CHEMISTRY REVISION GUIDE for CIE IGCSE Coordinated Science (2012 Syllabus)This revision guide is designed to help you study for the Some very useful websites to help you further yourchemistry part of the IGCSE Coordinated Science course. understanding include: •http://www.docbrown.info/ - whilst not theThe guide contains everything that the syllabus says you prettiest site this contains a lot of very useful andneed you need to know, and nothing extra. nicely explained information. •http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/sciencThe material that is in the supplementary part of the e/ - well presented with many clear diagrams,course (which can be ignored by core candidates) is animations and quizzes. Can occasionally lackhighlighted in dashed boxes: depth. •http://www.chemguide.co.uk/ - whilst mostly targeted at A-Levels this site contains very detailed information suitable for those looking to deepen their knowledge and hit the highest grades.Whilst this guide is intended to help with your revision, itshould not be your only revision. It is intended as a Finally, remember revision is not just reading but shouldstarting point but only a starting point. You should make be an active process and could involve:sure that you also read your text books and use the •Making notesinternet to supplement your study in conjunction with •Condensing class notesyour syllabus document. •Drawing Mind-maps •Practicing past exam questionsWhilst this guide does contain the entire syllabus, it just •Making flashcardshas the bare minimum and is not in itself sufficient for The golden rule is that what makes you think makes youthose candidates aiming for the highest grades. If that is learn.you, you should make sure you read around a range ofsources to get a deeper knowledge and understanding. Happy studying, Mr Field.
C1: THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER Solids, Liquids andAtom: The smallest particle An atom:of matter Some atoms: GasesMolecule: A small particle Molecules of an element: Molecules of amade from more than one compound:atom bonded togetherElement: A substance A solid element: A gaseous element: SOLIDS LIQUIDS AND GASESmade of only one type of The particles in solids, liquids and gases are held near to each other by forces ofatom attraction. The strength of these forces determines a substance’s melting and boiling points. In a solid, the forces of attraction are strongest, holding the particles tightly inCompound: A substance A solid compound A gaseous compound: position. As the solid is heated, and the particles vibrate faster, these forces aremade from two or more partially overcome allowing the particles to move freely as a liquid – this is calleddifferent elements bonded melting. As the liquid is heated more, the particles gain so much energy that thetogether forces of attraction break completely allowing particles to ‘fly around’ as a gas – this is called boiling. The reverse of the these processes are condensing and freezing. Under specific conditions, some solids can turn straight to gases – a process called subliming (the reverse is called desubliming). PROPERTIESMixture: A substance A mixture of compounds and elements: Solids Liquids Gasesmade from two or more •Have a fixed shape •Take the shape of their •Take the shape of theirelements or compounds •Can’t be compressed container containermixed but not joined •Particles close together •Can’t be compressed •Can be compressed in a regular pattern •Particles close together •Particles widely spaced •Particles vibrate around but disordered in random order a fixed point •Particles move freely •Particles moving very fast.
PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY best possible separation of spots. C2: EXPERIMENTAL Paper chromatography is a technique that can be used to separate mixtures of dyes or pigments and TECHNIQUES is used to test the purity of a mixture or to see what it contains. Firstly a very strong solution of the mixture is prepared which is used to build up aFILTRATION small intense spot on a piece of absorbent paper.Used to separate solids This is then placed in a jar of solvent (with a lid). Asfrom liquids. The mixture the solvent soaks up the paper, it dissolves theis poured through a filter mixture-spot, causing it to move up the paper withpaper in a funnel. The the solvent. However since compounds haveliquid can pass through different levels of solubility, they move up thethe small holes in the paper at different speeds causing the individualfilter paper (to become components to separate out. The solvent orthe filtrate) and the solid combination of solvents can be changed to get the gets left behind(called the residue). PURITY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION It is important for chemists to be able to purify the When the liquids being distilled have similarCRYSTALLISATION compounds they make, this is because the boiling points, normal distillation can’t separateCrystallisation is used to separate mixtures of solid dissolved in impurities could be dangerous or just un-useful. them completely but simply gives a purerliquid and relies on the fact that solids are more soluble at This is especially true for chemists making mixture. In this case a fractionating column ishigher temperatures. A solution containing a solid is cooled compounds that are consumed by people such as used. This provides a large surface area fordown until crystals form in the solution, these can then be drugs or food additives since the impurities may be condensation meaning much purer ‘fractions’ arecollected by filtration. toxic which would be very bad news! produced. The most important use of this is separating crude oil into it’s useful components.The related technique of recrystallisation can be used to WHICH TECHNIQUE?separate a mixture of two soluble solids by taking advantage of You need to be able to select appropriate methodsthe difference in their solubility. The mixture is dissolved in the to separate a given mixture. The key to this is looksmallest possible amount of hot solvent. As the solution cools, for differences in the properties of thethe less soluble compound forms crystals that can be collected components of the mixture such as their state,by filtration whilst the more soluble compound stays dissolved. solubility, melting/boiling point and so on. Then pick the method that best takes advantage of thisDISTILLATION difference.In distillation a mixture ofliquids is separated using the MELTING/BOILING POINTSdifferences in their boiling No two substances have the exact same meltingpoints. The mixture is heated and boiling points. We can take advantage of thisuntil the liquid with the lowest to test the purity of a compound we have made. Ifboiling point boils, the vapours we know what the melting or boiling point of thethen condense on the cold pure compound should be, we can then measuresurface of the condenser and the melting or boiling point of a sample we havethe pure(er) liquid is collected. produced and the closer it is to the pure value, the more pure it is likely to be.
