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THE LEGALITIES
     The Legal Issues Your Small Business and Non-profit Should Be
                               Aware Of
                    Presented by: Erin McClarty Esq.




Wednesday, September 14, 2011
WHEN LEGAL ISSUES
                  CAN ARISE
                       Formation

                       General Operation

                       Advertising/ Transactions

                       Labor

                       Trademarks/Intellectual Property

                       Dissolution/ Winding Down

Wednesday, September 14, 2011
CHOOSING A FOR-
                        PROFIT STRUCTURE
                   Sole Proprietorship

                           Not a legal entity; one person doing business

                           Unlimited liability for all debts

                   General Partnership

                           Group of two or more who agree to carry on all business and share in
                           all profits/losses.

                   Limited Partnership

                           General partners make managerial decisions and share liability. Limited
                           partners liability limited to their share.
Wednesday, September 14, 2011
CHOOSING A FOR-PROFIT
        STRUCTURE

                       Corporation

                       Limited Liability Company

                       Limited Liability Partnership




Wednesday, September 14, 2011
OTHER STRUCTURES
                             CONSIDERED
   •   Franchise

        •   Distributorship- License to sell products

        •   Business format- Allow for business under a trademark

        •   Manufacturing- given the formula to make a product

   •   Joint Venture

        •   Would enter a joint venture agreement

   •   Subsidiaries

Wednesday, September 14, 2011
CHOOSING A NON-
                       PROFIT STRUCTURE
                       Trusts

                   • Created by a settlor
                   • Very rigid in structure
                       Unincorporated Association

                   • 3 or more people come together for a common non-profit purpose
                   • Less formality and fewer reporting requirements than a corporation

Wednesday, September 14, 2011
CHOOSING A NON-
                       PROFIT STRUCTURE


                       Limited Liability Company

                       Corporations




Wednesday, September 14, 2011
ADVERTISING: TELEPHONE
                  SOLICITATIONS


                       Telephone Consumer Protection Act

                       Texas Law Enforcement Telephone Solicitation Act

                                Must file a registration statement and pay fee.




Wednesday, September 14, 2011
ADVERTISING: WEBSITES

                       Privacy Concerns

                   • Have a privacy policy in place
                       Internet Regulations

                   • Children’s Online Policy Protection (COPPA)
                       Jurisdictional Issues

                   • Post “Terms of Use” on your website
                       E-commerce

Wednesday, September 14, 2011
ADVERTISING:
                                         EMAIL


                       Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography
                       and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM)

                                Governs “commercial mail”




Wednesday, September 14, 2011
ADVERTISING: OTHER TEXAS
                   LAWS


                       Criminal and civl offenses for fraud or
                       misrepresentation

                                Example: Texas Deceptive Trade Practice Act




Wednesday, September 14, 2011
OPERATIONS

                        Insurance

                                Worker’s Compensation

                                General Liability

                        Licenses and Permits

                                Does your business require

                    •           a certain license?


Wednesday, September 14, 2011
OPERATIONS CONTINUED....

                       Supply Chain Concerns

                                Getting agreements in place with manufacturers. Want to est. pricing, delivery,
                                warranties, indemnities, termination and governing law.

                                Address products liability. Can affect everyone in the sales chain.

                       Federal Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) Concerns

                                Huge concern when you have intermediaries or representatives abroad.

                       Respondeat Superior Concerns

                       Protect Intellectual Property

Wednesday, September 14, 2011
COMMERCIAL PROPERTY

                       Must protect against lawsuits for injury.

                                Landowners often try to disclaim responsibility for these.

                       Legal issues can arise with commercial leases

                                Will want to get assurances that the land is suitable for your purposes, address
                                maintenance, rent increases, term and foreclosure.

                       Always be thinking about potential zoning or covenant issues



Wednesday, September 14, 2011
LABOR


                       Managing Employees

                                Create an employment agreement

                                Include a confidentiality agreement

                                Beware with Social Media Policies



Wednesday, September 14, 2011
EMPLOYEE V. INDEPENDENT
                   CONTRACTOR
                       Classification is a hot-button issue
                       Avoid employee problems and many taxes using independent contractors.


                       Several Factors to determine who is an IC
                                Determination of Worker Status (IRS Form SS-8)

                                Texas workforce commission also has a test at http://www.twc.state.tx.us/news/
                                efte/ics_contract_labor.html


                       IC’s make you more susceptible to IRS audits

Wednesday, September 14, 2011
LABOR LAWS

                       Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

                                Department of Labor has a handbook for guidance:
                                www.dol.gov/asp/programs/handbook/main.htm

                       Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

                       Texas Labor Code


Wednesday, September 14, 2011
NON-PROFIT ISSUES
                       Charitable Solicitation Laws

                                May require registration in each state you plan to solicit in

                                Fill out Uniform Statement Kit at www.multistatefiling.org

                       Losing tax-exemption status

                                Unrelated Business Income Activities

                                     1. Trade or business; 2. Regularly carried on; 3. Not substantially related to
                                     furthering the exempt purpose.

                                     IRS Publication 557 Tax-Exempt Status for Your Organization gives
                                     guidance
Wednesday, September 14, 2011
HOW CAN YOU
                    PROTECT YOURSELF
                       Educate yourself on all the applicable laws

                                Take how-to books with a grain of salt

                       Get together your “team”

                                Bring in knowledgeable people. You get what you pay for.

                       Utilize development centers, groups and associations

                                Look for “Meet-ups” and Networking Groups

                                Attend continuing education
Wednesday, September 14, 2011
WHY DO I NEED AN
                  ATTORNEY?
                   Guidance and Counsel

                           Sound-board

                           Can’t know every law

                           Draft or review contracts

                   Pre-emptive action, mitigation and judgement calls

                   Advocate and representative in case of business transactions

                           mediation, mergers, negotiations
Wednesday, September 14, 2011
BUT I CAN’T AFFORD ONE…..


