesterol • Elevated triglycerides • Low HDL • High blood pressure • Increased waist to hip ratio
  5. 5. AD and Atherosclerosis- Siblings in a Dysfunctional Family? • Amyloid plaque and atherosclerotic plaque have so much in common • Both are damage control responses to high cholesterol in a pro-inflammatory environment, usually associated with Insulin Resistance
  6. 6. Alzheimer’s Disease is a Neuroendocrine Disorder resembling a form of Diabetes. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of learning and memory problems and cognitive decline. Starr VL, Convil A. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2007;7:638-42
  7. 7. The Emergence of Type 3 Diabetes: The Dementia of the 21st Century “The co-existence of brain insulin deficiency and resistance suggests that AD may represent a brain- specific form of diabetes, i.e type 3 diabetes” de la Monte et al. J Alz Dis 2006; 10: 89-109 • AD – low CSF insulin levels, higher plasma insulin levels, and reduced glucose disposal compared to healthy controls. Watson and Craft, CNS Drugs 2003: 17(1):27-45
  8. 8. Insulin – So much more than glucose regulation! • Brain’s consumption of glucose critical to fuel high energy machinery. 18-30% glucose consumed but only 2% of body weight. • Master hormone regulating other hormones (sex steroids, thyroid, adrenal) • Growth factors such as IGF-1, cell signalling • Influences plasticity - ability to form new connections
  9. 9. Insulin and β-amyloid • Insulin increases Aβ trafficking from inside to outside the cell. β-amyloid needs to be outside the cells to be degraded. • The enzyme that degrades insulin (IDE) also degrades β-amyloid. Insulin competes for enzyme. • β-amyloid affects function of insulin by moving receptor from cell surface to inside cell causing IR.
  10. 10. Insulin and Acetylcholine The Importance of Insulin in Memory Formation
  11. 11. Inflammation Chronic low grade inflammation causes cellular damage, reduced energy production and increased oxidative stress. Elevated cytokines disrupt BBB LIFE IS INFLAMMATORY Unrelenting stress, modern diet, excess body fat, metabolic syndrome, chronic illness
  12. 12. Oxidation CNS vulnerable to free radical damage: •High metabolic rate •High lipid content •Relatively low antioxidant enzymes compared to other tissues
  13. 13. Hormonal Balance • Insulin affects other hormones such as testosterone and oestrogen • High and low oestrogen can impact memory. Oestrogen receptors found in cholinergic neurones • IR reduces SHBG. Insulin affects adrenal steroid synthesis
  14. 14. Insulin Resistance Insulin Resistance Fatty liver ↓ detox ↓ SHBG and hormonal imbalance Increased body fat Elevated cytokines and inflammation hypertension Elevated fatty acids Elevated cholesterol and dyslipidaemia
  15. 15. Nutrition Medicine Approach to Healthy Brain Ageing Environmental Inputs – Diet & Exercise Hormonal and Neurotransmitter Balance Detoxification and Biotransformation Energy Production and Oxidative Stress Immune and Inflammatory Balance Gastrointestinal Balance
  16. 16. Diet (Eating plan) Optimised to correct for insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia (insulin – fat storing) Protein, carb and fats in right ratio don’t be SAD, tour the Mediterranean Remove reactive foods Maximise antioxidant intake
  17. 17. Dietary Carbohydrate Low GI/GL complex carbohydrates (vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains) Limit simple sugars and fructose <10% daily energy intake – depend on how much metabolic rehab required High carbohydrate diets can cause insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure and fatty liver
  18. 18. Dietary Fat Required for energy, cell membrane structure, immune function, hormone synthesis, bile acid production and cell signalling Type of fat is important and contributes to disease risk Monounsaturated fats – olive oil, vegetable oils, avocado, nuts Helps to lower cholesterol levels by binding esters within the cell Unsaturated : saturated fat ratio should be approx 2:1
  19. 19. Polyunsaturated fats High Insulin Trans fats, ageing, alcohol, nutrient deficiencies, high cholesterol
  20. 20. Fatty Acid Balance • DHA most abundant PUFA in brain- major structural and functional role • Forms neuroprotectin D1 – anti-inflammatory and prevents programmed cell death • Binds to nuclear receptors which activate genes involved with anti-inflammatory processes and lipid metabolism – FAT BURNING!
  21. 21. Antioxidant status • High levels to prevent lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial damage • Vit C , mixed tocopherols, tocotrienols, flavonoids, carotenoids, selenium, resveratrol, alpha lipoic acid, green tea, turmeric • N-acetylcysteine increases glutathione levels
  22. 22. Specific Nutrients Insulin Sensitivity: DHA, alpha lipoic acid, Cr, Hops, proanthocyandins, cinnamon, acetyl carnitine, vitamin D Mitochondrial energetics: CoQ10, ALA, B complex, Mg Alzheimer’s Disease ginkgo, turmeric, acetyl carnitine, green tea, phosphatidylserine, vitamin D
  23. 23. Preventing “D”ecline • VDR present in neurons and glial cells • Supports immune function in brain • Reduction in VDR expression in hippocampal cells in AD • Helps rebuild brain connections • Role in insulin signalling
  24. 24. Recipe for Health Eat fresh whole foods, high in protein and limit processed foods that are high GI and contain sugar, synthetic fats and preservatives Exercise regularly to increase metabolic rate, reduce body fat, improve CV function and stimulate lymphatic removal of toxins Drink plenty of purified water
  25. 25. Recipe for Health Exercise – every opportunity
  26. 26. Healthy Body Composition ↓Inflammation ↓Oxidation ↓Toxin load ↓Cellular Degeneration Healthy Brain Ageing Supplement the diet with a broad range of nutrients which will address the key contributors to chronic neurodegenerative disease and ageing