C3: ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND A NOBLE MATTER Group VIII: Noble Gases H The Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar Group VII: Halogens COMPOUNDS – Structures and Non-metals Group I: Alkali Metals Group II: Alkali-Earth etc) have full outer shells containing either 2 or 8 Bonding electrons. This is very stable which is why the Noble gasesELECTRON ARRANGEMENT/CONFIGURATION Transition Metals are so unreactive.Electrons are arranged around atoms in specific shells. The Othermost important shell is the outer one as this controls an Other elements tend to Metalsatom’s chemistry. We call the electrons in the outer shell react in such a way as to‘valence electrons’ because they are used for bonding. The achieve a full outer shell bynumber of electrons in the outer shell is the same an gaining or losing electronselement’s group number. until they achieve this Noble Gas configuration. Lanthanides and Actinides (metals)The number of electrons around an atom is given by theatom’s proton number. They are arranged in shells as follows: •1st Shell – Holds two electrons CHEMICAL VS PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE (PT ISOTOPES •2nd/3rd/4th Shells – Hold 8 electrons CHANGES on last page!) Isotopes are atoms•Example 1: Carbon. Proton •Example 2: Chlorine. Proton Physical changes are reversible Elements arranged in order of increasing with the same protonnumber is 6 which means number is 17 which means whereas chemical changes are proton number. number but differentthere are 6 electrons: 2 in the there are 17 electrons: 2 in not. Periods: The rows in the periodic table. nucleon number.1st shell and 4 in the second the 1st shell, 8 in the second •For example Li, C and O are all in period 2. and 7 in the 3rd. For example if you melted some Groups: The columns in the PT. For example carbon solid sugar to a liquid and then •Use roman numbers: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, has two main left it to cool, it would freeze C VIII isotopes – C-12 and back to solid sugar – this is a •Eg. F, Cl, Br, I are all in Group VII C-13. Carbon has a Cl physical change. If you took the •Elements in the same group have similar proton number of 6 same sugar and burned it to properties and react in similar ways: the so they both containChecking Your Answer: To check produce carbon dioxide and halogens all react in the same way with 6 protons and 6you are right, the period gives the water, there would be no easy sodium to form sodium fluoride (NaF), electrons but C-12number of shells and the group gives the number of electrons way to turn those back to sugar – sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide has 6 neutrons and C-in the outer shell. For example chlorine is in Period 3 and this is a chemical change – new (NaBr) and sodium iodide (NaI) 13 has 7.Group VII so it has 3 shells and 7 electrons in the outer shell. substances are made.Ions: The configuration of ions is the same as for atoms but ATOMIC STRUCTURE what the element is.you have to take electrons away from positive ions and add Eg 1: Boron has 5 protons, Atoms are made of:extra for negative ions. For example O/O2- Li/Li+ In a square on the periodic table 6 neutrons (ie 11-5) and 5 Protons: mass = 1, charge = +1 the smaller number, the proton electrons Neutrons: mass = 1, charge = 0 number, gives the number of Electrons: mass = 0, charge = -1 protons or electrons and the Eg 2: Phosphorus has 15 O O2- Li Li+ The numbers of each vary from bigger number, the nucleon protons, 16 neutrons (ie element to element but it is the number the number of protons 31-16) and 15 electrons number of protons which decides and neutrons together.
C3: ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND Group VIII: Noble Gases IONIC BONDING An ionic bond is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Cations (positive) are formed Group VII: Halogens COMPOUNDS – Bonding and Non-metals when atoms (usually metals) lose electrons. Anions (negative) are formed when atoms (usually non- metals) gain electrons. Structure Atoms will lose or gain electrons until they have a complete outer shell: elements in Groups I, II and IIIMOLECULES When a substance melts, it is will lose 1, 2 and 3 electrons respectively to form 1+, 2+ and 3+ ions. Atoms in Groups V, VI and VIIA molecule is a small particle these weak intermolecular gain 3, 2 and 1 electrons to form 3-, 2- and 1- ions. In an ionic compound the number of positive andmade from (usually) a few forces that break NOT the negative and charges must cancel out to neutral.non-metal atoms bonded strong covalent bonds. Example: NaF, sodium in Group I forms a 1+ ion Example: Li2O, lithium in Group I forms a 1+ iontogether. and fluorine in group VII forms a 1- ion so one but oxygen in Group VI forms a 2- ion so two Li+ Molecular compounds have Na+ is needed to balance out one F- are needed to balance out one O2-The atoms in a molecule are low melting points and arejoined by strong covalent volatile (evaporate easily) duebonds. In a solid each to the weak intermolecularmolecule is held close to its forces, and insulate electricity F- Na+ Li+ O2- Li+neighbour by weak as all electrons are stuck inintermolecular forces. bonds and so unable to move. COVALENT BONDING GIANT IONIC LATTICES A covalent bond forms between two atoms and is the attraction The positive and negative ions in of two atoms to a shared pair of electrons. Small groups of an ionic compound don’t form covalent bonded atoms can join together to form molecules. molecules but form crystals madeGIANT COVALENT LATTICES Graphite: made of carbon of a repeating pattern of positiveA crystal made of a repeating atoms arranged in hexagonal The atoms share enough electrons to complete their outer and negative ions called a giantpattern of atoms joined with sheets with long weak bonds shells. Example: H O*, hydrogen is Example: CO *, carbon is has ionic lattice. Eg sodium chloride: 2 2covalent bonds that repeats between the sheets. This has one valence electron and four valence electrons somillions of times in all means the sheets can easily needs one more to complete needs four more to completedirections. separate making graphite a the 1st shell, oxygen has six its outer shell, oxygen needs good lubricant: valence electrons electrons so two more. Thus each carbonDiamond is made of carbon needs two more. Thus one will react with two oxygens,atoms arranged so that each C oxygen will react with two sharing two electrons withis bonded in a pyramid hydrogens: each one. A bond involvingarrangement to 4 others. This two shared pairs is a doublemakes it very hard, ideal for use Properties of Ionic Compounds bond.in industrial drills: Silicon (IV) oxide (SiO2) has a H O H When you melt or dissolve an structure with each Si ionic compound it conducts O C O electricity because the ions are joined to 4 O and each O joined to 2 Si. It is free to move towards the positive the main ingredient *Nb: In these diagrams only draw the outer shell and use and negative electrodes. When in glass. different shapes/colours to show where electrons have come solid the ions are stuck in position from. You should be able to draw at least: H2O, CH4, Cl2, HCl, H2, and there are no free electrons so N2, O2, CO2, C2H4 they don’t conduct.
