Cardiovascular system


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Cardiovascular system

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System
  2. 2. Functions <ul><li>To supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and remove waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Buffers in blood regulate pH of body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Warm blood carries heat from one location to another; thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Defense – white blood cells are carried throughout body, fibrin formation slows blood loss and slows spread of microorganisms </li></ul>
  3. 3. Heart <ul><li>size varies with body size </li></ul><ul><li>covered by pericardium </li></ul><ul><li>divided into 4 chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>right atrium – receives blood from body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right ventricle – pumps blood to lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>left atrium – receives blood from lung s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>left ventricle – pumps blood to body </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Heart cont. <ul><li>Atria are thin walled; pump blood through valves to the ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles are thicker walled, very muscular, pump blood long distances. Left pumps farther, has thicker walls than right. </li></ul><ul><li>Valves prevent blood from going backwards. Found in the heart where there is a lot of pressure and in veins where flow is sluggish </li></ul>
  5. 5. Heart cont. <ul><li>Chordae tendinae – anchored by papillary muscles, keep valves between atria and ventricles from going backwards when under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>The two sides are divided by the interventricular septum </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by pericardial membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary arteries on the outside surface supply nutrients to the heart muscle </li></ul>
  6. 6. Blood Vessels <ul><li>Arteries and arterioles – carry blood away from the heart. Made of endothelium, smooth muscle and c.t. Can contract to restrict blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Veins and venules – carry blood back to the heart. Similar in construction to arteries, but less muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries – where nutrient exchange takes place. Single layer of epithelium </li></ul>
  7. 7. Path of blood through the heart <ul><li>Vena cavae bring blood low in oxygen from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Enters right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Passes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Pumped through a semilunar valve to the pulmonary arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Travels to the lungs where it is oxygenated </li></ul>
  8. 8. Path of blood through the heart cont. <ul><li>Returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins </li></ul><ul><li>Enters the left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Passes through the mitral (bicuspid) valve into the left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Pumped through a semilunar valve to the aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenated blood travels to all body parts and is recollected in the vena cavae </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cardiac Cycle – the atria contract while the ventricles relax and vice versa. Heart sounds are mostly valves slamming shut </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure – the force exerted by the blood against the inside of the blood vessels. Expressed as systolic over diastolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systole – contraction of the ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastole – relaxation of the ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial B.P . – due to heart pumping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veins do not have much pressure, most blood is pushed back to heart from breathing movements and muscular contraction, especially blood from the lower parts of the body . </li></ul>