The lower extremity1

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The lower extremity1

  1. 1. The upper and lower extremities of humans offer many interesting points of comparison and of contrast. They and their individual components are homologous—i.e., of a common origin and patterned on the same basic plan. A long evolutionary history and profound changes in the function of these two pairs of extremities have led, however, to considerable differences between them. (3)
  2. 2. • lower extremity- • Coxal (Pelvic Girdle)- What bones make up the Acetabelum? Howcan an anthropologist tell the difference between a male and female? • Ilium- Iliac crest, ASIS, AIIS, PSIS, PIIS, Greater Sciatic Notch • Ishium- ishial tuberosity • Pubis- Pubic Tubercle • Femur- head, neck, greater trochanter, Lesser trochanter, condyles, epicondyles, trochlea • Patella • Tibia- condyles, Tibial Tuberosity, Tibial Plateau, Medial Malleolus • Fibula- Head, Lateral malleolus • Tarsals- Talus, Calcaneus, Navicular, (1,2,3) Cuneiforms, Cuboid • Metatarsals- Long Bones Numbered I through V • Phalanges- Proximal, Medial, Distal I through V
  3. 3. COXAL PELVIC GIRDLE The ilium / pubis and ischium bones make up the Acetabelum.Male Female•narrower, heart-shaped pelvic inlet •open, circular pelvic inlet•narrower sciatic notch •broader sciatic notch•narrower angle where the two pubic bones in •wider angle where the two pubic bones meet infront front •more outwardly flared hip bones This chart helps to explain how anthropologists can determine weather pelvic bones are male of female. (1)
  4. 4. Female pelvic boneMale pelvic bone (1)
  5. 5. ISHIUM- ISHIAL TUBEROSITYISHIUM• is a bone in pelvis: the lowest and rearmost of the three bones that make up each half of the pelvisPUBIS• lower front of hipbone: the bone that forms the lower front section of the hipbone in humans and is one of a pair joined at the front of the pelvis.ILIUM• Ilium the uppermost of the three bones composing each half of the pelvis
  6. 6. FEMUR• of thigh: relating to, in, or involving the thigh or femur
  7. 7. PATELLA• middle joint of human leg: the joint of the human leg between the thigh and the lower leg, where the femur and the tibia meet, covered in front by the kneecap patella
  8. 8. TIBIA• inner bone of lower leg: the inner and larger of the two bones in the lower leg, extending from the knee to the ankle bone alongside the fibula
  9. 9. FIBULA• human leg bone: the outer and narrower of the two bones in the human lower leg between the knee and ankle
  10. 10. TARSALS• human leg bone: the outer and narrower of the two bones in the human lower leg between the knee and ankle
  11. 11. METATARSALS • Metatarsals- Long Bones Numbered I through V • of foot bones: belonging or relating to the bones between the toes and ankle
  12. 12. PHALANGES• Phalanges- Proximal, Medial, Distal I through V• finger and toe bone: a finger or toe bone of a human being or vertebrate animal
  13. 13. • (1) http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/male_female.htm• http://quizlet.com/10090321/appendicular-skeleton-flash-cards/• http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547358/human-skeletal-system/41867/The- appendicular-skeleton• http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547358/human-skeletal-system/41867/The- appendicular-skeleton• http://quizlet.com/10090321/appendicular-skeleton-flash-cards/l• http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547358/human-skeletal-system/41867/The- appendicular-skeleton

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