CHEMICAL FORMULAS You may be asked to C4: STOICHIOMETRY – Formulas tell you the atoms that make up a write a formula given a compound diagram of a molecule Formulas and Equations Eg 1. H2O – two H, one O for example glucose. By counting you can see Eg 2. C2H6O – two C, six H, one O there are 6 carbons, Eg 3. Mg(OH)2 – one Mg, two O, two H*SYMBOL EQUATIONS 12 hydrogens and Eg 4. CH2(CH3)2 – three C, 8 H*•Show the reactants you start with and the products you 6 oxygens so themake using symbols not words *In this case everything in brackets is doubled formula is C6H12O6•Must contain an arrow ( ) NOT an equals sign (=)•Must be balanced – same number of atoms on each side. WORD EQUATIONS IONIC FORMULAS•Balancing is done by placing numbers called coefficients in •These tell you the names of the chemicals involved in You can deduce the formula of an ionicfront of the formulas for the compounds/elements. For reaction compound if you know the charges on theexample, ‘O2‘ means there is one oxygen molecule involved in •The left hand side shows you what you start with and ions involved. The total positive chargea reaction but ‘2O2’ would mean there are two. is called the reactants must balance out the total negative charge Example:. CH4(g) + O2(g) CO2)g) + H2O(g)* •The right hand side shows you what you make and is so you must look for the lowest commonThis is unbalanced as there are 4 ‘H’ on the left but only 2 ‘H’ called the products multiple (LCM) of the charges.on the right. This must be corrected by placing a ‘2’ in front of •The left and right are connected by an arrow ( notthe ‘H2O’ so there are now 2 waters: Eg1. Calcium nitrate is made of Ca2+ ions and ‘=‘) which means ‘makes’ or ‘becomes’ CH4 (g) + O2(g) CO2(g) +2H2O(g) NO3- ions. The LCM of 2 and 1 is 2 which •When you react a metal with oxygen to make a metalNow the ‘H’ balances but there 4 ‘O’ on the right and only 2 means you need 1 Ca2+ ion and 2 NO3- ions oxide, the equation might be:on the left. This must be balanced by placing a ‘2’ in front of so the formula is Ca(NO3)2 Iron + oxygen iron oxidethe ‘O2’ so that there are 2 oxygen molecules: •Many fuels burn in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide Eg2. Aluminium oxide is made of Al3+ ions CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) and water for example: and O2- ions. The LCM of 2 and 3 is 6 whichNow there is 1 ‘C’, 4 ‘H’ and 4 ‘O’ on each side so it balances. Methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water means you need 2 Al3+ ions and 3 O2- ions so the formula is Al2O3.In ionic equations, we tend to look only at the ions thatactually change. For example, when iron reacts with copper CHEMICAL MASSESsulphate to form iron sulphate and copper the equation is: The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the Example 1: Water, H2O Fe(s) + Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Fe2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + Cu(s) mass of one atom relative to 1/12th the mass of C- The Ar for H and O are 1.01 and 16.00 so:In this case, the sulphate ion (SO42-) remains unchanged (we 12. It is just a number that allows us to compare Mr(H2O) = 2 x 1.01 + 1 x 16.00 = 18.02call it a spectator ion) so it can be left out of the equation to the mass of atoms of different elements. Ar can begive: found on the periodic table as the ‘large’ number Example 2: Magnesium Hydroxide, Mg(OH)2 Fe(s) + Cu2+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s) in each square. For example Ar for carbon is 12.01 The Ar for Mg, O and H are 24.31, 16.00 and 1.01:This allows us to see more clearly the actual chemical changes and for iron is 55.85. Ar has no units since it is only Mr(Mg(OH)2) = 1 x 24.31 + 2 x 16.00 + 2 x 1.01taking place. a relative number, allowing us to compare things. = 58.33Note: You can’t change the little numbers (ie the 2 in H2O ) asthis changes the compound to something completely The relative formula mass (Mr) is the combined Ar Example 3: Decane, CH3(CH2)8CH3different. of all the elements in the formula for a substance. The Ar for C and H are 12.01 and 1.01 Mr also has no units for the same reason as above. Mr(decane) = 10 x 12.01 + 22 x 1.01 = 142.34*The state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) are used to indicatesolid, liquid, gas and ‘aqueous solution’ (dissolved in water).
