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  1. 1. Elements of persuasion By : Afeedatul aisyah Najwa liyana ramlan Yaya
  2. 2. RECIPROCATION &quot;The Old Give and Take--and Take&quot; <ul><li>Reciprocity in social psychology refers to responding to a positive action with another positive action, and responding to a negative action with another negative one. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral have demonstrated that the potential for reciprocal actions by players increases the rate of contribution to the public good, providing evidence for the importance of reciprocity in social situations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. RECIPROCATION &quot;The Old Give and Take--and Take&quot; <ul><li>In one experiment, for example, half the people attending an art appreciation session were offered a soft drink. Afterwards, all were asked if they would buy 25cent raffle tickets. The people who had been offered the soft drinks purchased twice as many raffle tickets, whether or not they had accepted the drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity : </li></ul>
  4. 4. COMMITMENT AND CONSISTENCY &quot;Hobgoblins of the Mind&quot; <ul><li>Once people have made a choice or taken a stand, they are under both internal and external pressure to behave consistently with that commitment. This desire for consistency offers us all a shortcut to action as we recall a previous decision we have already made. </li></ul>Even if the original incentive or motivation is removed after they have already agreed, they will continue to honor the agreement. For example, in car sales, suddenly raising the price at the last moment works because the buyer has already decided to buy.
  5. 5. <ul><li>More example, before starting your next meeting, ask each person to commit to following the posted agenda. Then, if anyone goes off on a tangent, just ask them to explain how it fits the agenda. If they can't, they'll quickly fall back in line. </li></ul>COMMITMENT AND CONSISTENCY &quot;Hobgoblins of the Mind&quot;
  6. 6. Scarcity “The Rule Of The Few” <ul><li>Scarcity  means that people want more than is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities seem more valuable when they are less available. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard-to-get things are perceived as better than easy-to-get things. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Limits us both as individuals and as a society. </li></ul><ul><li>As individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Limited income (and time and ability) </li></ul><ul><li>As a society </li></ul><ul><li>Limited resources (such as manpower, machinery, and natural resources) </li></ul>Scarcity “The Rule Of The Few”
  8. 8. <ul><li>Scarcity requires  choice.   </li></ul><ul><li>People must choose which of their desires they will satisfy and which they will leave unsatisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility of losing something is a more powerful motivator than of gaining something. </li></ul>Scarcity “The Rule Of The Few”