              Be Creative

                            Some attorneys allow you to buy “credits”

                            Do package deals

                            Hire counsel on a contract basis



Wednesday, September 14, 2011
ATTORNEY RESOURCES

                       Houston Volunteer Lawyers Program

                       S.C.O.R.E

                       Houston Lawyers Referral Service

                       Texas Accountants and Lawyers for the Arts

                       Texas C-bar


Wednesday, September 14, 2011
CONTACT


                       Erin McClarty Esq.

                                erinemcclarty@gmail.com

                                www.notationsonnonprofit.com




Wednesday, September 14, 2011

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2011 Small Business Presentation for HAUL

  • 1. THE LEGALITIES The Legal Issues Your Small Business and Non-profit Should Be Aware Of Presented by: Erin McClarty Esq. Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 2. WHEN LEGAL ISSUES CAN ARISE Formation General Operation Advertising/ Transactions Labor Trademarks/Intellectual Property Dissolution/ Winding Down Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 3. CHOOSING A FOR- PROFIT STRUCTURE Sole Proprietorship Not a legal entity; one person doing business Unlimited liability for all debts General Partnership Group of two or more who agree to carry on all business and share in all profits/losses. Limited Partnership General partners make managerial decisions and share liability. Limited partners liability limited to their share. Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 4. CHOOSING A FOR-PROFIT STRUCTURE Corporation Limited Liability Company Limited Liability Partnership Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 5. OTHER STRUCTURES CONSIDERED • Franchise • Distributorship- License to sell products • Business format- Allow for business under a trademark • Manufacturing- given the formula to make a product • Joint Venture • Would enter a joint venture agreement • Subsidiaries Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 6. CHOOSING A NON- PROFIT STRUCTURE Trusts • Created by a settlor • Very rigid in structure Unincorporated Association • 3 or more people come together for a common non-profit purpose • Less formality and fewer reporting requirements than a corporation Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 7. CHOOSING A NON- PROFIT STRUCTURE Limited Liability Company Corporations Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 8. ADVERTISING: TELEPHONE SOLICITATIONS Telephone Consumer Protection Act Texas Law Enforcement Telephone Solicitation Act Must file a registration statement and pay fee. Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 9. ADVERTISING: WEBSITES Privacy Concerns • Have a privacy policy in place Internet Regulations • Children’s Online Policy Protection (COPPA) Jurisdictional Issues • Post “Terms of Use” on your website E-commerce Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 10. ADVERTISING: EMAIL Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM) Governs “commercial mail” Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 11. ADVERTISING: OTHER TEXAS LAWS Criminal and civl offenses for fraud or misrepresentation Example: Texas Deceptive Trade Practice Act Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 12. OPERATIONS Insurance Worker’s Compensation General Liability Licenses and Permits Does your business require • a certain license? Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 13. OPERATIONS CONTINUED.... Supply Chain Concerns Getting agreements in place with manufacturers. Want to est. pricing, delivery, warranties, indemnities, termination and governing law. Address products liability. Can affect everyone in the sales chain. Federal Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) Concerns Huge concern when you have intermediaries or representatives abroad. Respondeat Superior Concerns Protect Intellectual Property Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 14. COMMERCIAL PROPERTY Must protect against lawsuits for injury. Landowners often try to disclaim responsibility for these. Legal issues can arise with commercial leases Will want to get assurances that the land is suitable for your purposes, address maintenance, rent increases, term and foreclosure. Always be thinking about potential zoning or covenant issues Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 15. LABOR Managing Employees Create an employment agreement Include a confidentiality agreement Beware with Social Media Policies Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 16. EMPLOYEE V. INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR Classification is a hot-button issue Avoid employee problems and many taxes using independent contractors. Several Factors to determine who is an IC Determination of Worker Status (IRS Form SS-8) Texas workforce commission also has a test at http://www.twc.state.tx.us/news/ efte/ics_contract_labor.html IC’s make you more susceptible to IRS audits Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 17. LABOR LAWS Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) Department of Labor has a handbook for guidance: www.dol.gov/asp/programs/handbook/main.htm Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Texas Labor Code Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 18. NON-PROFIT ISSUES Charitable Solicitation Laws May require registration in each state you plan to solicit in Fill out Uniform Statement Kit at www.multistatefiling.org Losing tax-exemption status Unrelated Business Income Activities 1. Trade or business; 2. Regularly carried on; 3. Not substantially related to furthering the exempt purpose. IRS Publication 557 Tax-Exempt Status for Your Organization gives guidance Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 19. HOW CAN YOU PROTECT YOURSELF Educate yourself on all the applicable laws Take how-to books with a grain of salt Get together your “team” Bring in knowledgeable people. You get what you pay for. Utilize development centers, groups and associations Look for “Meet-ups” and Networking Groups Attend continuing education Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 20. WHY DO I NEED AN ATTORNEY? Guidance and Counsel Sound-board Can’t know every law Draft or review contracts Pre-emptive action, mitigation and judgement calls Advocate and representative in case of business transactions mediation, mergers, negotiations Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 21. BUT I CAN’T AFFORD ONE….. Be Creative Some attorneys allow you to buy “credits” Do package deals Hire counsel on a contract basis Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 22. ATTORNEY RESOURCES Houston Volunteer Lawyers Program S.C.O.R.E Houston Lawyers Referral Service Texas Accountants and Lawyers for the Arts Texas C-bar Wednesday, September 14, 2011
  • 23. CONTACT Erin McClarty Esq. erinemcclarty@gmail.com www.notationsonnonprofit.com Wednesday, September 14, 2011