THE MOLE C4: STOICHIOMETRY – The A mole is 6.02x1023 of something. It is chosen so that a mole of something has the same mass in grams (molar mass, Mm) as its formula mass. For example the Mr of water is 18.02 so the Mm of water Mole Concept is 18.02g; the Mr of decane is 142.34 so the Mm of decane is 142.34g. Importantly this means that 18.02 g of water and 142.34g decane contains the same number of molecules.EQUATIONS AND MOLE RATIOS THE MOLES AND MASSESEquations can be used to help us calculate the numbers of moles of substances If you know the mass in grams of substance, you can calculate the number of molesinvolved in a reaction. We can see this by studying the following reaction: as follows: 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O Moles = Mass */ Molar massQ1: How many moles of CO2 are produced by burning 1.0 mol of C2H6? We say that Eg 1. How many moles is 27.03 g of H2O?C2H6 is our ‘known’ and CO2 is our ‘unknown’ so: Moles (H2O) = Mass / Molar mass = 27.03 / (2 x 1.01 + 16.00) = 1.50 mol Moles CO2 = moles known/knowns in eqn x unknowns in eqn = 1.0 /2 x 4 = 1.0 x 2 = 2.0 mol Eg 2. What is the mass of 0.05 mol of H2O. This time the equation must beQ2: If 0.01 mol of CO2 is produced, how much H2O must also be produced? This rearranged to give:time CO2 is our known and H2O is our unknown so: Mass (H2O) = Moles x molar mass = 0.05 x (2 x 1.01 + 16.00) = 0.901g Moles H2O = moles known/knowns in eqn x unknowns in eqn *Mass must be given in grams – you may need to convert from kg: x1000 = 0.01/4 x 6 = 0.0025 x 6 = 0.015 mol*You must make sure your equation is balanced or your mole ratio will be wrong. THE MOLES AND GASES One mole of any gas has a volume of 24.0 dm3 (remember dm3 is the symbol forCALCULATING REACTING QUANTITIES decimetres cubed, aka litres) at room temperature and pressure. So for a gas:Using what we know about calculating moles, we can now answer questions like: IfI have 100g X, how much Y is made? The key is to convert the known to moles 1st. Moles = Volume / 24.0Example: What volume of H2 gas would be produced by reacting 12.15g Eg 1. How many moles of CO2 are present in 60 dm3?magnesium with excess hydrochloric acid? First we need a balanced equation: Moles (CO2) = Volume / 24.0 = 60/24.0 = 2.50 mol Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 Eg 2. What is the volume of 0.20 mol of H2 gas?.This time the equation must beThen calculate moles of Mg (our known) we start with: rearranged to give: Moles Mg = mass/molar mass = 12.15/24.30 = 0.50 mol Volume (H2) = Moles x 24.0 = 0.20 x 24.0 = 4.80 dm3Next we work out how many moles of H2 ( our unknown) we expect to produce: *The volume must be in dm3 – to convert from cm3 divide by 1000 Moles H2 = moles known/knowns in eqn x unknowns in eqn = 0.50/1 x 1 = 0.50 molFinally we calculate the volume using our equations for a gas: THE MOLE AND SOLUTIONS Volume H2 = moles x 24.0 = 0.50 x 24.0 = 12.0 dm3 The concentration (strength) of a solution is measured in mol dm-3 (moles per decimetre cubed). A 1.0 mol dm-3 solution contains 1 mol of substance dissolved in each litre.LIMITING REACTANTS moles of H2O could you make from 3 mol Moles = Concentration x Volume*This is the reactant that will run out first. of H2 and 3 mol of O2. H2: 3/2 = 1.5, O2: Eg 1. How many moles of NaOH are present in 2.5 dm3 of a 1.5 mol dm-3 solution?It is important as this is the one you 3/1 = 3. This means there is enough O2 to Moles (NaOH) = concentration x volume = 1.5 x 2.5 = 3.75 molshould then use for your calculations. do the reaction 3 times but only enough Eg 2. 0.15 mol NaCl is dissolved in 250 cm3 water. What concentration is this? ThisYou calculate it by dividing the number of H2 for 1.5 times so H2 is the limiting time you must rearrange the equation to:moles of reactant by the number of reactant. Thus, moles H2O = 1.5 x (2/2) = Concentration = moles/volume = 0.15/(250/1000)* = 0.60 mol dm-3times they appear in the equation. For 1.5 mol. *The volume must be in dm3 – to convert from cm3 divide by 1000example 2H2 + O2 2H2O. How many
ELECTROLYSIS (right) positive copper ions move to the cathode C5: ELECTRICITY AND Electrolysis is a process in which electricity is and form copper metal. Negative chloride ions used to break compounds down into their more to the anode and form chlorine gas. CHEMISTRY elements. The mixture being electrolysed is called an electrolyte and must be liquid (either melted or dissolved) to allow the ions to move. Bubbles of gas Molten Anode Cathode Salt Solution formed Salt (positive (negative Cations (positive ions – remember they are electrode) electrode) Metal, except with reactive metals (K, ’puss-itive’) ions move to the cathode (the Cl Cl Na, Li Ca, Mg) in which case H2 gas is negative electrode) where they gain electrons, Cl Cl Cu2+Cathode Metal produced plus a solution of metal usually forming a metal (or H). Layer of metal hydroxide Cl- Cl- Cu formed Anions (negative ions) move to the anode (the Non Metal, except sulphates in which positive electrode) where they lose electrons, CuAnode Non-metal case O2 Cl- Cu2+ usually forming a non-metal (other than H). Cu Cations move Anions moveELECTROLYSIS OF COPPER SULPHATE to anode Cl- Cu2+ Cl- Cl- to cathode In the electrolysis of copper chloride (CuCl2)When copper sulphate is electrolysed using carbon electrodes,you produce O2 gas at the anode and a layer of Cu metal at the EXTRACTING ALUMINIUM Aluminium oxide ( the electrolyte) is dissolved incathode. This can be used to electroplate items by setting Aluminium can’t be extracted by reduction of molten ‘cryolite’ and placed in a large carbonthem as the cathode. However, when two copper electrodes aluminium oxide (Al2O3) using carbon as carbon lined vessel which acts as the cathode. A largeare used, what ends up happening is a transfer of copper from is less reactive than aluminium. Instead anode made of carbon is lowered into thethe anode to the cathode, this is used to purify copper. aluminium is produced by electrolysis. electrolyte. The processes that take place are:When copper is made it contains lots of impurities. The copper At the cathode:is purified by electrolysis. A large lump of impure copper is Aluminium ions gain electronsused as the anode, the electrolyte is copper sulphate solution to make liquid aluminiumand the cathode is made of pure copper. Al3+ + 3e- Al(l)At the anode, instead of anions losing electrons, neutral At the anode:copper atoms lose electrons to become copper ions . Oxide ions lose electrons to Cu(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2e- make oxygen gasThese then move through the electrolyte to the cathode O2- ½ O2(g) + 2e-where they become copper atoms again. The oxygen reacts with the Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) carbon anode so it has to be replaced regularly The anode loses mass as copper atoms leave it and the cathode ELECTROLYSIS OF BRINE gains mass as copper When sodium chloride solution (brine) is atoms join it. The electrolysed , chlorine gas is produced at the impurities sink to the anode and hydrogen gas at the cathode (because bottom as a pile of sodium is too reactive). A solution of sodium sludge. hydroxide is left behind.
