Asthma

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A short presentation on Asthma, its causes, symptoms, pathophysiology, and management.

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Asthma

  1. 1. Asthma By: The Virtual Presenter
  2. 2. SymptomsBreathlessness Dyspnea Wheezing Cough Chest tightness
  3. 3. Causes Animal Pollen dander SmokeDust Air pollution
  4. 4. AsthmaAirway inflammation Epithelial damage
  5. 5. AsthmaEpithelial damage Causes airway hyperresponsiveness, loss of barrier function allowing penetration of allergens, loss of enzymes that break down inflammatory mediators, and exposure of sensory nerves leading to reflex neural effects on the airway
  6. 6. AsthmaAirway inflammation Epithelial damageMucus hypersecretion
  7. 7. AsthmaMucus hypersecretion Causes mucus plugs that occlude the airway
  8. 8. AsthmaAirway inflammation Epithelial damageMucus hypersecretion Edema
  9. 9. AsthmaEdema Increased airway secretions and bronchial narrowing
  10. 10. AsthmaAirway inflammation Epithelial damageMucus hypersecretion Edema Bronchospasm Airway remodelling
  11. 11. AsthmaAirway remodelling Changes in structural cells and tissues lead to permanent fibrotic damage
  12. 12. Management Inhalers/ Nebulizers
  13. 13. ManagementChest Physiotherapy -breathing exercises -physical training*not recommended during an acute exacerbation
  14. 14. ManagementAllergen control -prevention and reduction of exposure to airborne and environmental allergens -skin testing
  15. 15. ManagementIn an acute asthma attack •Assess airway patency •Administer humidified oxygen by nasal prongs or face mask •Administer quick-relief (rescue) medications
  16. 16. ManagementIn an acute asthma attack •Continuously monitor respiratory status, pulse oximetry, and color Be alert to decreased wheezing or a silent chest. This may signal further narrowing of airways resulting to the inability to move air
  17. 17. ManagementIn an acute asthma attack •Initiate and intravenous line to correct dehydration, acidosis, or electrolyte imbalances •Do a chest xray •Obtain samples for arterial blood gases and serum electrolytes
  18. 18. Thank You!
  19. 19. References• Powerpoint template by Medicine PPT• Asthma inhaler, the different types and tips on how to use them properly. Retrieved December 26, 2012, from http://www.asthmasymptoms86.com/asthmainhaler.html#.UNp NSuRkyDQ• Dust allergy testing. Retrieved Decmber 26, 2012, from http://dustallergy.org/dust-allergy-testing/• Kaufman, G. (2011). Asthma: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Nursing Standard, 26(5), 48-56.• Silvestri, L. (2006). Comprehensive review for the NCLEX-RN examination (Third ed.). Singapore: Elsevier.• wise GEEK. Pathology of asthma. Retrieved December 26, 2012, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-causes-chest- cramps.htm

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