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Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation


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Brief presentation to accompany the Americans, Chapter 6.2. Highlights the key Foreign Affairs issues of Washington and Adams Presidencies

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Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation

  2. 2. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1) WHY DID WASHINGTON ISSUE THE DECLARATION OF NEUTRALITY? • The young nation could not afford ($$) to get involved in another war • Washington wanted to build bridges with Great Britain after the American Revolution
  3. 3. BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBERS 2) WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF THE UNITED STATES VICTORY AT FALLEN TIMBERS? • The Miami Confederacy was defeated • ended Native American resistance in Ohio • the Treaty of Greenville
  4. 4. TREATY OF GREENVILLE What were the terms of the Treaty of Greenville? • Miami Confederacy gave up most land in Ohio • Miami Confederacy received $20,000 plus ~$10,000 / year • Set a precedent of paying Native Americans much less for land than what it was worth
  5. 5. JAY’S TREATY 3) TO WHAT DID BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES AGREE? • British would evacuate posts in the Northwest Territory • British would be allowed to continue the fur trade on the American side of the Canadian border • The US gave assurances to remain neutral on the French Revolution • Britain would stop attacking American vessels at sea and make reparations for seized ships and cargo • Britain would receive “most-favored-nation” treatment in American trade reparations repayment for losses
  6. 6. PINCKNEY’S TREATY 4) TO WHAT DID SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES AGREE? • Spain gave up claims to land east of the Mississippi R. • recognized the 31st parallel as the northern boundary of Florida • the Mississippi R. and the Port of New Orleans were opened to American traffic
  7. 7. PINCKNEY’S TREATY Why did the United States want access to the Mississippi River?
  8. 8. ADAMS ELECTED PRESIDENT 5) WHAT PROBLEMS DID THIS ELECTION UNDERSCORE? • The Constitution allowed the president and the vice-president to be elected from different parties • growing danger of sectionalism • Election Map
  9. 9. ADAMS ELECTED PRESIDENT Sectionalism • putting the interests of one’s region or state over the interests of the entire nation • this type of division becomes an underlying theme created by the rise of political parties • much of American history is plagued with politicians and people putting the smaller interests of their state or region over the greater good of the entire nation • in the election of 1796, it was Alexander Hamilton who made sectionalism worse by convincing Federalist electors in South Carolina to vote for Pinckney instead of the Adams
  10. 10. XYZ AFFAIR Describe the XYZ Affair.
  11. 11. XYZ AFFAIR 6) WHAT EFFECT DID THE AFFAIR HAVE ON US-FRENCH RELATIONS? • anti-French sentiment (feelings) in the United States • “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.” • undeclared naval war with France • Congress authorized an army to be created to defend against France • Congress created a navy department and authorized American ships to seize French vessels
  12. 12. XYZ AFFAIR tribute • an act, statement, or gift that is intended to show gratitude, respect, or admiration
  13. 13. ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS 7) WHAT MEASURES WERE CONTAINED IN THESE ACTS? ALIEN ACTS • 3 Laws directed at foreigners that drew suspicion from the Federalists 1. Naturalization Act: increased the residence requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years 2. Alien Act: gave the president the power to imprison “dangerous” aliens 3. Alien Enemy Act: allowed the president, in time of war expel or imprison enemy aliens at will
  14. 14. ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS 7) WHAT MEASURES WERE CONTAINED IN THESE ACTS? SEDITION ACT • sedition: action or speech inciting people to rebel against the authority of a government 1. allowed people who wrote, published, or spoke anything of a “false, scandalous and malicious” nature against the government or of its officers to be arrested
  15. 15. ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS Why did the Alien & Sedition Act upset the Democratic Republicans so much? How did the Alien and Sedition Acts lead to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
  16. 16. VIRGINIA & KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS 8) WHAT DID THESE RESOLUTIONS DECLARE? • the right of nullification (states have the right to void any act of Congress they believe to be unconstitutional)
  17. 17. EXTRA: COMPACT THEORY OF GOVERNMENT • a compact is an agreement (like the Mayflower Compact) made by the members to work together to a common goal • Democratic-Republicans viewed the national government as a compact of the states – that the states hold the higher authority • therefore, the states have the authority to say when Congress has exceeded its powers