Development of Political Parties (9.1)


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Overview of chapter 9.1.

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  • Development of Political Parties (9.1)

    2. 2. LINKAGE INSTITUTIONS • Remember – the political system cycle • Competing parties make for a government that is more in touch with the needs of the people • Political parties are linkage institutions – a way for the people to get their ideas to government
    3. 3. LINKAGE INSTITUTIONS  How do Political Parties serve as linkage institutions?
    4. 4. JEFFERSON ON POLITICAL PARTIES • preferred more power to be in the hands of state governments • trusted the power of the people over the power of the leaders
    5. 5. HAMILTON ON POLITICAL PARTIES • preferred more power to be in the hands of national government • believed the people (or “the mob”) could not be trusted and would succumb to their passions instead of reason
    6. 6. ROOTS OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY • the party of Jefferson • originally called the “Democratic-Republican Party” • traditionally associated with Jefferson’s view – the party of the people • In 1828, the Democratic- Republican Party split and President Andrew Jackson aligned himself with the Democratic Party
    7. 7. ROOTS OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY • the party of Lincoln • founded by anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs in 1854 • while disagreeing over how/where to end slavery, the coalition quickly earned seats in national government
    8. 8. ABOUT THIRD PARTIES Year Party Candidate % Popular Vote Electoral Vote 1880 Greenback James B. Weaver 3.36 - 1888 Prohibition Clinton B. Fisk 2.19 - 1892 Populist James B. Weaver 8.54 22 Prohibition John Bidwell 2.19 - 1904 Socialist Eugene V. Debs 2.98 - 1908 Socialist Eugene V. Debs 2.82 - 1912 Progressive (Bull Moose) Theodore Roosevelt 27.39 88 Socialist Eugene V. Debs 5.99 - 1916 Socialist Allan L. Benson 3.17 - 1920 Socialist Eugene V. Debs 3.45 - 1924 Progressive Robert M. La Follette 16.61 13 1932 Socialist Norman M. Thomas 2.22 - 1948 States’ Rights (Dixiecrat) Strom Thurmond 2.41 - Progressive Henry A. Wallace 2.37 - 1968 American Independent George C. Wallace 13.53 46 1996 Reform Ross Perot 8.5 - 2000 Green Ralph Nader 3.0 - * Includes all minor parties that polled at least 2% of the popular vote. Source: Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; the Gallup Organization  created to rival the two major parties  their major role is to influence elections more than win them  without winning the presidency, their support has made it so the major parties adopt their ideas  sometimes third parties have enough support to be a “spoiler” in elections Significant Minor Parties in Presidential Elections, 1880-2000*
    9. 9. THIRD PARTIES  If Third Parties do not have a chance of winning an election, why do they bother?
    10. 10. FOUR TYPES OF THIRD PARTIES 1. Ideological Parties • focus on changing society in major ways • ideas are usually not adopted by the major parties because ideological parties seek to make radical changes in the way society and government operate
    11. 11. FOUR TYPES OF THIRD PARTIES 2. Single-Issue Parties • parties that rally behind a single cause • usually fade away after a short time because their ideas are adopted by the major parties
    12. 12. FOUR TYPES OF THIRD PARTIES 3. Economic Protest Party • rooted in periods of economic discontent • usually do not have a clear-cut ideological base (like the Socialist Party)
    13. 13. FOUR TYPES OF THIRD PARTIES 4. Splinter Party • split away from one of the major parties • most of the more important minor parties in the United States have been splinter parties
    14. 14. WHAT ABOUT MULTIPARTY SYSTEMS? • exists in most democracies • one party rarely wins enough votes to control government • usually must form “alliances” with other parties (called a coalition) in order to run government • coalitions are unstable and usually inefficient
    15. 15. WHAT ABOUT ONE-PARTY SYSTEMS?  considered “undemocratic”  few or no choices  there is very little difference between rival members of the same party  elections tend to be an “empty exercise” of voting for the sake of voting
    16. 16. TWO-PARTY SYSTEM  What are the pros and cons of our two-party system as compared to one-party and multi-party systems?
    17. 17. DEMOCRATIC IDEOLOGY • the federal government should do more • federal government should be more directly involved in regulating the economy and social issues • believe regulation by the government is important to protecting the people • Liberals are more closely associated with the Democratic Party
    18. 18. REPUBLICAN IDEOLOGY • the federal government should do less • federal government should be less directly involved in regulating the economy and social issues • believe regulation by the government is intrusive into individuals’ lives • Conservatives are more closely associated with the Republican Party
    19. 19. ON THE ISSUES…  major parties adopt moderate and mainstream ideas in order to gain the most broad support from voters  Third-Parties make public their statements on their position on the issues  the party’s platform is the party’s statements that are the principles, beliefs, and position on issues  each individual item in the platform is called a plank
    20. 20. LIBERALS V. CONSERVATIVES Moderates Democrats Republicans Right-Wing (Conservatives) Left-Wing (Liberals) • Emphasize the government’s need to provide social programs for its citizens • Heavier taxes but more government protection and benefits • Government should be concerned with domestic problems more than foreign problems • Emphasizes the peoples’ need to provide for themselves • Fewer taxes would be collected so people would have more money to spend in order to provide for their own needs • The government should defend the nation’s interests at all costs