QUANTIFYING ENERGY C6: ENERGY CHANGES IN Using the ideas you learn in physics about specific heat capacity, you may have to calculate the amount of energy released by one mole of a substance. CHEMICAL REACTIONS Example: When 0.250 mol of Metal X reacts fully with 500 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 HCl solution, the temperature increases by 15.4OC. How much energy is released when 1.0 mol X reacts with HCl?EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS First calculate the heat evolved:Exothermic reactions get hotter – the temperature increases. Heat evolved = m.c.ΔT = 500 x 4.2 x 15.4 = 32340 J*The energy given out can be used to keep the reaction going Then calculate heat released per mole:so that once started, they don’t stop until they have run out of Heat per mole = heat evolved / moles = 32340/0.250 = 129360J = 129.4 kJreactants. *ΔT is the temperature rise, m is the mass of the solution in grams which is assumed to equal itsImportant examples of exothermic reactions include: volume in cm3, c is the specific heat capacity of water which is 4.2 J K-1 g-1 •Combustion of fuels •Acid-base neutralisations •Displacement reactions •Respiration in cellsENDOTHERMIC REACTIONSEndothermic reactions reactions get colder – the temperaturedecreases. Generally endothermic reactions need a constantenergy supply to keep them goingImportant examples of exothermic reactions include: •Dissolving of many (but not all) salts •Thermal decompositions Yes this unit really is this small – in fact you don’t even really need the stuff about quantifying energy, •Photosynthesis I just put it in there as it often proves useful!! •Cooking!!!ENERGY CHANGESIn exothermic reactions, chemical energy stored in thereactants gets converted to heat energy. The products haveless chemical energy than the reactants and the difference isthe amount of heat released.In endothermic reactions, heat energy gets converted tochemical energy. The products have more chemical energythan the reactants and the difference between the two is theenergy that had to be supplied to make the reaction go.
MEASURING REACTION RATES If a reaction produces gas, you can easily measure the reaction rate by collecting the gas (either in an C7: CHEMICAL REACTIONS upturned measuring cylinder full of water or a gas syringe) and recording how much has been collected each second.RATES OF REACTIONThe ‘speed’ of a reaction is called its rate and is simply theamount of new product formed every second.For a chemical reaction to happen, the reacting particles needto collide with enough energy. Anything that increases thenumber of collisions or their energy will increase the rate.TemperatureIncreasing temperature increases the rate of a reaction. MEASURING REACTION RATES INVESTIGATING REACTION RATESThis is because particles are moving faster which means more On a graph showing the change in concentration of reactants To investigate a factor influencingcollisions and higher energy collisions. or products, the gradient of the line tells you the reaction rate: reaction rate, you must change it steeper = faster, whilst keeping the others constant.Concentration flat = stopped For example, investigating theIncreasing the concentration of a solution increases the rate of effect of concentration, you coulda reaction. carry out the reaction at 5 different concentrations whilst making sureThis is because it means there are more particles available to the temperature, particle size andreact which leads to more collisions. presence/absence of a catalyst remains the same.Surface Area/Particle size Increasing the total REDOX REACTIONS together. DANGEROUS RATES surface area of Reduction means a substances Factories that produce particles (by using loses oxygen. Oxidation means a Another way to look at this is to flammable powders (for finer powder) substance gains oxygen. For think of oxidation as the loss of example bread flour) have to increases the rate of a example: electrons and reduction as the be careful about sparks since reaction because it 2Fe2O3 + 3C 4Fe + 3CO2 gain of electrons (OILRIG). Eg: in the very fine powder particles means more particles Fe2O3 is reduced because it loses the electrolysis of molten sodium burn with a VERY high reaction at the surface are oxygen to become Fe. C is bromide. At the anode: rate causing explosions. exposed to collisions. oxidised because it gains oxygen 2Br- Br2 + 2e- to become CO2. C is called a This is an oxidation because the Similar is true underground in reducing agent because it causes bromide ions lose electrons. coal mines where gas can buildCatalysts Fe2O3 to get reduced. Reactions At the cathode: up. Gas can be thought of asCatalysts are substances that speed up a reaction without like this are called redox Na+ + e- Na the finest possible powder sogetting used up. Whenever a catalyst is present, the rate of reactions because an oxidation This is a reduction because the they too react explosively fast.reaction increases. AND a reduction take place sodium ions gain electrons.
