Ask how many people in the group have had a basic counseling training or class.
“ All interactions are interventions.” This is to make you aware of what your goal is when you talk with a client. To stop and think about what your client’s goals are and what your responses should be.
Much as all interactions are interventions, every action is an interaction and the goal is to become more thoughtful and intentional in our interactions with clients.
Trainers to model appropriate attending behavior; distracted counselor v engaged
REFLECTIVE LISTENING HANDOUT
Be careful here to not parrot a client’s words too much. It helps to rephrase and then reflect back.
Hand outs. Twelve roadblocks to effective communication. Ask about other possible barriers to effective communication. Talk about being able to sit with client’s strong emotions as a way to model how they can be able to do so.
Talk about comfort levels around self disclosure. There is some evidence that a somewhat sharing relationship is beneficial but must be careful to know boundaries. This usually comes with experience.
HANDOUT GENERAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
This is a prime area for feedback from your supervisor or a more experienced staff member. USE “MAINTAINING PROFESSIONAL BOUNDARIES.”
HANDOUT TRANSFERENCE AND COUNTER TRANSFERENCE. Discuss specific issues and examples that staff have had with clients regarding this.
HANDOUT MOTIVATIONAL CONVERSATION
Trainers to model power struggle, then have counselors do same but different scenario
HANDOUT CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND “I” STATEMENTS
HANDOUT LAST HELPFUL RESPONSES QUESTIONNAIRE. REITERATE THAT THIS IS THEIR “FIRST” RESPONSE. HAVE STAFF PUT THEIR NAMES AT THE TOP OF THE PAGE.
Give examples of ways to engage: ask for other ideas Worksheets Asking questions Having clients read outloud Redirection when someone is inappropriate – interupting, asking them to take a break, changing the subject with a question, etc. Give examples of group rules Give examples of appropriate behavior – ask the staff for ideas. Ask them for examples of these techniques that they might use in the different types of groups – skills, vs. educational, vs. house meeting.
Mental health 101
BASIC COUNSELING SKILLS TRAINING FOR DIRECTSERVICE STAFF AT ST.LUKE’S HOUSE,THRESHOLD UNITED INC.
Goals of thisTraining Learn how to work with challenging clients without getting into power struggles Build rapport with clients while maintaining appropriate boundaries Using client strengths and goals to drive interactions All interactions are interventions
THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE To be an effective counselor, a therapeutic alliance must be established with the client. To develop this alliance requires a series of purposeful interactions that acknowledges the worth, competency and importance of the consumer as well as the respect and interest of the counselor. Every action is an interaction.
Core Concepts Acceptance or unconditional positive regard Attending behavior Empathy Reflective listening Simple reflection and paraphrasing back Affirm Genuineness, self disclosure and boundaries Transference and counter transference Strength based counseling, solution focused and client centered
ACCEPTANCE ORUNCONDITIONAL POSITIVEREGARD Carl Rogers believes that this is central to positive human development. It is central to non directive, client centered therapy. Allows a person to be themselves without feeling judged or criticized. Allows the counselor to maintain objectivity and accept the client regardless of their past actions or behaviors
ATTENDING BEHAVIOR Body Posture Tone of Voice Proximity Conveys empathy Encourages the other person to talk Eye Contact Level of Relaxation
EMPATHY Empathy is the ability to name the emotions you are observing and being able to ask the speaker if you are accurate in your perceptions Empathy is different from sympathy which implies pity and maintains distance from another’s feelings. It is more a sense of feeling with a person rather than feeling sorry for them It is not, “I know how you feel.” It is paraphrasing the content and reflecting it back to the client It is always about the client The skills involved in empathy: listening/reflecting
REFLECTIVE LISTENING “I am listening.” “I want to listen.” “I want to understand more about your experience.” Use body language here, nodding, leaning in “Can you tell me more about that?” Reflective listening is a way of CHECKING rather than ASSUMING that you know what is going on.
SIMPLE REFLECTION ANDPARAPHRASING BACK Client: “I know that it doesn’t help my depression to just stay in the house all day and not go out.” Counselor: “It sounds like you know that you should avoid staying in the house all day and that you have some good insight into what might help your depression.”
BARRIERS TOREFLECTIVE/EMPATHICLISTENING Cultural differences Gender Seeing the client as an object Not understanding your role as a counselor Your preconceived beliefs and ideas Discomfort in the presence of the client’s strong emotions of grief, anger or pain Asking too many questions
GENUINENESS AND SELFDISCLOSURE Both verbal and non verbal behavior of the counselor is congruent It is not the same as self disclosure It does not mean you express your feelings It is finding a comfortable level of sharing without violating boundaries
ETHICS According to the APA, and a consensus among psychologists and psychiatrists, any relationship between the therapist and client that causes harm is unethical and thus prohibited in the workplace
BOUNDARIES The most important thing to remember when entering into any helping field, is that professional boundaries are necessary. What if professional boundaries are not maintained? Why are professional boundaries crossed? Counselors need to consider professional boundaries as they relate to other behaviors on the job.
TRANSFERENCE ANDCOUNTER TRANSFERENCE Transference is generally thought of as the redirection of a client’s feelings from a significant person in their life to their counselor and is mostly unconscious. Counter transference is defined as a counselor’s feelings toward a client and depending on the counselor’s self knowledge and experience, may or may not be conscious.
STRENGTH BASED, SOLUTIONFOCUSED, CLIENT CENTEREDCOUNSELING Focus on building client’s strengths, not weaknesses Focus on what client would like to accomplish – less focused in the past – more present and future oriented Understands and develops the intrinsic ability of the client to be part of their wellness
POWER STRUGGLES Once a power struggle begins, there are no winners It takes two Put your fears and ego away – remember that you are working for the client It is their life and the choices they make are theirs Allow time and choices for a person to respond differently This is where flexibility and creative thinking come into play
Avoid arguments Arguments are counterproductive Defending breeds defensiveness Resistance is a signal to change strategies
Rolling with resistance Perceptions can be shifted New perspectives are invited but not imposed The client is a valuable resource in finding solutions to problems
GROUPS Social/Skill Building Groups – Provides social skills training Participant Driven Groups - Peers create the subject matter and share a common area of interest. They are support groups and the facilitator is mostly involved in keeping the group feeling safe in sharing and encouraging everyone’s participation. Decision Making Groups – Intended to complete a specific task
GROUPS (continued) Support Groups – Intended to offer support for specific issues, eg. grief, dealing with mental illness, etc. Education or Informational Groups – Topic focused eg. Medication management House Groups – May be used in residential settings as a way to keep communication flowing among housemates
LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONSFOR GROUP FACILITATORS Executive Function – Setting limits, providing rules and managing time Caring – Showing warmth, support, acceptance, etc. Meaning Attribution – Explaining and clarifying the group’s goals and objectives Emotional Stimulation – Challenging, at times confronting and modeling behaviors
GROUP LEADERSHIPTECHNIQUES FacilitatingCommunication – Providing constructive feedback and preventing members from engaging in negative behaviors Set rules and limits – Address confidentiality, keep the flow of the group going, make sure everyone participates. This may involve interrupting if one person is dominating group. Model Appropriate Behavior