Radicalism in France


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The French Revolution becomes violent and turns against itself. Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety are anything but.

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Radicalism in France

  1. 1. section 18.2 RADICALISM IN FRANCE
  2. 2. • freedom • equality • protection of natural rights • equal right to hold public office • freedom of religion August, 1789: National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man. 1) WHAT ARE SOME RIGHTS THIS DOCUMENT GUARANTEES FRENCH CITIZENS?
  3. 3. • people still had an instinctive fear of God • peasants did not want the state to run the church, like in England • the people wanted separation of church and state and a guarantee of freedom of religion 1790, National Assembly reforms status of the church 2) WHAT CAUSED THE PEASANTS TO OPPOSE MANY OF THESE REFORMS?
  4. 4. POLITICAL • Proclaimed all male citizens equal before the law • Limited the power of the monarch • Established the Legislative Assembly to make laws • Granted all tax-paying male citizens the ight to elect members of the Legislative Assembly REFORMS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  5. 5. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC • Abolished the special privileges of the nobility • Announced the end to feudalism • Called for taxes to be levied according to ability to pay • Abolished guilds and forbade labor unions • Compensated nobles for lands seized by peasants REFORMS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  6. 6. RELIGIOUS • Declared freedom of religion • Took over and sold Church lands • Placed the French Catholic Church under control of the state • Provided that bishops and priests be elected and receive government salaries REFORMS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  7. 7. • Republics: san-culottes and Jacobins • Moderates: those who sought reforms to the government, keeping a limited monarchy • Conservatives: Royalists September 1791, National Assembly hands power to the Legislative Assembly 3) WHAT POLITICAL FACTIONS MADE UP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY?
  8. 8. san-culottes Working class men and women Jacobins middle-class lawyers and intellectuals Royalists those who supported absolute monarchy 3) WHAT POLITICAL FACTIONS MADE UP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY?
  9. 9. • “French Plague”: that the ideas of revolution (equality and natural rights) would spread to other nations April 1792: Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria. 4) WHAT DID EUROPEAN MONARCHS FEAR FROM FRANCE?
  10. 10. • they gave radicals the confidence and popular support to completely abolish monarchy and create a republic August 1792: Parisians invade Tuileries and imprison royal family September 1792: Parisian mobs massacre more than 1,000 prisoners 5) WHAT EFFECTS DID THE “SEPTEMBER MASSACRE” HAVE ON THE GOVERNMENT?
  11. 11. • the goal was to protect the new French Republic from domestic and foreign challenges • the Reign of Terror followed the idea of “inflexible justice”; “liberty can not be secured unless criminals lose their heads.” January 1793: Ex-king Louis XVI is executed July 1793: Robespierre leads the Committee of Public Safety; Reign of Terror begins 6) WHAT WERE THE AIMS OF THE STATE AND OF ROBESPIERRE AND HIS SUPPORTERS?
  12. 12. • a new constitution was created in which the powers were divided between a directory (executive branch) and a two-house legislature (legislative branch) • the new government was weak and corrupt, the exact opposite of the Committee of Public Safety July 1794: Robespierre is executed; Reign of Terror ends. 1795: National Convention adopts a new constitution. 7) WHAT WERE SOME CONSEQUENCES OF THE REIGN OF TERROR?