THE pH SCALE Litmus indicator C8: ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS Neutral substances have a pH=7 turns red in acids Acids have a pH of less than 7 and blue in alkalis. – Reactions of Acids Alkalis have a pH greater than 7 Universal indicator pH can be measured with colour has many coloursREACTIONS OF ACIDS changing indicators or digital pH (see chart).You need to memorise these reactions, each one shows the metersgeneral word equation then a specific example with symbols. WHAT IS THE SALT?Acids and Metals To work out which salt is formed during neutralisation reactions you need to know the ions formed by Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen the acid or alkali when it dissolves.•Hydrochloric acid + lithium lithium chloride + hydrogen• 2HCl(aq) + 2Li(s) 2LiCl(aq) + H2(g) Substance Cation(s) Formed Anion(s) Formed Working out the name is easy, you just combine theAcids and Base (like alkali but not always soluble) Hydrochloric acid, HCl 1 H+ Cl- , chloride name of the cation from Acid + Base Salt + Water Nitric acid, HNO3 1 H+ NO3- , nitrate the alkali with the anion•Sulphuric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium sulphate + water Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 2H + SO4 2- , sulphate from the acid.• H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) Phosphoric acid, H3PO4 3 H+ PO43- , phosphate For example potassiumAcids and Carbonates Sodium hydroxide, NaOH Na+ , sodium 1 OH- sulphate and sulphuric acid Acid + Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Potassium hydroxide, KOH K+ , potassium 1 OH- makes potassium sulphate.•Nitric acid + calcium carbonate calcium nitrate + water + Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ , magnesium 2 OH- Magnesium hydroxide and. carbon dioxide Ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH NH4+ , ammonium 1 OH- phosphoric acid makes• 2HNO3(aq) + CaCO3(s) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) magnesium phosphatePREPARING SALTS Working out the formula of the salt is a little more complicated, the key is to make sure the positiveTo prepare any given salt, you first need and negative charges on the cancel each other out to zero. to work out which acid and alkali to Eg 1. Potassium nitrate Eg 2. Magnesium phosphatereact together (see right). Then react K+ has one plus charge Mg2+ has two plus chargesthem in appropriate quantities so they ACID SO42- has two minus charges PO43- has three minus chargesexactly neutralise each other. You caneither calculate the right amounts You need two K+ to balance out one So you need three Mg2+ to balance out(see Unit C4) or find it experimentally SO42- so the formula is K2SO4 two PO43- so the formula is Mg3(PO4)2from a titration. Finally, to write a balanced equation, you need to get the right number of waters, the simplest way is to remember that each ‘H+’ from an acid makes one water.Once you have done this you can use Eg 1. Potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid Eg 2. Magnesium phosphatethe appropriate techniques to separate As we have seen it makes K2SO4 which requires As we have seen it makes Mg3(PO4)2 whichthe salt from the rest of the solution one H2SO4 and two KOH. Two H2O are made requires two H3PO4 and three Mg(OH)2. Six H2O(See Unit C2). since the one H2SO4 produces two H+ ions are made since each of the two H3PO4 produces three H+ ions. ALKALI + H2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3PO4 + 3Mg(OH)2 Mg3(PO4)2 + 6H20 INDICATOR
TESTING FOR IONS: Most of these involve forming insoluble precipitates – they go cloudy. C8: ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS Test for... By.... Positive The reaction – Chemical Testing result Chloride ions, Add acidified silver White precipitate Forms insoluble silver chloride:TESTING GASES Cl- nitrate Cl-(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgCl(s) + NO3-(aq)Hydrogen:•A test tube of hydrogen produces a ‘squeaky pop’ with alighted splint Sulphate ions, Add acidified White precipitate Insoluble barium sulphate formed:Oxygen: SO42- barium nitrate SO42-(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NO3-(aq)•A test tube of oxygen can re-light a glowing splint. Carbonate Add acid and Rapid gas formation The acid reacts with carbonate to makeChlorine: ions, CO32- bubble the gas which turns carbon dioxide gas:•Bleaches the colour from damp litmus paper. formed in limewater cloudy CO32-(s) + 2H+(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)Ammonia: limewater The CO2 reacts with limewater to make•Turns damp red litmus paper blue. insoluble calcium carbonate.Carbon dioxide: Nitrate ions, Boil with sodium Red litmus paper The nitrate gets reduced by aluminium•Turns limewater cloudy. NO3- hydroxide and turns blue which is a strong reducing agent and forms aluminium foil. ammonia. Test the gas withOXIDES damp red litmus Ammonia is an alkali so can turn the redThe oxides of most metals are basic (the opposite of acidic). For paper. litmus paper blue.example sodium oxide (Na2O) forms the alkali sodium Copper (II), Add sodium Blue precipitate Insoluble copper (II) hydroxide formed:hydroxide when it reacts with water. Cu2+ hydroxide followed that dissolves when Cu2+(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + 2Na+(aq) by ammonia ammonia added When ammonia is added a soluble complexMost oxides of non-metals are acidic. For example, sulphur solution forms so the precipitate dissolves.trioxide (SO3) forms sulphuric acid when it dissolves in water. Iron (II), Fe2+ Add sodium Green precipitate Insoluble iron (II) hydroxide formed: hydroxide followed insoluble in Fe2+(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) + 2Na+(aq)Some oxides can behave like acids or bases and are called by ammonia ammonia Ammonia does not react with the iron (II)amphoteric. For example aluminium oxide (Al2O3) can react solution. Tests Yet More hydroxide so it does not dissolve.with the alkali NaOH to from sodium aluminium hydroxide You need to remember these chemical(NaAl(OH)4) or with hydrochloric acid to form aluminium Iron (III), Fe3+ Add sodium tests: Brown precipitate Insoluble iron (III) hydroxide formed:chloride (AlCl3) hydroxide(see Unit C7) •Oxygen followed insoluble in Fe3+(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) + 3Na+(aq) by ammonia lighting a test-tube of H •Hydrogen – ammonia Ammonia does not react with the iron (III) 2ACID ENVIRONMENTS solution. with a splint gives a squeaky pop hydroxide so it does not dissolve.Acid soils grow poor crops so the acidity is reduced by Zinc, Zn2+ Add sodium White precipitate •Carbon dioxide – when bubbled Insoluble zinc hydroxide formed:neutralising it with lime (CaO, calcium oxide) through limewater soluble in both hydroxide followed it turns it cloudy. Zn2+(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Zn(OH)2(s) + 2Na+(aq) by ammonia ammonia or more Both ammonia and sodium hydroxide reactAcidic gases from factory chimneys (like sulphur dioxide) can solution or more sodium hydroxide with the zinc hydroxide to form a solubledissolve in the water in clouds to form harmful acid rain. sodium hydroxide. complex.
