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Latin American Wars for Independence


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Events in Europe made the time right for Revolution to spread to Latin America.

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Latin American Wars for Independence

  1. 1. Latin American Wars for Independence
  2. 2. Growing Discontent Peninsulares Creoles bitterly resented middle-class status Mestizos & Mulattos angry at being denied status, wealth, and power that was available to white
  3. 3. Napoleon’s Empire Latin American leaders saw the invasion of Spain by Napoleon as a sign of Spanish weakness they believed this to be an opportunity to demand independence from Spanish rule
  4. 4. Spread of Enlightenment Ideas  educated creoles read the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers  the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, and the United States Constitution helped fuel the fires for independence  women partook in the spread of ideas, even hosting their own salons, called tertuilias  many young creoles traveled in Europe during the French Revolution and were inspired by it
  5. 5. Latin American Wars for Independence Growing Discontent Napoleon’s Empire Enlightenment Ideas
  6. 6. Haiti Events Leader: Toussaint L’Ouverture  many French planters owned large sugar plantations  there were nearly 500,000 slaves  the nearly 25,000 free mulattoes, many who were wealthy and owned slaves, did not have full equality with French creoles
  7. 7. Haiti Events (continued)  1791 slaves “exploded in revolt”  some mulattoes joined French planters against the rebels  France, Spain, and Britain sent armies to Haiti  by 1798, slavery had been abolished  when Napoleon came to power he sent forces to recapture Haiti
  8. 8. Haiti Results  aided by yellow fever, the Haitians force Napoleon’s forces to leave  after years of infighting between rivals vying for power, in 1820 Haiti became a republic  Haiti became the first independent slave-free nation in the Americas
  9. 9. Mexico & Central America Events Leaders: Father Miguel Hidalgo Father Jose Morelos Augustin de Iturbide
  10. 10. Mexico & Central America Events “el Grito de Delores” given by Hidalgo called all Mexicans to fight for “Independence and Liberty” despite early successes , Hidalgo is arrested and executed within a year, his followers scatter Morelos soon picked up the banner calling for improved conditions for all Mexicans, abolition of slavery, universal manhood suffrage
  11. 11. Mexico & Central America Events (continued) Morelos, too, is arrested and executed a new Spanish constitution in 1820 scared conservatives in Mexico who feared liberal reforms behind Itubide, creoles, mestizos, Native Americans, worked together to overthrow the Spanish viceroy
  12. 12. Mexico & Central America Results  Iturbide proclaimed himself emperor but is soon overthrown by liberals  Mexico becomes a republic  the lands of Central America attempted to for a united republic: United Provinces of Central America  this failed and the lands fragmented into the separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica
  13. 13. South America Events Leaders: Tupac Amaru Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin
  14. 14. South America Events  Amaru claimed descent from the Incan gods and organized a Native American revolt in 1780  Amaru was captured and killed  in 1808, when Napoleon occupied Spain, Bolivar saw this as a signal to act for independence  his early attempts were unsuccessful but caused civil war to grip Venezuela
  15. 15. South America Events (continued) Bolivar hatched a plan to attack the Spanish colonial capital at Bogotá (capital of New Granada) Bolivar followed that victory with others in Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia San Martin had similar success in Argentina, Chile, and Peru
  16. 16. South America Results Amaru’s Native American revolt gave the Spanish king cause to end forced labor Bolivar unsuccessfully tried to unite these lands into a single nation (Gran Columbia)
  17. 17. South America Results instead, 3 new nations were formed: Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador Social changes did not come to Bolivar’s lands, instead the people suffered under a new set of masters instead of the Spanish