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Earth Materials Jess And Heather


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Earth Materials Jess And Heather

  1. 1. By: Jessica McClure & Heather Peterson
  2. 2. Types of Earth Materials <ul><li>3 Basic Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Basic Rock Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 Basic Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. General Facts About Soils <ul><li>Soil is a thin layer of material on the earth’s surface which plants have their roots in </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is made up of weathered rock, decayed plant and animal manner, formed over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Soils get smaller the more they have been transported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very coarse soils usually indicate a short distance of travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very soft soils usually indicate a long distance of travel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most soils are made up of a combination of 3 soils </li></ul><ul><li>Texture: how it looks and feels depends on the amount of each type in that sample </li></ul>Soil Index
  4. 4. 3 Basic types of Soil <ul><li>Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul>Earth Materials Index
  5. 5. Sand <ul><li>Small loose grains of rock </li></ul><ul><li>Often quartz </li></ul><ul><li>Redish or brownish yellow in color </li></ul><ul><li>.06mm to 2mm in size </li></ul><ul><li>Found on beaches </li></ul>Soil Index
  6. 6. Silt <ul><li>Earthy matter or fine sand carried by moving or running water left behind as sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Finer than sand but still feels gritty when rubbed on your teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Too small to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Found </li></ul>Soil Index
  7. 7. Clay <ul><li>A natural earthy material </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic when wet </li></ul><ul><li>Hardens when heated </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of hydrated silicates of aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Used for making bricks, pottery, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Like mud smaller than sand and silt </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Clay will feel smooth on your skin </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a sticky ball when wet. </li></ul>Soil Index
  8. 8. General Facts About Rocks <ul><li>Oldest rocks on earth were formed about 3.8 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks that form the earth’s crust are continually destroyed and remade in a process called “The Rock Cycle” </li></ul><ul><li>3 Basic Types of Rocks: Igneous , Sedimentary , and Metamorphic </li></ul>Earth Materials Index
  9. 9. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>form when magma also known as molten rock rises from deep under ground and cools and solidifies at or near the earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Igneous rocks that form under the earth surface may later reach the surface due to geological upheaval. </li></ul><ul><li>may also be exposed as the rocks above are worn away. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Examples of Igneous Rocks: Granite and Basalt </li></ul>
  10. 10. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Granite </li></ul><ul><li>pink to dark grey or black and many other colors </li></ul><ul><li>massive, hard, and tough </li></ul><ul><li>Often used as a construction stone </li></ul><ul><li>Formed from magma </li></ul><ul><li>Basalt </li></ul><ul><li>Color, un-weathered basalt is black or grey </li></ul><ul><li>Known to be hard and strong </li></ul><ul><li>Also formed on the moon, Mars, Venus, and an asteroid called Vesta </li></ul><ul><li>Formed from magma </li></ul>Rock Index
  11. 11. Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>made of fine rock particles that have been worn away and then carried by rivers glaciers or wind </li></ul><ul><li>collect in lakes and oceans </li></ul><ul><li>The tiny fragments are squashed and cemented together through a process called Lithification </li></ul><ul><li>2 Examples of Sedimentary Rocks: Sandstone and Limestone </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>is hard compact and fine grained rock made up of tiny grains of quartz or fledspar </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness 6-6.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Color, can be any color but the most common are tan, yellow, brown, red, grey, and white </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul><ul><li>formed at the bottom of lakes and seas along with shells, and bones </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 3-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Color, light and dark blue, green and greenish blue </li></ul><ul><li>Often used as decorative and building stone </li></ul>Rock Index
  13. 13. Metamorphic Rocks <ul><li>Form when existing rocks are changed underground by great heat or pressure or both </li></ul><ul><li>When volcanoes erupt and mountains are formed by the movement of earths tectonic plates rocks are heated and squeezed </li></ul><ul><li>The minerals in the rocks are then changed forming metamorphic rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Examples of Metamorphic Rocks: Marble and Slate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Metamorphic Rocks <ul><li>Slate </li></ul><ul><li>dense and fine grained rock </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 3-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Color, generally grey red brown and green ranging from dark to light </li></ul><ul><li>Often used for roofing (shingles) </li></ul><ul><li>Marble </li></ul><ul><li>Created over time from limestone with heat and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 3-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Color, white, blue-grey, green, grayish white, perfect white, red, comes in many colors </li></ul><ul><li>Often used for construction (in homes) </li></ul>Rock Index
  15. 15. General Facts About Minerals <ul><li>Materials that make up the rocks of the earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Among thousands of different minerals only a few including quartz, feldspar, and calcite form most rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Native minerals such as gold and copper contain one chemical element </li></ul><ul><li>Compound minerals such as quartz contain two or more chemical elements </li></ul><ul><li>5 Basic Types of Minerals: Quartz , Calcite , Copper , Gold & Silver </li></ul>Earth Materials Index
  16. 16. Quartz <ul><li>Most abundant mineral in the earth’s continental crust </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Color: clear if perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Shine: glossy </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal habit: (what it looks like when formed) a six sided prism ending in a six sided pyramid </li></ul>Minerals Index
  17. 17. Calcite <ul><li>Best known because of it’s power to produce strong double reflection of light such that, objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite appear doubled in all of their parts </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Color: colorless or white, sometimes grey, yellow, or green </li></ul><ul><li>Shine: transparent – opaque (looks like glass) </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal habit: crystallized rhombohedra (see picture, looks like a rhombus) similar to some chocolate bars </li></ul>Minerals Index
  18. 18. Copper <ul><li>an essential trace nutrient to all high plants and animals. In animals including humans it is found primarily in the bloodstream however, in large amounts can be dangerous even deadly to plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Color: supple in it’s pure state, metallic bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Shine: pink which is unusual for metals because most metals are a silvery white </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal habit: face centered cubic </li></ul>Minerals Index
  19. 19. Gold <ul><li>a highly sought after precious metal having been used as money, in jewelry, in sculpture and for ornamentation since the beginning of recorded history </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Color: one of the only elements with a natural color other than grey or white </li></ul><ul><li>Shine: metallic, shiny on a clean surface and dull on a worn face </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal habit: cubic face centered (looks like a blob!) </li></ul>Minerals Index
  20. 20. Silver <ul><li>Mainly produced by a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refinined </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Color: lusterous white metal—silver </li></ul><ul><li>Shine: soft white </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal habit: face centered cubic </li></ul>Minerals Index