GROUP I (Li, Na, K....) GROUP VII (F, Cl, Br, I...) The metals of Group I (aka the alkali metals) are The elements of Group VII are better known as C9: THE PERIODIC TABLE soft, silvery grey, reactive metals. Down the group the halogens. As we go down the group they get: they get: •Less reactive •Softer •Higher melting point (Cl2 is gas, Br2 is •Lower melting point liquid, I2 is solid)THE PERIODIC TABLE •More reactive •Darker colour (Cl2 is pale green, Br2 isThe periodic table is arranged in order of increasing proton They all react with water as follows: reddy-brown, I2 is dark brown)number – starting at Hydrogen with a proton number of one Metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen They will react with ions of other halogens (halideand working along the rows. •Lithium + water lithium hydroxide + hydrogen ions) that are below them in the group. For • Li + H2O LiOH + H2 example:Periods: •Lithium reacts the slowest, Na reacts faster, K Cl2 + 2Br- 2Cl- + Br2The rows in the periodic table are called periods. Going along a reacts faster still and so on. Because Cl is more reactive than Br. However,period, the elements change from metals to non-metals. Br2 + Cl- no reactionUsually, one or two elements in the period are called As Br is less reactive than Cl.metalloids – these have some properties of a metal and someproperties of a non-metal. TRANSITION ELEMENTS GROUP 0/VIII (He, Ne, Ar, Kr....)Groups: These are the metals in the long middle block of The gases of Group 0 are called the Noble GasesThese are the columns in the periodic table. Elements in the the periodic table. because they are very unreactive. This is becausesame group share similar properties. they have full outer shells of electrons which is Their important properties include: very stable.Groups I and II are always metals. Groups VII and 0/VIII are •High melting/boiling pointsalways non-metals and elements in groups III, IV, V and VI can •High densities They exist as single atoms rather than molecules.be metals, metalloids or non-metals depending on the period. •Form strongly coloured compounds •(Often) Act as catalysts – both as They are used whenever an inert (unreactive)The Periodic Table and Atomic Structure: elements and when combined in atmosphere is needed. For example:The periodic table can be used to work out the arrangement of compounds •Light Bulbs – Argon surrounds the coiledelectrons: filament as even when white hot, it won’t react. •Period number = number of shells Helium has a very low density (1/7th that of air) •Group number = electrons in outer shell so is used to make airships and blimps float.For example: Chlorine is in Period 3 and Group VII so it has 3electron shells and 7 electrons in the outer shell. METALS (really belongs in C10 but didn’t quite fit) •High melting/boiling point Most of the known elements are metals. •Sonorous – ‘ring’ when hit •Ductile – can be pulled into wires All metals: Conduct electricity, conduct heat, are Many metals react with: Cl shiny •Acids – to form salt and hydrogen •Oxygen – to form (basic) oxides Most metals are also: •Sulphur – to form sulphides •Malleable – can be beaten into shape When metals bond to non metals they form ionic •Strong bonds.
REACTIVITY OF METALS REACTIVITY SERIES The reactivity of metals can be seen by the way they react with steam or MOST REACTIVE C10: METALS with acid (see Unit C6 for the reactivity series). Potassium, K Reaction with water (see Unit C2 for details of this reaction): Sodium, Na The most reactive metals (K-Ca) react with cold water, fairly reactive metals Calcium, CaEXTRACTING METALS FROM THEIR ORES (Mg-Fe) will only react with steam whereas the least reactive metals (Sn- Magnesium, MgRocks that contain a significant amount of a metal are called Pt) don’t react at all. Aluminium, Al REACTIVITYores. The metals are present as compounds – often oxides or Reaction with dilute acids (see Unit C9 for details) (Carbon, C)sulphides of the metal. For example lead can be extracted from The reaction of metals with acids shows a similar patter with the most Zinc, Znan ore called galena (PbS, lead sulphide). reactive metals (K-Ca) reacting violently, the fairly reactive metals (Mg-Pb) Iron, FeMetals that are less reactive than carbon can be extracted by reacting gradually more slowly and the least reactive metals (Cu-Pt) not Tin, Snusing carbon as a reducing agent (to steal the oxygen/ reacting at all. Lead, Pbsulphur). More reactive metals are extracted by electrolysis. (Hydrogen, H) Displacement Reactions Copper, CuIron is less reactive than carbon so can be reduced by it. This is The reactivity of metals relates to how easily they form ions, more Silver, Agdone in a blast furnace. Study the diagram then read the reactive metals like K form K+ ions much more easily than less reactive Gold, Aufollowing: metals like Cu can form Cu+ ions. A more reactive metal will reduce a less Platinum, Pt•Step 1: Carbon (coke) reacts with oxygen (from the hot air reactive metal:blast) LEAST REACTIVE Eg 1. Reaction with aqueous ions C (s)+ O2(g) CO2(g) Zinc + Copper sulphate Zinc sulphate + copper•Step 2: Carbon dioxide reacts with more carbon to make Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Zn2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + Cu2+(aq) USES OF METALScarbon monoxide This happens because Zn is more reactive than Cu so is able to reduce it. Metals have many uses CO2(g) + C(s) 2CO(g) including:•Step 3: Carbon monoxide reduces the iron oxide (iron ore) to Eg 2. Reaction with metal oxides •Aluminium – and itsmake molten liquid iron. Iron oxide + aluminium aluminium oxide + iron alloys used for aircraft Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) Fe(l) + CO2(g) This happens since Al is more reactive than Fe so is able to reduce it. as they have low densityThe limestone (CaCO3) reacts with impurities such as silicon to These are called displacement reactions because the more reactive metal and great strengthform an easy-to-collect waste called slag (calcium silicate, takes the place of the less reactive metal. •Aluminium – used forCaSiO3): CaCO3 +SiO2 CaSiO 3+ CO2 food containers as the ALLOYS Alloys are often harder than the waterproof oxide layer Alloys are ‘mixtures of metals’ metals they are made from. In pure on its surface prevents (although sometimes they can metals atoms are neatly lined up corrosion which could contain a non-metal) that are made meaning they can slip past each taint the food. by mixing molten metals. easily when hit. In alloys there are •Zinc - used to protect Step 3 happens here atoms of different sizes which don’t steel either by coating it Alloys often have very different (galvanising) or as line up neatly so can’t slip past each properties to the metals they are sacrificial protection – Step 2 happens here other so easily making them harder. made from and by varying their i.e. on a ship’s hull – a Element Alloy Step 1 happens here metals can be tailored to have lump of zinc prevents specific desirable properties – this is rust as it is more called metallurgy. reactive so corrodes instead of the steel hull.
