Intro terminology

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Intro terminology

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology Origins Greek and Latin Aristotle
  2. 2. Meanings of Words <ul><li>Anatomy = structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where it is, what it looks like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: heart; size of your fist, middle of chest, hollow inside (4 chambers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology = function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: heart; pumps blood through vessels to circulate nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Needs of Organisms <ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><li>food </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul><ul><li>pressure </li></ul>
  5. 5. Homeostasis <ul><li>balance and stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative feedback - response is in the opposite direction of stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex: body temp control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive feedback - response enhances the stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex: childbirth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Organization <ul><li>atoms </li></ul><ul><li>molecules </li></ul><ul><li>macromolecules </li></ul><ul><li>organelles </li></ul><ul><li>cells </li></ul><ul><li>tissues </li></ul><ul><li>organs </li></ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul><ul><li>organism </li></ul>
  7. 7. MINDCURLERS (systems) <ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul>
  8. 8. Directional Terms <ul><li>superior (up)/cranial (toward the head) </li></ul><ul><li>inferior (down)/caudal (toward the tail) </li></ul><ul><li>anterior (in front)/ventral (belly side) </li></ul><ul><li>posterior (in back)/dorsal (backbone side) </li></ul><ul><li>medial (toward the middle) </li></ul><ul><li>lateral (toward the side) </li></ul><ul><li>proximal (closer in on a limb) </li></ul><ul><li>distal (farther away on a limb) </li></ul><ul><li>superficial or external (close to the surface) </li></ul><ul><li>deep or internal (farther from the surface) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Body Planes <ul><li>Sagittal - divides left and right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midsagittal - divides into even halves (also called Median plane) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasagittal - any uneven sagittal division (off to the side) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transverse/Cross - divides perpendicular to the long axis </li></ul><ul><li>Coronal/Frontal - divides ventral and dorsal </li></ul>
  10. 11. Tubular cuts <ul><li>Transverse/Cross </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal - lengthwise </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique - at a diagonal </li></ul>

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