Directional Terms Anatomical areas & location terms Megan Corradino Monday, septemeber In this issue:Te r m s d e s c r i b i n g b o d y s t r u c t u r e s Discussing Directional terms are used to describe directional terms exactly where one body structure is in relation to another. They are used as- suming that the body is standing with feet only slightly apart and the palms facing forward (called the anatomical position) Superior = towards or at the upper part of a structure inferior = towards or at the lower part of a structure Anterior = towards or at the front of a body Posterior = towards or at the back of the body Medial = Towards or at the midline ofDirections and planes of the body.. the body/ on the inner side EachIn this picture we see all the eight different Lateral = Away from the midline of the m r et la n oi t ce r i ddirectional terms on display. We see where body/ on the outer side a s ah ne t f oeach part is specifically placed. h t iw tr a pr e tn u o c ro es r ev n o c et i so p p oH ow o u r b o d y ’s r e l a t e t o c o m p a s s e s es e hT .g n in a e m yr e v e ra sm r e tThe compass rose is a great ne h w l uf e s uway to explain directionalterms. Just like a compass’s eh t g n ib i rc s e deast, west south and north, f o s no i ta c o lthe eight directional termsare used to describe the .s e ru t cu r t slocations of structures inrelation to other structuresin the body.
Structure & Function A look into what’s underneath, and what it does! Anna Johnson, Gatlin 1S t r u c t u r e : w h a t ’s i n m e ? Our bodies are made up of layers, and in those In this issue:What layers lay several different structures that humans makes my body need. Without them, we wouldn’t be able to sur- move? vive. The major aspects of human physical structure are : Responsiveness, Conductivity, Immune, Circu- latory, Integumentary, Growth, Secretion, Absorp- tion, Reproduction, Respiratory, Excretory, Muscu- lar, Skeletal and Digestive. Muscular Each one has a job all it’s own and they all coexist helps us with one another. The Digestive system cannot move and function without the Excretory system just as the Circulatory system wouldn’t work without Absorp- Skeletal tion. The Integumentary system keeps our exterior keeps us apart from the interior. The Immune system stops standing viruses and harmful bacteria from destroying us. The Skeletal system our body upright and protects our tall! organs. Our muscular system keeps us moving and pushes our involuntary muscles. Our Digestive sys- tem turns food into waste and spreads nutrients throughout the body. Circulatory pumps blood For more information through our veins. Respiratory fills our lungs withA view from under the skin.. please see: oxygen. Excretory removes unwanted waste. And Reproduction helps create more life so that our www.notreal.com“If you cant get rid of the skeleton in your race and continue and grow with all of our advancedcloset, youd best teach it to dance. “ structures and functions. 1-800-pushups-George Bernard Shaw http://ithurtsouch.com Our bodies are sensitive and need proper www.isthatnormal.edu care in order for them to keep working on a regular basis. Eating healthy, means making it easier on your digestive system, WARNING: The previous breathing regularly means providing your websites are completely fake muscles with oxygen, and keeping in and made up by the author. shape helps put ease on your bones, Please do not contact for muscles, and heart. Its easy to see if your medical help as this is outside is working regularly but if youre advised as dangerous. not certain about how your insides are Thank you. doing, it is important to see a doctor immediately. He can check for irregularities or growths and make you happy and healthy once more!
Homeostasis In the 1800s, French physiologist, Claude Bernard came to a realization that would begin studies on homeostasis. He observed that body cells survived in a healthy condition only when the temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of their fluid environment remained relatively constant. He noted that although our the environment outside of the cells was constantly changing (ex: weather), the internal environment (ex: body temperature) remained stable. The reason being that every regulatory mechanism of the body existed to maintain constant equilibrium of the human body’s internal environment, also known as homeostasis. The term homeostasis was coined by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon. “Homeostasis is the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite a changing external environment. Dynamic state ofFrench physiologist, Claude Bernardwas the first to make revelations on equilibrium, or balance. The body is said to be inhomeostasis homeostasis when its cellular needs are adequately metCitation: Thibodeau , Gary A. , and Kevin and functional activities are occurring smoothly. VirtuallyT. Patton . Anthonys textbook of Anatomy& Physiology . 17th . Missouri : Mosby , every organ system plays a role in maintaining the internal2002. 1105. Print. environment.” Examples of homeostasis: - temperature regulation - Regulation of blood carbon dioxide level - Regulation of blood glucose level
H u ma n O rga n iza t io nThe human body is organized systems working tissues in the human body include epithelial,together to maintain equilibrium & good health, muscle, nervous, and connective tissuesessential to continue living. Organ level: an organ consists of 2 or moreThere are seven structural levels: tissues that perform a particular function (ex: heart, liver, stomach)Chemical level: includes all chemical substances(atoms, ions, & molecules) necessary for life. System level: an association of organs that have a common function; there are 11 majorOrganelle level: organelles are considered "tiny systems in the human body; digestive,organs" within a cell. Organelles are made of nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory,molecules, and molecules are made of atoms. urinary, reproductive, muscular, lymphatic,Organelles have specific functions within living skeletal, and integumentary.cells. Organism level: this level describes how ourCellular level: cells are the basic structural and body is able to perform acts that aide in ourfunctional units of the human body & there are survival.many types of cells (ex: muscle, nerve, blood)Tissue Level: A tissue is a group of cells thatperform a specific function and the basic types of
ATOMICAL PLANES Frontal midstagill transverse Anatomical Planes The midsagittal plane is the plane that passes vertically through the body, dividing it symmetrically into left and right halves. It passes through the midline structures such as the spine and navel. Transverse, frontal The transverse plane is the plane that passes horizontally through the body at right angles to the midsagittal and frontal planes. IT divides the body symmetrically into upper and lower halves.