CARBON DIOXIDE, CO2 Thermal decomposition of carbonates e.g.: There are many ways to produce CO2 including: CaCO3 CaO + CO2 C11: AIR AND WATER Burning carbon-containing fuels: As a by product of respiration in living cells: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2OWATER, H2O Drinking Water AIR POLLUTION RUSTINGWater is the most useful Water drawn from rivers can Many of man’s activities pollute the air. Pollutants include: Rust (hydrated iron (III) oxide) affectscompound known to man. In contain pollutants such as most structures made of iron (or Carbon monoxide, COthe home it is used for fertilizers, dissolved organic steel) and causes huge damage: •Formed when fuels burn without enough O2.cooking, cleaning and matter, harmful bacteria and Iron + oxygen + water hydrated •CO prevents the blood from carrying oxygen leading to deathtransporting waste. In industry industrial waste that make it iron (III) oxide by suffocationit is used for cooling hot unfit to drink. At treatment Rust can be prevented by takingmachinery, cleaning and as a plants, two main processes are Sulphur dioxide, SO2 steps making sure either oxygen orsolvent. Water is useful for used to make water safe: •Formed by burning fossil fuels containing sulphur impurities. water can’t reach the iron. The maincleaning as it is able to dissolve •Dissolves in water in clouds to form sulphurous acid which ways to do this involve covering the Filtration – the water is passed falls as acid rain metal with: paint (bridges and othermany types of ‘dirt’. through a series of increasingly •Acid rain corrodes buildings and damages ecosystems structures); oil/grease (movingA simple test for water is that fine filters that trap suspended •Irritates the respiratory system when inhaled. machine parts) or another metal suchit is able to turn cobalt chloride particles. Activated carbon is as zinc (galvanising).paper from blue to pink. used to filter out dissolved Nitrogen Oxides, NOx pollutants. •Formed by burning fuels in engines and power stations. FERTILISERS Chlorination – chlorine is •Dissolves in cloud water to form nitric acid thus acid rain. Fertilisers are chemicals applied to added to the water which •Irritates the respiratory system when inhaled. plants to improve their growth and destroys bacteria. increase the amounts of products NITROGEN AND AMMONIA to make an economical such as fruits, nuts, leaves, roots andAIR man’s activities such as Ammonia (NH3) is a smelly gas. amount of ammonia. To speed flowers that they produce for us.Air is a mixture of gases burning fossil fuels and One way to produce it is to it up, the reaction is done at They work by supplying plants withcomprising: deforestation. This is a concern react ammonium (NH4+) salts high temperature (~450OC) the vital elements they need as CO2 is able to absorb the with an alkali (OH-) eg: with an iron oxide catalyst. including Nitrogen - in the form or infrared radiation (heat) NH4Cl + NaOH NH3 + H2O High pressure (~200 times nitrate (NO3- containing) salts; radiated by the ground when . + NaCl atmospheric pressure) is used phosphorous – in the form of the sun heats it up (the to increase the proportion of phosphate (PO43- containing) salts greenhouse effect). More CO2 Ammonia is vital to produce NH3 formed. and potassium (K+ containing) salts. means more trapped heat the nitrates used in fertilisers leading to global warming. and explosives. It is produced The nitrogen comes from the CATALYTIC CONVERTERS by the Haber process: air and hydrogen comes fromThe ‘other’ is mostly argon reacting methane (CH4) gas Fit to a car’s exhaust and use a Global warming is a major N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3with CO2, water vapour and with steam. platinum or palladium catalyst to problem becausemany trace gases. The reaction is reversible convert harmful gases to safer gases: temperatures are rising faster Nitrogen and oxygen can be which means much of the for example nitrogen oxides areAlthough the proportion of than nature’s ability to adapt – separated from air by cooling it product turns back to reduced back to nitrogen gas andcarbon dioxide is very small this makes the future of both reactants as soon as it is made, to a liquid and using fractional oxygen gas.(~0.04%) it is increasing due to farming and of our ecosystems very uncertain. this means it takes a long time distillation.
THE CONTACT PROCESS Sulphuric acid is produced by the Contact Process. C12: SULPHUR This involves are three chemical reactions. First sulphur is burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide (SO2): S + O2 SO2SULPHURIC ACID, H2SO4Sulphuric acid is a very important compound used in many Secondly SO2 is reacted with further oxygen to make sulphur trioxide (SO3):industrial processes including: •Fertiliser production 2SO2 + O2 SO3 •Oil refining •Paper making This reaction is reversible, so to maximise the amount of SO3 made, they use a high temperature •Steel making (425OC), medium-high pressure (1-2 times atmospheric pressure) and a catalyst (vanadium (V) oxide,It is also the acid found in car batteries. V2O5).Sulphuric acid is a strong acid which when diluted in water Finally, the sulphur trioxide is produced by first dissolving it in sulphuric acid to make oleum (H2S2O7)produces two protons and a sulphate ion: which then makes more sulphuric acid on the addition of water: H2SO4(l) 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7It exhibits all the reactions typical of an acid as seen by its H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4reactions with metals, alkalis, metal oxides and carbonates.(see Unit C8 for details). Note: trying to dissolve SO3 directly in water produces a very fine mist of sulphuric with limited uses. This is another tiny unit with very little to learn.
USES OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Powdered calcium carbonate can be added directly to soils to raise their pH (reduce their acidity). C13: CARBONATES We can also make calcium oxide (CaO, aka ‘quicklime’) by heating powdered calcium carbonate to about 1000OC, producing carbon dioxide as a by-product:CALCIUM CARBONATE, CaCO3 CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)Calcium carbonate is a very common mineral and makes up thebulk of many common rocks including: This is called a thermal decomposition as heat is used to break down or decompose the calcium •Chalk carbonate. Calcium oxide is one of the key ingredients in cement. •Limestone •Marble Another useful product, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, ‘slaked lime’) is made by adding water to calcium oxide:Whilst solid limestone is often used in construction, powdered CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2limestone has many industrial uses. Slaked lime has many uses including: •Raising soil pH quickly (when powdered calcium carbonate might take too long) •Neutralising acidic industrial waste •Sewage treatment – it helps small particles of waste to clump together into easily removed lumps. Another mini-unit with very little in it!